|Pitcairnia grafii inflorescence|
Pitcairnioideae is a subfamily of the bromeliad family, Bromeliaceae. Traditionally, it was a large subfamily, comprising all those species with winged or more rarely naked seeds. Molecular phylogenetic studies showed that traditional Pitcairnioideae was not monophyletic, and the subfamily was more narrowly circumscribed. As of November 2022[update], the Encyclopaedia of Bromeliads placed five genera in the subfamily. Members of the subfamily are found from the Andes to the coast of Brazil, with one genus (Fosterella) found northwards to Mexico.
Traditionally, the family Bromeliaceae was divided into three subfamilies based on the structure of the seeds and fruit, with Pitcairnioideae comprising all those with winged or rarely naked seeds. The other subfamilies were Bromelioideae and Tillandsioideae. A molecular phylogenetic study in 2007 showed that traditional Pitcairnioideae was not monophyletic, with Tillandsioideae embedded within it. The original broadly defined subfamily was divided it into six, including a more narrowly circumscribed Pitcairnioideae. The division was confirmed in a larger 2011 study, and is accepted by the Encyclopaedia of Bromeliads, which includes five genera in Pitcairnioideae.
|Image||Genus||Number of living species|
|Pitcairnia L'Hér. (including Pepinia Brongn. ex André)||over 400|
Other genera that were placed in Pitcairnioideae when it was broadly defined are now put into different subfamilies.
- Brewcaria L.B.Sm., Steyerm. & H.Rob. (may be included in Navia) → Navioideae
- Brocchinia Schult.f. ex Schult. & Schult.f. → Brocchinioideae (the only genus)
- Connellia N.E.Br. → Lindmanioideae
- Cottendorfia Schult.f. → Navioideae
- Hechtia Klotzsch → Hechtioideae (only genus)
- Lindmania Mez → Lindmanioideae
- Navia Schult. & Schult.f. → Navioideae
- Puya Molina → Puyoideae (the only genus)
- Sequencia (L.B.Sm.) Givnish → Navioideae
- Steyerbromelia L.B.Sm. → Navioideae
The subfamily is thought to have arisen in the northern Andes, spreading southwards and then eastwards into the Brazilian Shield and the easternmost part of Brazil (the "horn of Brazil"). Fosterella is also found in Mexico and Central America.
- Givnish, Thomas; Millam, Kendra; Berry, Paul & Sytsma, Kenneth (2007). "Phylogeny, Adaptive Radiation, and Historical Biogeography of Bromeliaceae Inferred from ndhF Sequence Data". Aliso: A Journal of Systematic and Floristic Botany. 23 (1): 3–26. doi:10.5642/aliso.20072301.04.
- Givnish, Thomas J.; Barfuss, Michael H. J.; Van Ee, Benjamin; Riina, Ricarda; Schulte, Katharina; Horres, Ralf; Gonsiska, Philip A.; Jabaily, Rachel S.; Crayn, Darren M.; Smith, J. Andrew C.; Winter, Klaus; Brown, Gregory K.; Evans, Timothy M.; Holst, Bruce K.; Luther, Harry; Till, Walter; Zizka, Georg; Berry, Paul E. & Sytsma, Kenneth J. (2011). "Phylogeny, adaptive radiation, and historical biogeography in Bromeliaceae: Insights from an eight-locus plastid phylogeny". American Journal of Botany. 98 (5): 872–895. doi:10.3732/ajb.1000059. hdl:2027.42/142109. PMID 21613186.
- Gouda, E.J.; Butcher, D.; Gouda, C.S. (2022), "subfam. Pitcairnioideae Harms", Encyclopaedia of Bromeliads, Utrecht University Botanic Gardens, retrieved 2022-11-21
- BSI - Bromeliad Info - Taxonomy
- LUTHER, H. E. (2008) An Alphabetical List of Bromeliad Binomials, Eleventh Edition The Marie Selby Botanical Gardens, Sarasota, Florida, USA. Published by The Bromeliad Society International.