Comb Ceramic culture
|Geographical range||North-Eastern Europe|
|Dates||circa 4200 BCE – circa 2000 BCE|
|Preceded by||Narva culture|
|Followed by||Volosovo culture, Corded Ware culture|
The Comb Ceramic culture or Pit-Comb Ware culture, often abbreviated as CCC or PCW, was a northeast European characterised by its Pit–Comb Ware. It existed from around 4200 BCE to around 2000 BCE. The bearers of the Comb Ceramic culture are thought to have still mostly followed the Mesolithic hunter-gatherer lifestyle, with traces of early agriculture.
The distribution of the artifacts found includes Finnmark (Norway) in the north, the Kalix River (Sweden) and the Gulf of Bothnia (Finland) in the west and the Vistula River (Poland) in the south. It would include the Narva culture of Estonia and the Sperrings culture in Finland, among others. They are thought to have been essentially hunter-gatherers, though e.g. the Narva culture in Estonia shows some evidence of agriculture. Some of this region was absorbed by the later Corded Ware horizon.
The Pit–Comb Ware culture is one of the few exceptions to the rule that pottery and farming coexist in Europe. In the Near East farming appeared before pottery, then when farming spread into Europe from the Near East, pottery-making came with it. However, in Asia, where the oldest pottery has been found, pottery was made long before farming. It appears that the Comb Ceramic Culture reflects influences from Siberia and distant China.
The ceramics consist of large pots that are rounded or pointed below, with a capacity from 40 to 60 litres. The forms of the vessels remained unchanged but the decoration varied.
By dating according to the elevation of land, the ceramics have traditionally (Äyräpää 1930) been divided into the following periods: early (Ka I, c. 4200 BC – 3300 BC), typical (Ka II, c. 3300 BC – 2700 BC) and late Comb Ceramic (Ka III, c. 2800 BC – 2000 BC).
However, calibrated radiocarbon dates for the comb-ware fragments found (e.g., in the Karelian isthmus), give a total interval of 5600 BC – 2300 BC (Geochronometria Vol. 23, pp 93–99, 2004).
Among the many styles of comb ware there is one which makes use of the characteristics of asbestos: Asbestos ware. In this tradition, which persisted through different cultures into the Iron Age, asbestos was used to temper the ceramic clay. Other styles are Pyheensilta, Jäkärlä, Kierikki, Pöljä and Säräisniemi pottery with their respective subdivisions. Sperrings ceramics is the original name given for the younger early Comb ware (Ka I:2) found in Finland.
The settlements were located at sea shores or beside lakes and the economy was based on hunting, fishing and the gathering of plants. In Finland, it was a maritime culture which became more and more specialized in hunting seals. The dominant dwelling was probably a teepee of about 30 square meters where some 15 people could live. Also rectangular houses made of timber become popular in Finland from 4000 BC cal. Graves were dug at the settlements and the dead were covered with red ochre. The typical Comb Ceramic age shows an extensive use of objects made of flint and amber as grave offerings.
The stone tools changed very little over time. They were made of local materials such as slate and quartz. Finds suggest a fairly extensive exchange network: red slate originating from northern Scandinavia, asbestos from Lake Saimaa, green slate from Lake Onega, amber from the southern shores of the Baltic Sea and flint from the Valdai area in northwestern Russia.
The culture was characterised by small figurines of burnt clay and animal heads made of stone. The animal heads usually depict moose and bears and were derived from the art of the Mesolithic. There were also many rock paintings.
There are sources noting that the typical comb ceramic pottery had a sense of luxury and that its makers knew how to wear precious amber pendants.
In earlier times, it was often suggested that the spread of the Comb Ware people was correlated with the diffusion of the Uralic languages, and thus an early Uralic language would have been spoken throughout this culture. It is also suggested that bearers of this culture likely spoke Finno-Ugric languages.
A more recent view is that the Comb Ware people may have spoken Pre-Indo-European languages, as some toponyms and hydronyms also indicate a non-Uralic, non-Indo-European language at work in some areas. In addition, modern scholars have located the Proto-Uralic homeland east of the Volga, if not even beyond the Urals. The great westward dispersal of the Uralic languages is thought to have happened long after the demise of the Comb Ceramic culture, perhaps in the 1st millennium BC.
In a 2017 genetic study published in Current Biology, the remains of three CCC individuals buried at Kudruküla was analyzed. The Y-DNA sample extracted belonged to R1a5-YP1272. The three mtDNA samples extracted belonged to U5b1d1, U4a and U2e1.
In a genetic study published in Nature Communications in January 2018, the remains of two CCC individuals were analyzed. The male was found to be carrying R1 and U4d2, while the female carried U5a1d2b The CCC individuals were found to be mostly of Eastern Hunter-Gatherer (EHG) descent, and to have more EHG ancestry than people of the Narva culture.
In a genetic study published in Nature Communications in November 2018, the CCC individuals studies were modeled as being of 65% Eastern Hunter-Gatherer (EHG), 20% Western Steppe Herder (WSH), and 15% Western Hunter-Gatherer (WHG) descent. The amount of EHG ancestry was higher than among earlier cultures of the eastern Baltic, while WSH ancestry had previously never been attested among such an early culture in the region.
- Zvelebil 2004, pp. 431-435. sfn error: no target: CITEREFZvelebil2004 (help)
- Helle, Knut; Kouri, E. I.; Oleson, Jens E. (2003). The Cambridge History of Scandinavia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 52. ISBN 0-521-47299-7.
- "Arvoitukselliset jätinkirkot". Keskipohjalaisia museoita ja kulttuuriympäristöjä (in Finnish). Keski-pohjanmaan liitto. 26 January 2013. Archived from the original on 9 November 2013. Retrieved 26 January 2013.
- Pohjola, Jari; Turunen, Jari; Lipping, Tarmo; Sivula, Anna; Marila, Marko (2018). Historical Perspectives to Postglacial Uplift: Case Studies from the Lower Satakunta Region. Cham: Springer. p. 6. ISBN 978-3-030-00970-0.
- Mallory & Adams 1997, pp. 439-430.
- Taagepera, Rein (2018). Estonia: Return To Independence. New York: Routledge. p. 11. ISBN 978-0813311999.
- Saag 2017.
- Mittnik 2018.
- Lamnidis 2018.
- Lamnidis, TC (November 27, 2018). "Ancient Fennoscandian genomes reveal origin and spread of Siberian ancestry in Europe". Nature Communications. Nature Research. 9 (5018): 2185–2193. doi:10.1038/s41467-018-07483-5. PMC 6258758. PMID 30479341.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Mallory, J. P.; Adams, Douglas Q. (1997). "Pit-Comb Ware Culture". Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture. Taylor & Francis. pp. 429–430. ISBN 1884964982.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Mittnik, Alisa (January 30, 2018). "The genetic prehistory of the Baltic Sea region". Nature Communications. Nature Research. 16 (1): 442. doi:10.1038/s41467-018-02825-9. PMC 5789860. PMID 29382937.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Saag, Lehti (July 24, 2017). "Extensive Farming in Estonia Started through a Sex-Biased Migration from the Steppe". Current Biology. Cell Press. 27 (14): 2185–2193. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2017.06.022. PMID 28712569.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Zvelebil, Marek (1997). "Pitted Ware And Related Cultures Of Neolithic Northern Europe". In Bogucki, Peter I.; Crabtree, Pam J. (eds.). Ancient Europe 8000 B.C.- A.D. 1000. Encyclopedia of the Barbarian World. 1. Scribner. pp. 431–435. ISBN 068480669X.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)