The Pisa–Rome railway is one of the trunk lines of the Italian railway network. It connects Italy’s northwest with its south, running along the Tyrrhenian coast between the Italian regions of Tuscany and Lazio, through the provinces of Pisa, Livorno, Grosseto, Viterbo and Rome. The line is double track and is fully electrified at 3,000 V DC. Passenger traffic is managed by Trenitalia.
The southernmost section of the line between Rome and Civitavecchia was opened on 24 April 1859 by the Società Pio Central (Italian for Central Pius Company). The northernmost section between Pisa and Livorno was opened on 13 March 1844 as part of the Leopolda railway between Florence and Pisa. In 1862 work started on a line south from Livorno, which initially ran east to Collesalvetti before turning south and joining the path of the current Pisa–Rome line at Vada (now 27 km south of Livorno). This route is now known as the Maremmana railway. The line continued south from Vada and was opened to Nunziatella, near Capalbio, on the border with the Papal States on the Chiarone river in 1864. In 1865 the Leopolda railway was taken over by the owner of the Rome–Civitavecchia railway, now called the Società per le Strade Ferrate Romane (Roman Railways). It opened the connecting section between Civitavecchia and Capalbio in 1867. In 1910 a direct line was opened along the coast from Vada to the new central station at Livorno.