Jump to content


Coordinates: 40°26′23″N 79°58′35″W / 40.43972°N 79.97639°W / 40.43972; -79.97639
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(Redirected from Pittsburgh, PA)

Benigno Numine ("With the benevolent deity")
Interactive map of Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh is located in Pennsylvania
Pittsburgh is located in the United States
Coordinates: 40°26′23″N 79°58′35″W / 40.43972°N 79.97639°W / 40.43972; -79.97639
CountryUnited States
FoundedNovember 27, 1758; 265 years ago (1758-11-27) (fort)
Municipal incorporation
  • April 22, 1794; 230 years ago (1794-04-22) (borough)
  • March 18, 1816; 208 years ago (1816-03-18) (city)
Founded byJohn Forbes
Named forWilliam Pitt, 1st Earl of Chatham
 • TypeMayor-council
 • MayorEd Gainey (D)
 • City Council
  • Bobby Wilson
  • Theresa Kail-Smith
  • Robert Charland III
  • Anthony Coghill
  • Barbara Greenwood Warwick
  • Daniel Lavelle (President)
  • Deborah Gross
  • Erika Strassburger
  • Khari Mosley
 • City58.35 sq mi (151.12 km2)
 • Land55.38 sq mi (143.42 km2)
 • Water2.97 sq mi (7.70 km2)
Highest elevation
1,370 ft (420 m)
Lowest elevation
710 ft (220 m)
 • City302,971
 • Rank68th in the United States
2nd in Pennsylvania
 • Density5,471.26/sq mi (2,112.47/km2)
 • Urban
1,745,039 (US: 30th)
 • Urban density1,924.7/sq mi (743.1/km2)
 • Metro2,457,000 (US: 26th)
Demonym(s)Pittsburgher, Yinzer
 • Pittsburgh (MSA)$153.3 billion (2022)
Time zoneUTC−5 (Eastern Standard Time)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−4 (Eastern Daylight Time)
ZIP Code
35 total ZIP codes:
  • 15122, 15201-15244, 15250-15255, 15257-15262, 15264-15265, 15267-15268, 15270, 15272, 15274-15279, 15281-15283, 15286, 15289-15290, 15295
Area codes412, 724, 878
FIPS code42-61000
GNIS feature ID1213644
Websitepittsburghpa.gov Edit this at Wikidata

Pittsburgh (/ˈpɪtsbɜːrɡ/ PITS-burg) is a city in and the county seat of Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, United States. It is the second-most populous city in Pennsylvania, after Philadelphia, and the 68th-most populous city in the U.S., with a population of 302,971 as of the 2020 census. The city is located in southwestern Pennsylvania at the confluence of the Allegheny River and the Monongahela River, which combine to form the Ohio River.[7] It anchors the Pittsburgh metropolitan area, which had a population of 2.457 million residents and is the largest metro area in both the Ohio Valley and Appalachia, the second-largest in Pennsylvania, and the 26th-largest in the U.S. Pittsburgh is the principal city of the greater Pittsburgh–Weirton–Steubenville combined statistical area which includes parts of Ohio and West Virginia.

Pittsburgh is known as "the Steel City" for its dominant role in the history of the U.S. steel industry.[8] It developed as a vital link of the Atlantic coast and Midwest, as the mineral-rich Allegheny Mountains led to the region being contested by the French and British Empires, Virginians, Whiskey Rebels, and Civil War raiders.[9] For part of the 20th century, Pittsburgh was behind only New York City and Chicago in corporate headquarters employment; it had the most U.S. stockholders per capita.[10] Deindustrialization in the late 20th century resulted in massive layoffs among blue-collar workers as steel and other heavy industries declined, coinciding with several Pittsburgh-based corporations moving out of the city.[11] However, the city divested from steel and, since the 1990s, Pittsburgh has focused its energies on the healthcare, education, and technology industries.[12][13]

Pittsburgh is home to large medical providers, including the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Allegheny Health Network, and 68 colleges and universities, including research and development leaders Carnegie Mellon University and the University of Pittsburgh.[14] The area has served as the federal agency headquarters for cyber defense, software engineering, robotics, energy research, and the nuclear navy.[15] In the private sector, Pittsburgh-based PNC is the nation's fifth-largest bank, and the city is home to eight Fortune 500 companies and seven of the largest 300 U.S. law firms. Other corporations that have regional headquarters and offices have helped Pittsburgh become the sixth-best area for U.S. job growth.[16] Furthermore, the region is a hub for Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design and energy extraction.[17]

Pittsburgh is sometimes called the "City of Bridges" for its 446 bridges.[8] Its rich industrial history left the area with renowned cultural institutions, including the Carnegie Museums of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh Parks Conservancy, Pittsburgh Zoo & Aquarium, Phipps Conservatory and Botanical Gardens, the National Aviary, and a diverse cultural district.[18] The city's major league professional sports teams include the Pittsburgh Steelers, Pittsburgh Penguins, and Pittsburgh Pirates. Pittsburgh is additionally where Jehovah's Witnesses traces its earliest origins, and was the host of the 2009 G20 Pittsburgh summit.


Pittsburgh was named in 1758, by General John Forbes, in honor of British statesman William Pitt, 1st Earl of Chatham. As Forbes was a Scotsman, he probably pronounced the name /ˈpɪtsbərə/ PITS-bər-ə (similar to Edinburgh).[19][20]

Pittsburgh was incorporated as a borough on April 22, 1794, with the following Act:[21] "Be it enacted by the Pennsylvania State Senate and Pennsylvania House of Representatives of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania ... by the authority of the same, that the said town of Pittsburgh shall be ... erected into a borough, which shall be called the borough of Pittsburgh for ever."[22]

From 1891 to 1911, the city's name was federally recognized as "Pittsburg", though use of the final h was retained during this period by the city government and other local organizations.[23][19] After a public campaign, the federal decision to drop the h was reversed.[19] The Pittsburg Press continued spelling the city without an h until 1921.[24]


Historical claims

 Kingdom of France 1690s–1763
 Great Britain 1681–1781
 United States 1776–present

Native Americans[edit]

The area of the Ohio headwaters was long inhabited by the Shawnee and several other settled groups of Native Americans.[25] Shannopin's Town was an 18th-century Lenape (Delaware) town located roughly from where Penn Avenue is today, below the mouth of Two Mile Run, from 30th Street to 39th Street. According to George Croghan, the town was situated on the south bank of the Allegheny, nearly opposite what is now known as Washington's Landing, formerly Herr's Island, in what is now the Lawrenceville neighborhood.[26]: 289 

18th century[edit]

Fort Pitt Block House, built by the British in 1764, is the oldest extant structure in Pittsburgh.

The first known European to enter the region was the French explorer Robert de La Salle from Quebec during his 1669 expedition down the Ohio River.[27][better source needed] European pioneers, primarily Dutch, followed in the early 18th century. Michael Bezallion was the first to describe the forks of the Ohio in a 1717 manuscript, and later that year European fur traders established area posts and settlements.[28]

In 1749, French soldiers from Quebec launched an expedition to the forks to unite Canada with French Louisiana via the rivers.[28] During 1753–1754, the British hastily built Fort Prince George before a larger French force drove them off. The French built Fort Duquesne based on LaSalle's 1669 claims. The French and Indian War, the North American front of the Seven Years' War, began with the future Pittsburgh as its center. British General Edward Braddock was dispatched with Major George Washington as his aide to take Fort Duquesne.[29] The British and colonial force were defeated at Braddock's Field. General John Forbes finally took the forks in 1758. He began construction on Fort Pitt, named after William Pitt the Elder, while the settlement was named "Pittsborough".[30]

During Pontiac's War, a loose confederation of Native American tribes laid siege to Fort Pitt in 1763; the siege was eventually lifted after Colonel Henry Bouquet defeated a portion of the besieging force at the Battle of Bushy Run. Bouquet strengthened the defenses of Fort Pitt the next year.[31][32][33][34]

During this period, the powerful nations of the Iroquois Confederacy, based in New York, had maintained control of much of the Ohio Valley as hunting grounds by right of conquest after defeating other tribes. By the terms of the 1768 Treaty of Fort Stanwix, the Penns were allowed to purchase the modern region from the Iroquois. A 1769 survey referenced the future city as the "Manor of Pittsburgh".[35] Both the Colony of Virginia and the Province of Pennsylvania claimed the region under their colonial charters until 1780, when they agreed under a federal initiative to extend the Mason–Dixon line westward, placing Pittsburgh in Pennsylvania. On March 8, 1771, Bedford County, Pennsylvania was created to govern the frontier.

On April 16, 1771, the city's first civilian local government was created as Pitt Township.[36][37] William Teagarden was the first constable, and William Troop was the first clerk.[38]

Following the American Revolution, the village of Pittsburgh continued to grow. One of its earliest industries was boat building for settlers of the Ohio Country. In 1784, Thomas Vickroy completed a town plan which was approved by the Penn family attorney. Pittsburgh became a possession of Pennsylvania in 1785. The following year, the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette was started, and in 1787, the Pittsburgh Academy was chartered. Unrest during the Whiskey Rebellion of 1794 resulted in federal troops being sent to the area. By 1797, glass manufacture began, while the population grew to around 1,400. Settlers arrived after crossing the Appalachian Mountains or through the Great Lakes. Fort Pitt (now Pittsburgh) at the source of the Ohio River became the main base for settlers moving into the Northwest Territory.

19th century[edit]

A historic 1857 scene of the Monongahela River in downtown Pittsburgh featuring a steamboat
The Monongahela River and its surroundings in 1857
Lithograph of Pittsburgh by Otto Krebs (before 1874)
Burning of Union Depot during the Pittsburgh railroad strike of 1877

The federal government recognizes Pittsburgh as the starting point for the Lewis and Clark Expedition.[39] Preparations began in Pittsburgh in 1803 when Meriwether Lewis purchased a keelboat that would later be used to ascend the Missouri River.[40]

The War of 1812 cut off the supply of British goods, stimulating American industry. By 1815, Pittsburgh was producing significant quantities of iron, brass, tin, and glass. On March 18, 1816, the 46-year-old local government became a city. It was served by numerous river steamboats that increased trading traffic on the rivers.

In the 1830s, many Welsh people from the Merthyr steelworks immigrated to the city following the aftermath of the Merthyr Rising. By the 1840s, Pittsburgh was one of the largest cities west of the Allegheny Mountains. The Great Fire of Pittsburgh destroyed over a thousand buildings in 1845. The city rebuilt with the aid of Irish immigrants who came to escape the Great Famine. By 1857, Pittsburgh's 1,000 factories were consuming 22 million coal bushels yearly. Coal mining and iron manufacturing attracted waves of European immigrants to the area, with the most coming from Germany.

Because Pennsylvania had been established as a free state after the Revolution, enslaved African Americans sought freedom here through escape as refugees from the South, or occasionally fleeing from travelers they were serving who stayed in the city. There were active stations of the Underground Railroad in the city, and numerous refugees were documented as getting help from station agents and African-American workers in city hotels. The Drennen Slave Girl walked out of the Monongahela House in 1850, apparently to freedom.[41] The Merchant's Hotel was also a place where African-American workers would advise slaves the state was free and aid them in getting to nearby stations of the Underground Railroad.[42] Sometimes refugee slaves from the South stayed in Pittsburgh, but other times they continued North, including into Canada. Many slaves left the city and county for Canada after Congress passed the 1850 Fugitive Slave Act, as it required cooperation from law enforcement even in free states and increased penalties. From 1850 to 1860, the black population in Allegheny County dropped from 3,431 to 2,725 as people headed to more safety in Canada.[41]

The American Civil War boosted the city's economy with increased iron and armament demand by the Union. Andrew Carnegie began steel production in 1875 at the Edgar Thomson Steel Works in North Braddock, Pennsylvania, which evolved into the Carnegie Steel Company. He adopted the Bessemer process to increase production. Manufacturing was key to growth of Pittsburgh and the surrounding region. Railroad lines were built into the city along both rivers, increasing transportation access to important markets.

20th century[edit]

Bird's Eye View of Pittsburgh, 1902
An aerial view of Pittsburgh in 1902[43]
Steel mills in the Strip District in 1906

In 1901, J. P. Morgan and attorney Elbert H. Gary merged Carnegie Steel Company and several other companies into U.S. Steel. By 1910, Pittsburgh was the nation's eighth-largest city, accounting for between one-third and one-half of national steel output.

The Pittsburgh Agreement was subscribed in May 1918 between the Czech and Slovak nationalities, as envisioned by T. G. Masaryk, concerning the future foundation of Czechoslovakia.[44]

The city suffered severe flooding in March 1936.

The city's population swelled to more than a half million, attracting numerous European immigrants to its industrial jobs. By 1940, non-Hispanic whites were 90.6% of the city's population.[45] Pittsburgh also became a main destination of the African-American Great Migration from the rural South during the first half of the 20th century.[46] Limited initially by discrimination, some 95% percent of the men became unskilled steel workers.[47]

During World War II, demand for steel increased and area mills operated 24 hours a day to produce 95 million tons of steel for the war effort.[30] This resulted in the highest levels of air pollution in the city's almost century of industry. The city's reputation as the "arsenal of democracy"[48][49] was being overshadowed by James Parton's 1868 observation of Pittsburgh being "hell with the lid off."[50]

Following World War II, the city launched a clean air and civic revitalization project known as the "Renaissance," cleaning up the air and the rivers. The "Renaissance II" project followed in 1977, focused on cultural and neighborhood development. The industrial base continued to expand through the 1970s, but beginning in the early 1980s both the area's steel and electronics industries imploded during national industrial restructuring. There were massive layoffs from mill and plant closures.[11]

In the later 20th century, the area shifted its economic base to education, tourism, and services, largely based on healthcare/medicine, finance, and high technology such as robotics. Although Pittsburgh successfully shifted its economy and remained viable, the city's population has never rebounded to its industrial-era highs. While 680,000 people lived in the city proper in 1950, a combination of suburbanization and economic turbulence resulted in a decrease in city population, even as the metropolitan area population increased again.

21st century[edit]

During the late 2000s recession, Pittsburgh was economically strong, adding jobs when most cities were losing them. It was one of the few cities in the United States to see housing property values rise. Between 2006 and 2011, the Pittsburgh metropolitan statistical area (MSA) experienced over 10% appreciation in housing prices, the highest appreciation of the largest 25 metropolitan statistical areas in the United States, with 22 of the largest 25 metropolitan statistical areas experiencing depreciations in housing values.[51]

In September 2009, the 2009 G20 Pittsburgh summit was held in Pittsburgh.[52]


Downtown Pittsburgh and the Duquesne Incline from Mount Washington

Pittsburgh has an area of 58.3 square miles (151 km2), of which 55.6 square miles (144 km2) is land and 2.8 square miles (7.3 km2), or 4.75%, is water. The 80th meridian west passes directly through the city's downtown.

The city is on the Allegheny Plateau, within the ecoregion of the Western Allegheny Plateau.[53] The Downtown area (also known as the Golden Triangle) sits where the Allegheny River flows from the northeast and the Monongahela River from the southeast to form the Ohio River. The convergence is at Point State Park and is referred to as "the Point." The city extends east to include the Oakland and Shadyside sections, which are home to the University of Pittsburgh, Carnegie Mellon University, Chatham University, Carnegie Museum and Library, and many other educational, medical, and cultural institutions. The southern, western, and northern areas of the city are primarily residential.

Many Pittsburgh neighborhoods are steeply sloped with two-lane roads. More than a quarter of neighborhood names make reference to "hills," "heights," or similar features.[a]

The steps of Pittsburgh consist of 800 sets of outdoor public stairways with 44,645 treads and 24,090 vertical feet. They include hundreds of streets composed entirely of stairs, and many other steep streets with stairs for sidewalks.[54] Many provide vistas of the Pittsburgh area while attracting hikers and fitness walkers.[55]

Bike and walking trails have been built to border many of the city's rivers and hollows. The Great Allegheny Passage and Chesapeake and Ohio Canal Towpath connect the city directly to downtown Washington, D.C. (some 335 miles [539 km] away) with a continuous bike/running trail.



Pittsburgh's 90 distinct neighborhoods

The city consists of the Downtown area, called the Golden Triangle,[56] and four main areas surrounding it. These surrounding areas are subdivided into distinct neighborhoods (Pittsburgh has 90 neighborhoods).[57] Relative to downtown, these areas are known as the Central, North Side/North Hills, South Side/South Hills, East End, and West End.

Golden Triangle[edit]

Downtown Pittsburgh has 30 skyscrapers, nine of which top 500 feet (150 m). The U.S. Steel Tower is the tallest, at 841 ft (256 m).[58] The Cultural District consists of a 14-block area of downtown along the Allegheny River. This district contains many theaters and arts venues and is home to a growing residential segment. Most significantly, the Pittsburgh Cultural Trust is embarking on RiverParc, a four-block mixed-use "green" community, featuring 700 residential units and multiple towers of between 20 and 30 stories. The Firstside portion of Downtown borders the Monongahela River, the historic Mon Wharf and hosts the distinctive PPG Place Gothic-style glass skyscraper complex. New condo towers have been constructed and historic office towers are converted to residential use, increasing 24-hour residents. Downtown is served by the Port Authority's light rail system and multiple bridges leading north and south.[59] It is also home to Point Park University and Duquesne University which borders Uptown.

North Side[edit]
Townhouses in the Mexican War Streets neighborhood

The North Side is home to various neighborhoods in transition. The area was once known as Allegheny City and operated as its own independent city until 1907, when it was merged with Pittsburgh despite great protest from its citizens. The North Side is primarily composed of residential neighborhoods and is noteworthy for its well-constructed and architecturally interesting homes. Many buildings date from the 19th century and are constructed of brick or stone and adorned with decorative woodwork, ceramic tile, slate roofs and stained glass. The North Side is also home to attractions such as Acrisure Stadium, PNC Park, Kamin Science Center, National Aviary, Andy Warhol Museum, Mattress Factory art museum, Children's Museum of Pittsburgh, Randyland, Penn Brewery, Allegheny Observatory, and Allegheny General Hospital.[60]

South Side[edit]
East Carson Street in the South Side Flats

The South Side was once the site of railyards and associated dense, inexpensive housing for mill and railroad workers. Starting in the late 20th century, the city undertook a Main Street program in cooperation with the National Trust for Historic Preservation, encouraging design and landscape improvements on East Carson Street, and supporting new retail. The area has become a local Pittsburgher destination, and the value of homes in the South Side had increased in value by about 10% annually for the 10 years leading up to 2014.[61] East Carson Street has developed as one of the most vibrant areas of the city, packed with diverse shopping, ethnic eateries, vibrant nightlife, and live music venues.

In 1993, the Urban Redevelopment Authority of Pittsburgh purchased the South Side Works steel mill property. It collaborated with the community and various developers to create a master plan for a mixed-use development that included a riverfront park, office space, housing, health-care facilities, and indoor practice fields for the Pittsburgh Steelers and Pitt Panthers. Construction of the development began in 1998. The SouthSide Works has been open since 2005, featuring many stores, restaurants, offices, and the world headquarters for American Eagle Outfitters.[62]

East End[edit]
Shadyside neighborhood

The East End of Pittsburgh is home to the University of Pittsburgh, Carnegie Mellon University, Carlow University, Chatham University, The Carnegie Institute's Museums of Art and Natural History, Phipps Conservatory, and Soldiers and Sailors Memorial Hall. It is also home to many parks and public spaces including Mellon Park, Westinghouse Park, Schenley Park, Frick Park, The Frick Pittsburgh, Bakery Square, and the Pittsburgh Zoo and PPG Aquarium. The neighborhoods of Shadyside and Squirrel Hill are large, wealthy neighborhoods with some apartments and condos, and pedestrian-oriented shopping/business districts. Squirrel Hill is also known as the hub of Jewish life in Pittsburgh, home to approximately 20 synagogues.[63] Oakland, heavily populated by undergraduate and graduate students, is home to most of the universities, and the Petersen Events Center. The Strip District to the west along the Allegheny River is an open-air marketplace by day and a clubbing destination by night. Bloomfield is Pittsburgh's Little Italy and is known for its Italian restaurants and grocers. Lawrenceville is a revitalizing rowhouse neighborhood popular with artists and designers. The Hill District was home to photographer Charles Harris as well as various African-American jazz clubs.[64] Other East End neighborhoods include Point Breeze, Regent Square, Highland Park, Homewood, Lincoln-Lemington-Belmar, Larimer, East Hills, East Liberty, Polish Hill, Hazelwood, Garfield, Morningside, and Stanton Heights.

West End[edit]

The West End includes Mt. Washington, with its famous view of the downtown skyline, and numerous other residential neighborhoods such as Sheraden and Elliott.


Many of Pittsburgh's patchwork of neighborhoods still retain ethnic characters reflecting the city's settlement history. These include:

Population densities[edit]

Several neighborhoods on the edges of the city are less urban, featuring tree-lined streets, yards and garages, with a more suburban character. Oakland, the South Side, the North Side, and the Golden Triangle are characterized by more density of housing, walking neighborhoods, and a more diverse, urban feel.


Panorama of Pittsburgh, PA
Panorama of Pittsburgh from the Duquesne Incline, showing the confluence of the Allegheny (left) and the Monongahela (right) Rivers, which merge to form the Ohio River (lower left) in November 2019
Panorama of Pittsburgh, PA
Pittsburgh seen from Mount Washington at night with the Monongahela River in the foreground in November 2015
Panorama of Pittsburgh, PA
Skyline from Mt. Washington in June 2014

Regional identity[edit]

The Puddler, a glass mural of an iron or steel worker in downtown Pittsburgh
The Puddler, a glass mural of an iron or steel worker,[65][66] memorializing Pittsburgh's industrial heritage

Pittsburgh falls within the borders of the Northeastern United States as defined by multiple US Government agencies. Pittsburgh is the principal city of the Pittsburgh Combined Statistical Area, a combined statistical area defined by the U.S. Census Bureau.

Pittsburgh falls within the borders of Appalachia as defined by the Appalachian Regional Commission, and has long been characterized as the "northern urban industrial anchor of Appalachia."[67] In its post-industrial state, Pittsburgh has been characterized as the "Paris of Appalachia",[68][69][70][71] recognizing the city's cultural, educational, healthcare, and technological resources, and is the largest city in Appalachia.


Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
Climate chart (explanation)
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Metric conversion
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm

Under the Köppen climate classification, Pittsburgh falls within either a hot-summer humid continental climate (Dfa) if the 0 °C (32 °F) isotherm is used or a humid subtropical climate (Cfa) if the −3 °C (27 °F) isotherm is used. Summers are hot and winters are moderately cold with wide variations in temperature. Despite this, it has one of the most pleasant summer climates between medium and large cities in the U.S.[72][73][74] The city lies in the USDA plant hardiness zone 6b except along the rivers where the zone is 7a.[75] The area has four distinct seasons: winters are cold and snowy, springs and falls are mild with moderate levels of sunshine, and summers are warm. As measured by percent possible sunshine, summer is by far the sunniest season, though annual sunshine is low among major US cities at well under 50%.[76]

The warmest month of the year in Pittsburgh is July, with a 24-hour average of 73.2 °F (22.9 °C). Conditions are often humid, and combined with highs reaching 90 °F (32 °C) on an average 9.5 days a year,[77] a considerable heat index arises. The coolest month is January, when the 24-hour average is 28.8 °F (−1.8 °C), and lows of 0 °F (−18 °C) or below can be expected on an average 2.6 nights per year.[77] Officially, record temperatures range from −22 °F (−30 °C), on January 19, 1994 to 103 °F (39 °C), which occurred three times, most recently on July 16, 1988; the record cold daily maximum is −3 °F (−19 °C), which occurred three times, most recently the day of the all-time record low, while, conversely, the record warm daily minimum is 82 °F (28 °C) on July 1, 1901.[77][b] Due to elevation and location on the windward side of the Appalachian Mountains, 100 °F (38 °C)+ readings are very rare, and were last seen on July 15, 1995.[77]

Average annual precipitation is 39.61 inches (1,006 mm) and precipitation is greatest in May while least in October; annual precipitation has historically ranged from 22.65 in (575 mm) in 1930 to 57.83 in (1,469 mm) in 2018.[78] On average, December and January have the greatest number of precipitation days. Snowfall averages 44.1 inches (112 cm) per season, but has historically ranged from 8.8 in (22 cm) in 1918–19 to 80 in (200 cm) in 1950–51.[79] There is an average of 59 clear days and 103 partly cloudy days per year, while 203 days are cloudy.[80] In terms of annual percent-average possible sunshine received, Pittsburgh (45%) is similar to Seattle (49%).

Climate data for Pittsburgh (Pittsburgh International Airport), 1991–2020 normals,[c] extremes 1874–present[d]
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 75
Mean maximum °F (°C) 61.5
Mean daily maximum °F (°C) 36.3
Daily mean °F (°C) 28.8
Mean daily minimum °F (°C) 21.4
Mean minimum °F (°C) 1.0
Record low °F (°C) −22
Average precipitation inches (mm) 2.96
Average snowfall inches (cm) 13.3
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in) 16.8 13.9 14.0 13.9 13.5 12.4 11.2 10.5 9.8 11.1 12.0 14.6 153.7
Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 in) 12.2 9.3 5.9 1.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.3 3.3 7.6 40.2
Average relative humidity (%) 69.9 67.3 64.1 59.8 63.4 66.2 68.8 71.2 72.0 68.3 70.2 71.9 67.8
Average dew point °F (°C) 17.2
Mean monthly sunshine hours 93.9 108.5 155.4 182.8 217.4 242.2 254.9 228.4 196.7 167.3 99.4 74.4 2,021.3
Percent possible sunshine 31 36 42 46 49 54 56 54 53 48 33 26 45
Average ultraviolet index 2 2 2 4 6 6 6 5 4 3 2 1 4
Source 1: NOAA (relative humidity, dew point and sun 1961–1990)[77][81][76][82]
Source 2: Weather Atlas (UV)[83]

Air quality[edit]

The American Lung Association's (ALA) 2023 “State of the Air” report (which included data from 2019 to 2021) showed air quality in Pittsburgh improving. The city received a passing grade for ozone pollution, going from an F to a C grade, and improving from the 46th to 54th most polluted by ozone smog.[84]

According to daily ozone air quality data provided by the EPA, from 2021 to 2024, Pittsburgh had good or moderate air quality most of the time.[85][86] Then-Allegheny County executive Rich Fitzgerald said in December 2023 that they’d seen an “80 % drop in hazardous air pollutants” and that they made EPA attainment at all eight county air monitors for the first time in 2020, and then also achieved that goal in 2021, 2022, and were on track for better results in 2023.[87]

A past 2019 "State of the Air" report from the American Lung Association (ALA) found that air quality in the Pittsburgh-New Castle-Weirton, PA-OH-WV metro area worsened compared to previous reports, not only for ozone (smog), but also for the second year in a row for both the daily and long-term measures of fine particle pollution. In 2019, outside of California, Allegheny County was the only county in the United States that recorded failing grades for all three.[88]

In a 2013 ranking of 277 metropolitan areas in the United States, the American Lung Association ranked only six U.S. metro areas as having higher amounts of short-term particle pollution, and only seven U.S. metro areas having higher amounts of year-round particle pollution than Pittsburgh. For ozone (smog) pollution, Pittsburgh was ranked 24th among U.S. metro areas.[89][90] The area has improved its air quality with every annual survey. The ALA's rankings have been disputed by the Allegheny County Health Department (ACHD), since data from only the worst of the region's 20 air quality monitors is considered by the ALA, without any context or averaging. The lone monitor used is immediately downwind and adjacent to U.S. Steel's Clairton Coke Works, the nation's largest coke mill, and several municipalities outside the city's jurisdiction of pollution controls, leading to possible confusion that Pittsburgh is the source or center of the emissions cited in the survey.[91] The region's readings also reflect pollution swept in from Ohio and West Virginia.[92]

Although the county was still below the "pass" threshold, the report showed substantial improvement over previous decades on every air quality measure. Fewer than 15 high ozone days were reported between 2007 and 2009, and just 10 between 2008 and 2010, compared to more than 40 between 1997 and 1999.[93] ACHD spokesman Guillermo Cole stated "It's the best it's been in the lifetime for virtually every resident in this county ... We've seen a steady decrease in pollution levels over the past decade and certainly over the past 20, 30, 40, 50 years, or more."[94]

As of 2005, the city includes 31,000 trees on 900 miles of streets. A 2011 analysis of Pittsburgh's tree cover, which involved sampling more than 200 small plots throughout the city, showed a value of between $10 and $13 million in annual benefits based on the urban forest contributions to aesthetics, energy use and air quality. Energy savings from shade, impact on city air and water quality, and the boost in property values were taken into account in the analysis. The city spends $850,000 annually on street tree planting and maintenance.[95]

Despite improvements, some studies still suggest that poor air quality in Pittsburgh is causing negative health effects. In a past study conducted between 2014 and 2016 researchers determined that children who lived in areas close to sources of pollution, such as industrial sites, experienced rates of asthma at almost 3 times the national average.[96] The study also found that 38% of students live in areas over USEPA's 12 micrograms per cubic meter standards, while 70% live in areas over the WHO's standard of 10 micrograms per cubic meter.[96] Several of the plants were located in or very near Pittsburgh.[96] The study also noted that most of the effected communities were minority communities.[96] This had led some residents in Pittsburgh to believe that the continuing effects of air pollution are a case of environmental racism.[97]

Groups such as Women for a Healthy Environment are working to address ongoing concerns surrounding air pollution in Pittsburgh.[98] WHE does work such as policy analysis, publishing reports, and community education.[98] In the summer of 2017, a crowd sourced air quality monitoring application, Smell PGH, was launched. As air quality is still a concern of many in the area, the app allows for users to report odd smells and informs local authorities.[99]

Water quality[edit]

The local rivers continue to have pollution levels exceeding EPA limits.[100] This is caused by frequently overflowing untreated sewage into local waterways, due to flood conditions and antiquated infrastructure. Pittsburgh has a combined sewer system, where its sewage pipes contain both stormwater and wastewater. The pipes were constructed in the early 1900s, and the sewage treatment plant was built in 1959.[101] Due to insufficient improvements over time, the city is faced with public health concerns regarding its water.[102] As little as a tenth of an inch of rain causes runoffs from the sewage system to drain into local rivers.[103] Nine billion gallons of untreated waste and stormwater flow into rivers, leading to health hazards and Clean Water Act violations.[104] The local sewage authority, Allegheny County Sanitary Authority, or ALCOSAN, is operating under Consent Decree from the EPA to come up with solutions.[105] In 2017, ALCOSAN proposed a $2 billion upgrade to the system which was approved by the EPA in 2019.[106][107]

Pittsburgh Water and Sewer Authority (PWSA) is the city's agency required to replace pipes and charge water rates. They have come under fire from both city and state authorities due to alleged mismanagement.[108] In 2017, Mayor William Peduto advocated for a restructuring of the PWSA and a partially privatized water authority.[109] Governor Wolf subsequently assigned the PWSA to be under the oversight of the Public Utilities Commission (PUC).[108]

PWSA has also been subject to criticism due to findings released in 2016 showing high levels of lead in Pittsburgh's drinking water.[110] Although Pittsburgh's drinking water had been high in lead levels, and steadily rising, for many years, many residents blame PWSA administrative changes for the spike in lead levels.[111] In the years prior, PWSA had hired Veolia, a Paris-based company, for consultation to help with mounting administrative difficulties.[112] By 2015, PWSA in consultation with Veolia had laid off 23 people, including halving the laboratory staff that was responsible for testing water safety and quality.[112] Simultaneously, PWSA in consultation with Veolia had changed what chemicals they were using to prevent metal corrosion in 2014,[111] from soda ash to caustic soda, without consulting with Department of Environmental Protection.[113] Anti-corrosive chemicals were being used because many of Pittsburgh's water pipes were made of lead, and adding anti-corrosive chemicals helped prevent lead from seeping into drinking water.[113]

In 2016 lead levels were as high as 27 ppb in some cases. The legal limit is 15 ppb, although there is not a safe amount of lead in drinking water.[113] Though lead levels had been rising in previous years, they had not exceeded the legal limit.[111] In late 2015 PWSA terminated its contracted with Veolia.[112] In response to the high lead levels PWSA began adding orthophosphate to the water.[114] Orthophosphate is meant to create a coating on the inside of pipes, creating a barrier to prevent lead from leaching into drinking water.[114] PWSA has also been working to replace lead pipes, and continuing to test water for lead.[114]

There remains concern among residents over the long-term effects of this lead, particularly for children, in whom lead causes permanent damage to the brain and nervous system.[115] Some people also believe that the high levels of lead reflect environmental racism, as black and Hispanic children in Pittsburgh experience elevated blood-lead levels at 4 times the rate of white children.[115] Water fountains in Langley k-8 school in Sheraden were found to have the highest levels of lead of any schools in the Pittsburgh area. These levels were about 11 times the legal limit. Some residents believe this is due to Langely being a predominantly black school, with 89% of the student body being eligible for the free lunch program.[116]


Historical population
2023 (est.)303,2550.1%
U.S. Decennial Census[117][118][2]
Historical Racial composition 2020[119] 2010[120] 1990[121] 1970[121] 1950[121]
White 66.8% 66.0% 72.1% 79.3% 87.7%
– Non-Hispanic White 64.7% 64.8% 71.6% 78.7%[e] n/a
Black or African American 23.0% 26.1% 25.8% 20.2% 12.2%
Asian 5.8% 4.4% 1.6% 0.3% 0.1%
Hispanic or Latino (of any race) 3.2% 2.3% 0.9% 0.5%[e] (X)

2020 census[edit]

Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania – Racial and ethnic composition
Note: the US Census treats Hispanic/Latino as an ethnic category. This table excludes Latinos from the racial categories and assigns them to a separate category. Hispanics/Latinos may be of any race.
Race / Ethnicity (NH = Non-Hispanic) Pop 1980[122] Pop 1990[123] Pop 2000[124] Pop 2010[125] Pop 2020[126] % 1980 % 1990 % 2000 % 2010 % 2020
White alone (NH) 316,262 264,722 223,982 198,186 187,099 74.60% 71.57% 66.95% 64.83% 61.75%
Black or African American alone (NH) 100,734 94,743 90,183 78,847 68,314 23.76% 25.61% 26.96% 25.79% 22.55%
Native American or Alaska Native alone (NH) 552 583 561 505 475 0.13% 0.16% 0.17% 0.17% 0.16%
Asian alone (NH) 2,778 5,865 9,160 13,393 19,745 0.66% 1.59% 2.74% 4.38% 6.52%
Pacific Islander alone (NH) N/A N/A 100 76 96 N/A N/A 0.03% 0.02% 0.03%
Other race alone (NH) 242 498 1,217 843 2,081 0.06% 0.13% 0.36% 0.28% 0.69%
Mixed race or Multiracial (NH) N/A N/A 4,935 6,890 13,541 N/A N/A 1.48% 2.25% 4.47%
Hispanic or Latino (any race) 3,370 3,468 4,425 6,964 11,620 0.79% 0.94% 1.32% 2.28% 3.84%
Total 423,938 369,879 334,563 305,704 302,971 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00%
Ethnic origins in Pittsburgh
Map of racial distribution in Pittsburgh, 2010 U.S. census. Each dot is 25 people:  White  Black  Asian  Hispanic  Other

At the 2010 census, there were 305,704 people residing in Pittsburgh, a decrease of 8.6% since 2000; 66.0% of the population was White, 25.8% Black or African American, 0.2% American Indian and Alaska Native, 4.4% Asian, 0.3% Other, and 2.3% mixed; in 2020, 2.3% of Pittsburgh's population was of Hispanic or Latino American origin of any race. Non-Hispanic whites were 64.8% of the population in 2010,[120] compared to 78.7% in 1970.[121] By the 2020 census, the population slightly declined further to 302,971.[119] Its racial and ethnic makeup in 2020 was 64.7% non-Hispanic white, 23.0% Black or African American, 5.8% Asian, and 3.2% Hispanic or Latino American of any race.

Since the beginning of the 21st century, the five largest European ethnic groups in Pittsburgh were German (19.7%), Irish (15.8%), Italian (11.8%), Polish (8.4%), and English (4.6%), while the metropolitan area is approximately 22% German-American, 15.4% Italian American and 11.6% Irish American. Pittsburgh has one of the largest Italian-American communities in the nation,[127] and the fifth-largest Ukrainian community per the 1990 census.[128] Pittsburgh has one of the most extensive Croatian communities in the United States.[129] Overall, the Pittsburgh metro area has one of the largest populations of Slavic Americans in the country.

Pittsburgh has a sizable Black and African American population, concentrated in various neighborhoods especially in the East End. There is also a small Asian community consisting of Indian immigrants, and a small Hispanic community consisting of Mexicans and Puerto Ricans.[130]

According to a 2010 Association of Religion Data Archives (ARDA) study, residents include 773,341 "Catholics"; 326,125 "Mainline Protestants"; 174,119 "Evangelical Protestants;" 20,976 "Black Protestants;" and 16,405 "Orthodox Christians," with 996,826 listed as "unclaimed" and 16,405 as "other" in the metro area.[130] A 2017 study by the Cohen Center for Modern Jewish Studies at Brandeis University estimated the Jewish population of Greater Pittsburgh was 49,200.[131] Pittsburgh is also cited as the location where the earliest precursor to Jehovah's Witnesses was founded by Charles Taze Russell; today the denomination makes up approximately 1% of the population based on data from the Pew Research Center.[132][133]

According to a 2014 study by the Pew Research Center, 78% of the population of the city identified themselves as Christians, with 42% professing attendance at a variety of churches that could be considered Protestant, and 32% professing Catholic beliefs. while 18% claim no religious affiliation. The same study says that other religions (including Judaism, Buddhism, Islam, and Hinduism) collectively make up about 4% of the population.[134]

Religion in Pittsburgh (2014)[134]
Religion Percent
Other Christian
No religion
Don't know

In 2010, there were 143,739 households, out of which 21.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 31.2% were married couples living together, 16.5% had a female householder with no husband present, and 48.4% were non-families. 39.4% of all households were made up of individuals, and 13.7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.17 and the average family size was 2.95.

In the city, the population was spread out, with 19.9% under the age of 18, 14.8% from 18 to 24, 28.6% from 25 to 44, 20.3% from 45 to 64, and 16.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 90.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.8 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $28,588, and the median income for a family was $38,795. Males had a median income of $32,128 versus $25,500 for females. The per capita income for the city was $18,816. About 15.0% of families and 20.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 27.5% of those under the age of 18 and 13.5% ages 65 or older. By the 2019 American Community Survey, the median income for a household increased to $53,799.[135] Families had a median income of $68,922; married-couple families had a median income of $93,500; and non-family households had a median income of $34,448. Pittsburgh's wealthiest suburbs within city limits are Squirrel Hill and Point Breeze, the only two areas of the city which have average household incomes over $100,000 a year. Outside of city limits, Sewickley Heights is by a wide margin the wealthiest suburb of Pittsburgh within Allegheny County, with an average yearly household income of just over $218,000. Sewickely Heights is seen as one of Pittsburgh's wealthiest suburbs culturally as well, titles which the suburbs of Upper St. Clair, Fox Chapel, Wexford, and Warrendale also have been bestowed.[136][137]

In a 2002 study, Pittsburgh ranked 22nd of 69 urban places in the U.S. in the number of residents 25 years or older who had completed a bachelor's degree, at 31%.[138] Pittsburgh ranked 15th of the 69 places in the number of residents 25 years or older who completed a high school degree, at 84.7%.[139]

The metro area has shown greater residential racial integration during the last 30 years. The 2010 census ranked 18 other U.S. metros as having greater black-white segregation, while 32 other U.S. metros rank higher for black-white isolation.[140]

As of 2018, much of Pittsburgh's population density was concentrated in the central, southern, and eastern areas. The city limits itself have a population density of 5,513 people per square mile; its most densely populated parts are North Oakland (at 21,200 per square mile) and Uptown Pittsburgh (at 19,869 per square mile). Outside of the city limits, Dormont and Mount Oliver are Pittsburgh's most densely-populated neighborhoods, with 11,167 and 9,902 people per square mile respectively.[141]

Most of Pittsburgh's immigrants are from China, India, Korea and Italy.[142]

Demographic changes[edit]

Since the 1940s, some demographic changes have sometimes been caused by city initiatives for redevelopment.

Throughout the 1950s Pittsburgh's Lower Hill District faced massive demographic changes when 1,551, majority black, residents and 413 businesses were forced to relocate when the city of Pittsburgh used eminent domain to make space for the construction of the Civic Arena.[13] This Civic Arena ultimately opened in 1961.[13] The Civic Arena was built as part of one of Pittsburgh's revitalization campaigns. An auditorium in this space was initially proposed in 1947 by the Regional Planning Association and Urban Redevelopment Authority. The idea of an auditorium with a retractable roof that would house the Pittsburgh Civic Light Opera was more specifically proposed in 1953 by the Allegheny Conference on Community Redevelopment. The following year the Public Auditorium Authority of Pittsburgh and Allegheny County was formed. The Lower Hill District had been approved by the City Planning Commission in 1950.[13] Partially as a result of the Civic arena, the whole Hill District is estimated to only have 12,000 residents now.[143] These governmental organizations caused demographic changes through creating a mass exodus from the lower hill district for the construction of the Civic Arena.[13]

In the 1960s the Urban Redevelopment Authority attempted to redevelop East Liberty with the goal of preserving its status as a market center. Penn Center Mall was the result of this effort. In the process of constructing this mall, approximately 3,800 people were forced to relocate. This proved to be another case of government intervention resulting in demographic changes.[144]

Later on, in the early 2000s, movement of businesses into East Liberty, such as Home Depot, Whole Foods, and Google, created another demographic shift. This era of redevelopment was led by private developers who catered to what one scholar described as “Florida’s creative class.” This change continued to be supported by the Urban Redevelopment Authority; particularly by the executive director Rob Stepney, who said of the redevelopment “We had an inspired and shared vision.” When describing the result of redevelopment he said “East Liberty went from blighted and ‘keep off the grass’ to the definition of what millennials are looking for.”[144]

The Pittsburgh government’s choices during redevelopment and the resulting demographic changes have resulted in criticism and led some residents to believe that displacement was purposeful. In one article published in Public Source, a resident explains their belief that redevelopment plans are part of “deconcentration,” an effort to spread out black and low-income residents in order to prevent them from being concentrated in one place.[143] Others worry that these demographic changes are part of government complicity in gentrification.[145] Gentrification is a process where wealthier residents move into an area, altering it by increasing housing / renting costs and changing the market for businesses in the area. This displaces current residents who are unable to afford living in the changed neighborhood. In East Liberty, for example, people frequently cite housing units being demolished and replaced by businesses as evidence of gentrification. For example, when the East Mall public housing unit was demolished in 2009, and a Target built in its place.[146]


Pittsburgh has adapted since the collapse of its century-long steel and electronics industries. The region has shifted to high technology, robotics, health care, nuclear engineering, tourism, biomedical technology, finance, education, and services. Annual payroll of the region's technology industries, when taken in aggregate, exceeded $10.8 billion in 2007,[147] and in 2010 there were 1,600 technology companies.[148] A National Bureau of Economic Research 2014 report named Pittsburgh the second-best U.S. city for intergenerational economic mobility[149] or the American Dream.[150] Reflecting the citywide shift from industry to technology, former factories have been renovated as modern office space. Google has research and technology offices in a refurbished 1918–1998 Nabisco factory, a complex known as Bakery Square.[151] Some of the factory's original equipment, such as a large dough mixer, were left standing in homage to the site's industrial roots.[152] Pittsburgh's transition from its industrial heritage has earned it praise as "the poster child for managing industrial transition".[153] Other major cities in the northeast and mid-west have increasingly borrowed from Pittsburgh's model in order to renew their industries and economic base.[154]

The largest employer in the city is the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, with 48,000 employees. All hospitals, outpatient clinics, and doctor's office positions combine for 116,000 jobs, approximately 10% of the jobs in the region. An analyst recently observed of the city's medical sector: "That's both more jobs and a higher share of the region's total employment than the steel industry represented in the 1970s."[155]

Top publicly traded companies
in the Pittsburgh region for 2022

(ranked by revenues)
with metropolitan and U.S. ranks
Metro corporation US
1 The Kraft Heinz Company 139
2 U.S. Steel 172
3 PNC Financial Services 178
4 Viatris 204
5 PPG Industries 218
6 Dick's Sporting Goods 307
7 Alcoa 312
8 WESCO International 357
9 Wabtec 439
10 Arconic 452

Education is a major economic driver in the region. The largest single employer in education is the University of Pittsburgh, with 10,700 employees.[156]

Ten Fortune 500 companies call the Pittsburgh area home.[157] They are (in alphabetical order): Alcoa Corporation (NYSE: AA), Arconic Corporation (NYSE: ARNC), Dick's Sporting Goods (NYSE: DKS), The Kraft Heinz Company (NASDAQ: KHC), PNC Financial Services (NYSE: PNC), PPG Industries (NYSE: PPG), U.S. Steel Corporation (NYSE: X), Viatris (NASDAQ: VRTS), Wabtec Corporation (NYSE: WAB), and WESCO International (WYSE: WCC).[158]

The region is home to Aurora, Allegheny Technologies, American Eagle Outfitters, Duolingo, EQT Corporation, CONSOL Energy, Howmet Aerospace, Kennametal and II-VI headquarters. Other major employers include BNY Mellon, GlaxoSmithKline, Thermo Fisher Scientific, and Lanxess. The Northeast U.S. regional headquarters for Chevron Corporation, Nova Chemicals, Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu, FedEx Ground, Ariba, and the RAND Corporation call the area home. 84 Lumber, Giant Eagle, Highmark, Rue 21, General Nutrition Center (GNC), CNX Gas (CXG), and Genco Supply Chain Solutions are major non-public companies headquartered in the region. The global impact of Pittsburgh technology and business was recently demonstrated in several key components of the Boeing 787 Dreamliner being manufactured and supplied by area companies.[159] Area retail is anchored by over 35 shopping malls and a healthy downtown retail sector, as well as boutique shops along Walnut Street, in Squirrel Hill, Lawrenceville and Station Square.

The nonprofit arts and cultural industry in Allegheny County generates $341 million in economic activity that supports over 10,000 full-time equivalent jobs with nearly $34 million in local and state taxes raised.[160]

A leader in environmental design, the city is home to 60 total and 10 of the world's first green buildings while billions have been invested in the area's Marcellus natural gas fields.[17] A renaissance of Pittsburgh's 116-year-old film industry—that boasts the world's first movie theater—has grown from the long-running Three Rivers Film Festival to an influx of major television and movie productions. including Disney and Paramount offices with the largest sound stage outside Los Angeles and New York City.[161]

Pittsburgh has hosted many conventions, including INPEX, the world's largest invention trade show, since 1984;[162] Tekko, a four-day anime convention, since 2003; Anthrocon, a furry convention, since 2006; and the DUG East energy trade show since 2009.

In 2015, Pittsburgh was listed among the "eleven most livable cities in the world" by Metropolis magazine.[163][164] The Economist's Global Liveability Ranking placed Pittsburgh as the most or second-most livable city in the United States in 2005, 2009, 2011, 2012, 2014, and 2018.[165][166]

Arts and culture[edit]


East Room of the Phipps Conservatory and Botanical Gardens

Pittsburgh has a rich history in arts and culture dating from 19th century industrialists commissioning and donating public works, such as Heinz Hall for the Performing Arts and the Benedum Center, home to the Pittsburgh Symphony Orchestra and Pittsburgh Opera, respectively as well as such groups as the River City Brass Band and the Pittsburgh Youth Symphony Orchestra.

Pittsburgh has a number of small and mid-size arts organizations including the Pittsburgh Irish and Classical Theatre, Quantum Theatre, the Renaissance and Baroque Society of Pittsburgh, and the early music ensemble Chatham Baroque. Several choirs and singing groups are also present at the cities' universities; some of the most notable include the Pitt Men's Glee Club and the Heinz Chapel Choir.

Pittsburgh Dance Council and the Pittsburgh Ballet Theater host a variety of dance events. Polka, folk, square, and round dancing have a long history in the city and are celebrated by the Duquesne University Tamburitzans, a multicultural academy dedicated to the preservation and presentation of folk songs and dance.

Hundreds of major films have been shot partially or wholly in Pittsburgh. The Dark Knight Rises was largely filmed in Downtown, Oakland, and the North Shore. Pittsburgh is also considered as the birthplace of the modern zombie film genre after George A. Romero directed the 1968 film Night of the Living Dead.[167][168] Pittsburgh has also teamed up with a Los Angeles-based production company, and has built the largest and most advanced movie studio in the eastern United States.[161]

The Andy Warhol Museum is one of the four Carnegie Museums of Pittsburgh.

Pittsburgh's major art museums include the Andy Warhol Museum, the Carnegie Museum of Art, The Frick Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh Center for the Arts, the Mattress Factory, and the Carnegie Museum of Natural History, which has extensive dinosaur, mineral, animal, and Egyptian collections. The Kamin Science Center and associated SportsWorks has interactive technology and science exhibits. The Senator John Heinz History Center and Western Pennsylvania Sports Museum is a Smithsonian affiliated regional history museum in the Strip District and its associated Fort Pitt Museum is in Point State Park. Soldiers and Sailors Memorial Hall and Museum in Oakland houses Western Pennsylvania military exhibits from the Civil War to present. The Children's Museum of Pittsburgh on the North Side features interactive exhibits for children. The eclectic Bayernhof Music Museum is six miles (9 km) from downtown while The Clemente Museum is in the city's Lawrenceville section. The Cathedral of Learning's Nationality Rooms showcase pre-19th century learning environments from around the world. There are regular guided and self-guided architectural tours in numerous neighborhoods. Downtown's cultural district hosts quarterly Gallery Crawls and the annual Three Rivers Arts Festival. Pittsburgh is home to a number of art galleries and centers including the Miller Gallery at Carnegie Mellon University, University Art Gallery of the University of Pittsburgh, the American Jewish Museum, and the Wood Street Galleries.

The Pittsburgh Zoo and PPG Aquarium, Phipps Conservatory and Botanical Gardens, and the National Aviary have served the city for over a century. Pittsburgh is home to the amusement park Kennywood. Pittsburgh is home to one of the several state licensed casinos. The Rivers Casino is on the North Shore along the Ohio River, just west of Kamin Science Center and Acrisure Stadium.

Pittsburgh is home to the world's largest furry convention known as Anthrocon, which has been held annually at the David L. Lawrence Convention Center since 2006. In 2017, Anthrocon drew over 7,000 visitors and has had a cumulative economic impact of $53 million over the course of its 11 years of being hosted in Pittsburgh.[169]

Lifetime's reality show, Dance Moms, is filmed at Pittsburgh's Abby Lee Dance Company.


Pittsburgh has a long tradition of jazz, blues, and bluegrass music. The National Negro Opera Company was founded in the city as the first all African-American opera company in the United States. This led to the prominence of African-American singers like Leontyne Price in the world of opera. One of the greatest American musicians and composers of the 20th century, Billy Strayhorn, grew up and was educated in Pittsburgh, as was pianist/composer-arranger Mary Lou Williams, who composed and recorded an eponymous tribute to her home town in 1966,[170] featuring vocalist Leon Thomas.[171]

Pittsburgh's Wiz Khalifa is a recent artist to have a number one record. His anthem "Black and Yellow" (a tribute to Pittsburgh's official colors) reached number one on Billboard's "Hot 100"[172] for the Week of February 19, 2011.[173] Perry Como and Christina Aguilera are from Pittsburgh suburbs. The city is also where the band Rusted Root was formed. Liz Berlin of Rusted Root owns Mr. Smalls, a popular music venue for touring national acts in Pittsburgh.[174] Hip hop artist Mac Miller was also a Pittsburgh native, with his debut album Blue Slide Park named after the local Frick Park.

Many punk rock and Hardcore punk acts, such as Aus Rotten and Anti-Flag, originated in Pittsburgh. Pittsburgh has also seen many metal bands gain prominence in recent years,[when?] most notably Code Orange, who were nominated for a Grammy. The city was also home to the highly influential math rock band Don Caballero.

Pittsburgh has emerged as a leading city in the United States' heavy metal music scene. Ranking as the third 'most metal city' in a study conducted by MetalSucks,[175] Pittsburgh has earned a reputation for its heavy metal community. Pittsburgh is home to over six-hundred heavy metal bands,[175] as well as heavy metal coffee shops[176] and bars. The city is noted for its doom metal, metalcore, and death metal scenes.

Throughout the 1990s there was an electronic music subculture in Pittsburgh which likely traced its origins to similar Internet chatroom-based movements in Detroit, Cleveland, Minneapolis, and across the United States.[177][178][179] Pittsburgh promoters and DJs organized raves in warehouses, ice rinks, barns, and fields which eventually attracted thousands of attendees, some of whom were high school students or even younger.[178][180][181] As the events grew more popular, they drew internationally known DJs such as Adam Beyer and Richie Hawtin.[178] Pittsburgh rave culture itself spawned at least one well-known artist, the drum and bass DJ Dieselboy, who attended the University of Pittsburgh between 1990 and 1995.[177][182]

Since 2012, Pittsburgh has been the home of Hot Mass, an afterhours electronic music dance party which critics have compared favorably to European nightclubs and parties.[183][184] Electronic music artist and DJ Yaeji credits Hot Mass with her "indoctrination into nightlife"; she regularly attended the party while studying at Carnegie Mellon University.[185][186]


Benedum Center

The city's first play was produced at the old courthouse in 1803[28] and the first theater built in 1812.[28] Collegiate companies include the University of Pittsburgh's Repertory Theatre and Kuntu Repertory Theatre, Point Park University's resident companies at its Pittsburgh Playhouse, and Carnegie Mellon University's School of Drama productions and Scotch'n'Soda organization. The Duquesne University Red Masquers, founded in 1912, are the oldest, continuously producing theater company in Pennsylvania.[citation needed] The city's longest-running theater show, Friday Nite Improvs, is an improv jam that has been performed in the Cathedral of Learning and other locations for 20 years. The Pittsburgh New Works Festival utilizes local theater companies to stage productions of original one-act plays by playwrights from all parts of the country. Similarly, Future Ten showcases new ten-minute plays. Saint Vincent Summer Theatre, Off the Wall Productions, Mountain Playhouse, The Theatre Factory, and Stage Right! in nearby Latrobe, Carnegie, Jennerstown, Trafford, and Greensburg, respectively, employ Pittsburgh actors and contribute to the culture of the region.

Pittsburgh is well known for being home to the late playwright August Wilson.[187] The August Wilson House now remains in Pittsburgh to celebrate the life and work of August Wilson, continue to produce his plays, and serve as an arts center for the Hill District, where Wilson was from.[187]


Pittsburgh is the birthplace of Gertrude Stein and Rachel Carson, a Chatham University graduate from the suburb of Springdale, Pennsylvania.[188] Modern writers include Pulitzer Prize-winning playwright August Wilson[189] and Michael Chabon with his Pittsburgh-focused commentary on student and college life. Two-time Pulitzer Prize winner and recipient of the Presidential Medal of Freedom, David McCullough was born and raised in Pittsburgh.[190] Annie Dillard, a Pulitzer Prize–winning writer, was born and raised in Pittsburgh. Much of her memoir An American Childhood takes place in post-World War II Pittsburgh. Award-winning author John Edgar Wideman grew up in Pittsburgh and has based several of his books, including the memoir Brothers and Keepers, in his hometown. Poet Terrance Hayes, winner of the 2010 National Book Award and a 2014 MacArthur Foundation Fellow, received his MFA from the University of Pittsburgh, where he is a faculty member. Poet Michael Simms, founder of Autumn House Press, resides in the Mount Washington neighborhood of Pittsburgh. Poet Samuel John Hazo, the first poet Laureate of Pennsylvania, resides in the city. New writers include Chris Kuzneski, who attended the University of Pittsburgh and mentions Pittsburgh in his works, and Pittsburgher Brian Celio, author of Catapult Soul, who captured the Pittsburgh 'Yinzer' dialect in his writing. Pittsburgh's unique literary style extends to playwrights,[191] as well as local graffiti and hip hop artists.

Pittsburgh's position as the birthplace for community owned television and networked commercial television helped spawn the modern children's show genres exemplified by Mister Rogers' Neighborhood, Where in the World is Carmen Sandiego?, Happy's Party, Cappelli & Company, and The Children's Corner, all nationally broadcast.

The Pittsburgh Dad series has showcased the Pittsburghese genre to a global YouTube audience since 2011.

The modern fantasy, macabre and science fiction genre was popularized by director George A. Romero, television's Bill Cardille and his Chiller Theatre,[192] director and writer Rusty Cundieff and makeup effects guru Tom Savini.[193] The genre continues today with the PARSEC science fiction organization,[194] The It's Alive Show, the annual "Zombie Fest",[195] and several writer's workshops including Write or Die,[196] Pittsburgh SouthWrites,[197] and Pittsburgh Worldwrights[198][199] with Barton Paul Levenson, Kenneth Chiacchia and Elizabeth Humphreys Penrose.


A Primanti Bros. sandwich

Pittsburgh is known for several specialties including pierogies, kielbasa, chipped chopped ham sandwiches, and Klondike bars.[200][201] In 2019, Pittsburgh was deemed "Food City of the Year" by the San Francisco-based restaurant and hospitality consulting firm af&co.[202] Many restaurants were favorably mentioned, among them were Superior Motors in Braddock, Driftwood Oven in Lawrenceville, Spork in Bloomfield, Fish nor Fowl in Garfield, Bitter Ends Garden & Luncheonette in Bloomfield, and Rolling Pepperoni in Lawrenceville.[203]

Pittsburgh is home to the annual pickle-themed festival Picklesburgh, which has been named the "best specialty food festival in America".[204]

Local dialect[edit]

The Pittsburgh English dialect, commonly called Pittsburghese, was influenced by Scots-Irish, German, and Eastern European immigrants and African Americans.[205] Locals who speak the dialect are sometimes referred to as "Yinzers" (from the local word "yinz" [var. yunz], a blended form of "you ones", similar to "y'all" and "you all" in the South). Common Pittsburghese terms are: "slippy" (slippery), "redd up" (clean up), "jagger bush" (thorn bush), and "gum bands" (rubber bands). The dialect is also notable for dropping the verb "to be". In Pittsburghese one would say "the car needs washed" instead of "needs to be washed", "needs washing", or "needs a wash." The dialect has some tonal similarities to other nearby regional dialects of Erie and Baltimore but is noted for its somewhat staccato rhythms. The staccato qualities of the dialect are thought to originate either from Welsh or other European languages. The many local peculiarities have prompted The New York Times to describe Pittsburgh as "the Galapagos Islands of American dialect".[206] The lexicon itself contains notable loans from Polish and other European languages; examples include babushka, pierogi, and halušky.[207]


The Frick Environmental Center at Frick Park

Pittsburgh has five city parks and several parks managed by the Nature Conservancy. The largest, Frick Park, provides 664 acres (269 ha) of woodland park with extensive hiking and biking trails throughout steep valleys and wooded slopes. Birding enthusiasts visit the Clayton Hill area of Frick Park, where over 100 species of birds have been recorded.[208]

Residents living in extremely low-lying areas near the rivers or one of the 1,400 creeks and streams may have occasional floods,[209] such as those caused when the remnants of Hurricane Ivan hit rainfall records in 2004.[210] River flooding is relatively rare due to federal flood control efforts extensively managing locks, dams, and reservoirs.[209][211][212] Residents living near smaller tributary streams are less protected from occasional flooding. The cost of a comprehensive flood control program for the region has been estimated at a prohibitive $50 billion.[209]

Pittsburgh has the greatest number of bars per capita in the nation.[18]


Pittsburgh hosted the first professional football game and the first World Series. In 2009, Pittsburgh won the Sporting News title of "Best Sports City" in the United States[213] and, in 2013, Sperling's Best Places "top 15 cities for baseball".[214] College sports also have large followings with the University of Pittsburgh in football and sharing Division I basketball fans with Robert Morris and Duquesne.

Pittsburgh has a long history with its major professional sports teams—the Steelers of the National Football League, the Penguins of the National Hockey League, and the Pirates of Major League Baseball—which all share the same team colors, the official city colors of black and gold.[f] Pittsburgh is the only city in the United States where this practice of sharing team colors in solidarity takes place.[215] The black-and-gold color scheme has since become widely associated with the city and personified in its famous Terrible Towel.[216]

The Pittsburgh Riverhounds are a professional soccer team who have been playing in Pittsburgh since they were established in 1999. They are a member of the USL Championship division, a second-tier league of US professional soccer and are in the league's Eastern Conference. The Riverhounds play their home matches at Highmark Stadium (Pennsylvania) a 5,000 seat soccer-specific stadium located in Pittsburgh's Station Square. In keeping with the uniformity of professional sports teams in Pittsburgh, the Riverhounds colors are black and gold.

"Rails to Trails", has converted miles of former rail tracks to recreational trails, including a Pittsburgh-Washington D.C. bike/walking trail.[217] Several mountain biking trails are within the city and suburbs, Frick Park has biking trails and Hartwood Acres Park has many miles of single track trails.[218][219]


Major league

Team Founded League Sport Venue Championships
Pittsburgh Pirates 1882 Major League Baseball (MLB) Baseball PNC Park 7[o 1]
Pittsburgh Steelers 1933 National Football League (NFL) Football Acrisure Stadium 6[o 2]
Pittsburgh Penguins 1967 National Hockey League (NHL) Hockey PPG Paints Arena 5[o 3]

Minor league/other

Team Founded League Sport Venue Championships
Pittsburgh Riverhounds 1999 USL Championship (USLC) Soccer Highmark Stadium
Steel City Yellow Jackets 2014 ABA Basketball CCAC Allegheny Arena 1
  1. ^ The Pirates won championships in 1901, 1902, 1909, 1925, 1960, 1971, and 1979. 1901 and 1902 were Pre World-Series Era Champions.
  2. ^ The Steelers won championships in 1974, 1975, 1978, 1979, 2005, and 2008.
  3. ^ The Penguins won championships in 1991, 1992, 2009, 2016, and 2017.

**Pittsburgh's ABA franchise won the 1968 title, but the Steel City Yellow Jackets franchise is heir to it only in location.


Power 5

School Prominent sports Venues Conference National Championships
University of Pittsburgh Pitt Football (FBS) Acrisure Stadium ACC 9[o 1]
Pitt Basketball Petersen Events Center 1927–28 1929–30


School Prominent sports Venues Conference National Championships
Duquesne University Dukes Football (FCS) Art Rooney Field NEC 1941, 1973, 2003
Dukes Basketball UPMC Cooper Fieldhouse A10 1954–55 (NIT)
Robert Morris University Colonials Basketball UPMC Events Center NEC
Colonials Hockey Island Sports Center AHA
  1. ^ The Panthers won championships in 1915, 1916, 1918, 1929, 1931, 1934, 1936, 1937, and 1976.


PNC Park, home stadium of the Pittsburgh Pirates

[t]his is the perfect blend of location, history, design, comfort and baseball ... The best stadium in baseball is in Pittsburgh.


The Pittsburgh Pirates baseball team, often referred to as the Bucs or the Buccos (derived from buccaneer), is the city's oldest professional sports franchise, having been founded in 1881, and plays in the Central Division of the National League. The Pirates are nine-time Pennant winners and five-time World Series Champions, were in the first World Series (1903) and claim two pre-World Series titles in 1901 and 1902. The Pirates play in PNC Park.

Pittsburgh also has a rich Negro league history, with the former Pittsburgh Crawfords and the Homestead Grays credited with as many as 14 league titles and 11 Hall of Famers between them in the 1930s and 1940s, while the Keystones fielded teams in the 1920s. In addition, in 1971 the Pirates were the first Major League team to field an all-minority lineup. One sportswriter claimed, "No city is more synonymous with black baseball than Pittsburgh."[220]

Since the late 20th century, the Pirates had three consecutive National League Championship Series appearances (1990–92) (going 6, 7 and 7 games each), followed by setting the MLB record for most consecutive losing seasons, with 20 from 1993 until 2012. This era was followed by three consecutive postseason appearances: the 2013 National League Division Series and the 2014–2015 Wild Card games. Their September pennant race in 1997 featured the franchises' last no-hitter and last award for Sporting News' Executive of the Year.[221]


Pittsburgh Steelers' fans waving the Terrible Towel, a tradition that dates back to 1975

The city's professional team, NFL's Pittsburgh Steelers, is named after the distribution company the Pittsburgh Steeling company established in 1927. News of the team has preempted news of elections and other events and are important to the region and its diaspora. The Steelers have been owned by the Rooney family since the team's founding in 1933, show consistency in coaching (only three coaches since the 1960s all with the same basic philosophy) and are noted as one of sports' most respectable franchises.[222] The Steelers have a long waiting list for season tickets, and have sold out every home game since 1972.[223] The team won four Super Bowls in a six-year span in the 1970s, a fifth Super Bowl in 2006, and a league record sixth Super Bowl in 2009. Since the AFL-NFL merger in 1970 they have qualified for the most NFL playoff berths (28) and have played in (15) and hosted (11) the most NFL conference championship games.[citation needed]

High school football routinely attract 10,000 fans per game and extensive press coverage.[citation needed] The Tom Cruise film All the Right Moves and ESPN's Bound for Glory with Dick Butkus both filmed in the area to capture the tradition and passion of local high school football.

College football in the city dates to 1889[224] with the Division I (FBS) Panthers of the University of Pittsburgh posting nine national championships, qualifying 37 total bowl games, appearing in the 2018 ACC Championship Game, and winning the 2020 ACC Championship Game which was the program's first conference title since leaving the Big East for the ACC between the 2012 and 2013 seasons.[225] Local universities Duquesne and Robert Morris have loyal fan bases that follow their lower (FCS) teams. Duquesne, Carnegie Mellon University, and Washington & Jefferson College all posted major bowl games and AP Poll rankings from the 1920s to the 1940s as that era's equivalent of Top 25 FBS programs.[citation needed]

Acrisure Stadium serves as home for the Steelers, Panthers, and both the suburban and city high school championships. Playoff franchises Pittsburgh Power and Pittsburgh Gladiators competed in the Arena Football League in the 1980s and 2010s respectively. The Gladiators hosted ArenaBowl I in the city, competing in two, but losing both before moving to Tampa, Florida and becoming the Storm.[226] The Pittsburgh Passion has been the city's professional women's football team since 2002 and plays its home games at Highmark Stadium. The Ed Debartolo owned Pittsburgh Maulers featured a Heisman Trophy winner in the mid-1980s, former superstar University of Nebraska running back Mike Rozier.


The NHL's Pittsburgh Penguins have played in Pittsburgh since the team's founding in 1967. The team has won 6 Eastern Conference titles (1991, 1992, 2008, 2009, 2016 and 2017) and 5 Stanley Cup championships (1991, 1992, 2009, 2016 and 2017). Since 1999, Hall of Famer and back-to-back playoff MVP Mario Lemieux has served as Penguins owner. Until moving into the PPG Paints Arena in 2010 (when it was known as Consol Energy Center), the team played their home games at the world's first retractable domed stadium, the Civic Arena, or in local parlance "The Igloo".[227]

Ice hockey has had a regional fan base since the 1890s semi-pro Keystones. The city's first ice rink dates back to 1889, when there was an ice rink at the Casino in Schenley Park. From 1896 to 1956, the Exposition Building on the Allegheny River near The Point and Duquesne Gardens in Oakland offered indoor skating.[228]

The NHL awarded one of its first franchises to the city in 1924 on the strength of the back-to-back USAHA championship winning Pittsburgh Yellow Jackets featuring future Hall of Famers and a Stanley Cup winning coach. The NHL's Pittsburgh Pirates made several Stanley Cup playoff runs with a future Hall of Famer before folding from Great Depression financial pressures. Hockey survived with the Pittsburgh Hornets farm team (1936–1967) and their seven finals appearances and three championships in 18 playoff seasons.

Robert Morris University fields a Division I college hockey team at the Island Sports Center. Pittsburgh has semi-pro and amateur teams such as the Pittsburgh Penguins Elite.[229] Pro-grade ice rinks such as the Rostraver Ice Garden, Mt. Lebanon Recreation Center and Iceoplex at Southpointe have trained several native Pittsburgh players for NHL play. RMU hosted the city's first Frozen Four college championship in 2013 with the four PPG Paints Arena games televised by ESPN.


A Pitt Panthers men's basketball game at the Petersen Events Center in 2009

Professional basketball in Pittsburgh dates to the 1910s with teams "Monticello" and "Loendi" winning five national titles, the Pirates (1937–45 in the NBL), the Pittsburgh Ironmen (1947–48 NBA inaugural season), the Pittsburgh Rens (1961–63), the Pittsburgh Pipers (first American Basketball Association championship in 1968) led by Connie Hawkins (team then moved); the Pittsburgh Condors (ABA returned in 1970–72), the Pittsburgh Piranhas (CBA Finals in 1995), the Pittsburgh Xplosion (2004–08) and Phantoms (2009–10) both of the ABA. The city has hosted dozens of pre-season and 15 regular season "neutral site" NBA games, including Wilt Chamberlain's record setting performance in both consecutive field goals and field goal percentage on February 24, 1967, NBA records that still stand.[230]

The Duquesne University Dukes and the University of Pittsburgh Panthers have played college basketball in the city since 1914 and 1905 respectively. Pitt and Duquesne have played the annual City Game since 1932. Duquesne was the city's first team to appear in a Final Four (1940), obtain a number one AP Poll ranking (1954),[231] and to win a post-season national title, the 1955 National Invitation Tournament on its second straight trip to the NIT title game. Duquesne is the only college program to produce back-to-back NBA No. 1 overall draft picks with 1955's Dick Ricketts and 1956's Sihugo Green.[232] Duquesne's Chuck Cooper was the first African American drafted by an NBA team.[233]

The Panthers won two pre-tournament era Helms Athletic Foundation National Championships in 1928 and 1930, competed in a "national title game" against LSU in 1935, and made a Final Four appearance in 1941. Pitt has won 13 conference titles, qualified for the NCAA tournament 26 times including a post season tournament every season between 1999-2000 and 2015-2016 during which time it regularly sold out the Petersen Events Center. The program has produced 27 NBA draft picks and 15 All Americans while ranking No. 1 in the nation as recently as 2009. The Petersen Events Center is home to the "Oakland Zoo", a student section which is nationally recognized[234] for its passionate members and perseverance through consecutive unsuccessful seasons from 2016 to 2022.[235]

The suburban Robert Morris University's Colonials have competed in NCAA Division I basketball since the 1970s, qualifying for the NCAA tournament in each of the last four decades (8). In the 2013 National Invitation Tournament the Colonials notched an upset win over the defending national champions Kentucky Wildcats.

Pittsburgh Panthers women's basketball has qualified for 14 post season tournaments (including 4 NCAA tournaments) and boasts of 5 All-Americans selected 6 times with 3 WNBA players. Pitt women began play in 1914 before being reintroduced in 1970. Both Duquesne and Robert Morris also have competitive Division I women's basketball programs.

Pittsburgh launched the nation's first high school all-star game in 1965.[236] The Roundball Classic annually featured future NBA hall of famers at the Civic Arena with ESPN televising. The Civic Arena also hosted the championship tournament for the Eastern Eight Conference from 1978 until 1982.


The Riverhounds, an American professional soccer team, were founded in 1998. Like the major league teams in the city, the Riverhounds wear black and gold kits. The club plays in the Eastern Conference of the USL Championship, the second tier of the American soccer pyramid. The Riverhounds play their home games at Highmark Stadium, a soccer-specific stadium located in Station Square.[citation needed]


Golf has deep roots in the area. The oldest U.S. course in continuous use, Foxburg Country Club dating from 1887 calls the region home. [237] Suburban Oakmont Country Club holds the record for most times as host for the U.S. Open (8).[citation needed] U.S. Women's Open (2), PGA Championships (3), and U.S. Amateurs (8) have also called Oakmont home.

Golf legends Arnold Palmer, Jim Furyk, and Rocco Mediate learned the game and began their careers on Pittsburgh area courses.[238] Suburban courses such as Laurel Valley Golf Club and the Fox Chapel Golf Club have hosted PGA Championships (1937, 1965), the Ryder Cup (1975), LPGA Championships (1957–58), Senior Players Championships (2012–14), and the Senior PGA Championship (2005).

Local courses have sponsored annual major tournaments for 40 years:

Professional wrestling[edit]

Many notable professional wrestlers and promoters have hailed from the city or started their careers in Pittsburgh, including Bruno Sammartino, Kurt Angle, Shane Douglas, Corey Graves, Dominic DeNucci, Elias, Britt Baker and many more.

The Fineview section of Pittsburgh served as the base of the televised show Studio Wrestling during the 1960s.[239][240] The Keystone State Wrestling Alliance (KSWA) is a professional wrestling promotion which was founded in Pittsburgh in 2000. It is the only promotion based in Pittsburgh. It operates in the city's Lawrenceville neighborhood. The KSWA performs Monthly on Saturdays at its main venue on 51st Street.

Annual sporting events[edit]

Pittsburgh Vintage Grand Prix

Pittsburgh hosts several annual major sporting events initiated in the late 20th century, including the:

The city's vibrant rivers have attracted annual world-title fishing competitions of the Forrest Wood Cup in 2009 and the Bassmaster Classic in 2005.

Annual events continue during the winter months at area ski resorts such as Boyce Park, Seven Springs, Hidden Valley Resort, Laurel Mountain, and Wisp. Ice skating rinks are enjoyed at PPG Place and North Park.

Government and politics[edit]


The Pittsburgh City-County Building, the seat of government of the City of Pittsburgh

The Government of Pittsburgh is composed of the Mayor of Pittsburgh, the Pittsburgh City Council, and various boards and commissions. The mayor and the nine-member council each serve four-year terms. Since the 1950s the Mayor's Chief of Staff has assumed a large role in advising, long term planning, and as a "gatekeeper" to the mayor. City council members are chosen by plurality elections in each of nine districts. The government's official offices are in the Pittsburgh City-County Building.

The Pennsylvania Supreme Court holds sessions in Pittsburgh, as well as Harrisburg and Philadelphia. Pittsburgh is represented in the Pennsylvania General Assembly by three Senate Districts and nine House Districts. Federally, Pittsburgh is part of Pennsylvania's 12th congressional district.


2020 presidential election by precinct
Biden:      40–50%      50–60%      60–70%      70–80%      80–90%      90–100%
Trump:      50–60%      60–70%

In 2006, Council President Luke Ravenstahl was sworn in as mayor at age 26, becoming the youngest mayor in the history of any major American city. His successor, Bill Peduto, was sworn in on January 6, 2014. In November 2021, Pittsburgh elected its first African-American mayor, Ed Gainey.

Prior to the American Civil War, Pittsburgh was strongly abolitionist. It is considered the birthplace of the national Republican Party,[241] as the party held its first convention here in February 1856. From the Civil War to the 1930s, Pittsburgh was a Republican stronghold. The effects of the Great Depression, combined with entrenched local GOP scandals, resulted in a shift among voters to the Democratic Party. With the exceptions of the 1973 and 1977 elections (where lifelong Democrats ran off the party ticket), Democrats have been elected consecutively to the mayor's office since the 1933 election. The city's ratio of party registration is 5 to 1 Democrat.[242]

Pittsburgh is represented in the Pennsylvania General Assembly by three Senate Districts (Lindsey Williams (D)-38, Wayne D. Fontana (D)-42, and Jay Costa (D)-43) and nine House Districts (Aerion Abney-19, Adam Ravenstahl-20, Sara Innamorato-21, Dan Frankel-23, Martell Covington-24, Dan Deasy-27, Abigail Salisbury-34, and Harry Readshaw-36, Dan Miller-42).

Federally, Pittsburgh is part of Pennsylvania's 12th congressional district, represented by Democrat Summer Lee since 2023 and also by Democrat Chris Deluzio.

Law enforcement[edit]

A Ford Taurus and a Chevrolet Impala belonging to the Pittsburgh Police

The area's largest law enforcement agency is the Pittsburgh Bureau of Police, with close to 850 sworn officers. The city also has separate housing and school police departments. Other agencies also provide police protection within the city because of overlapping jurisdictional boundaries. The Allegheny County Sheriff focuses on jail and courthouse security. The Allegheny County Police primarily patrols county-owned parks and airports, while providing detective/investigatory functions for smaller suburbs and the Port Authority police patrols rapid transit. Pennsylvania State Police Troop B provides patrols for the city and immediate suburbs.

The county's lead law enforcement officer is Allegheny County District Attorney Stephen Zappala while the Allegheny County Medical Examiner heads forensics. Crimes of a federal nature are covered by the U.S. Attorney for Western Pennsylvania.


Pittsburgh annually ranks as one of America's safest big cities, in 2013 being named the 3rd "most secure" big city by Farmers Insurance.[243] Among crime rates of the 60 largest U.S. cities, 43 had more instances of property crime while 16 had less when compared to Pittsburgh. More instances of violent crime were reported in 21 of the largest cities while 37 had less. The FBI recommends against using data for ranking.[244][245] Per 100,000 persons stats (2012):

Murder Rape Robbery Assault Burglary Theft Motor vehicle Total violent Total property
City 13.1 15.1 363.3 360.4 812.8 2,438.2 174.3 752.0 3,425.4

At the end of 2019, the Pittsburgh Bureau of Police reported 37 murders in the city that year.[246]

In Pittsburgh, the homicide rate for African Americans is seven times the national average.[247] Some people believe that over-reliance on law enforcement exacerbates homicide rates.[247] There is also concern regarding the effectiveness of law enforcement in solving these cases, as 97% of cases involving a black victim remain unsolved.[248] This has led certain residents to believe law enforcement to be ineffective or apathetic.[248] This is despite an increasing police budget. In 2023, members of the Pittsburgh City Council approved an increase to the police budget by $6 million.[249] About 6% of this money is expected to go to the Stop the Violence trust fund. This fund goes to improving parks and recreation, various non-profits, and to the office of Community Health and Safety, in effort to holistically improve the social pressures supposedly causing violence in Pittsburgh.[250]

Some people do not believe these efforts to be adequate. Certain studies, such as conducted by the Police Scorecard, rate the Pittsburgh Police Department at 37% quality (with 100% being the best). They rated Pittsburgh below the 50th percentile in the categories “police budget cost per person,” “fines / forefeitures,” “Police Presence/Over-Policing (Officers per Population),” “Force Used per Arrest,” “Racial Disparities in Deadly Force,” “Excessive Force Complaints Upheld,” “Discrimination Complaints Upheld,” “Criminal Misconduct Complaints Upheld,” “Arrest Rate for Low Level Offenses,” and “Racial Disparities in Drug Arrests.” This is 10 out of 15 categories.[251]


Colleges and universities[edit]

The Cathedral of Learning at the University of Pittsburgh
The main campus of Carnegie Mellon University

Pittsburgh is home to many colleges, universities and research facilities, the most well-known of which are Carnegie Mellon University, the University of Pittsburgh, and Duquesne University. Also in the city are Carlow University, Chatham University, Point Park University, the Community College of Allegheny County, Pittsburgh Theological Seminary, Reformed Presbyterian Theological Seminary, and the Pittsburgh Institute of Mortuary Science.

The campuses of Carlow, Carnegie Mellon, and the University of Pittsburgh are near each other in the Oakland neighborhood that is the city's traditional cultural center. Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) is a private research university founded by Andrew Carnegie and Andrew Mellon.[252] CMU contains the Mellon College of Science, School of Computer Science, College of Engineering, School of Business, Heinz College, College of Fine Arts, writing, Social and Decision Sciences, information systems, statistics, and psychology programs.

The University of Pittsburgh, established in 1787 and popularly referred to as "Pitt", is a state-related school with one of the nation's largest research programs.[14] Pitt is known for the University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public and International Affairs, University of Pittsburgh School of Information Sciences, Swanson School of Engineering, University of Pittsburgh College of Business Administration, University of Pittsburgh School of Law, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh School of Social Work, and other biomedical and health-related sciences.[252][253][254][255][256]

Carlow University is a small private Catholic university that while coeducational, has traditionally educated women. Chatham University, a liberal arts college that was founded as a woman's college but became fully coeducational in 2015,[257] is in the Shadyside neighborhood, but also maintains a 388-acre (157 ha) Eden Hall Farm campus in the North Hills. Duquesne University, a private Catholic university in the Bluff neighborhood and is noted for its song and dance troupe, the Duquesne University Tamburitzans, as well as programs in law, business, and pharmacy. Point Park University was founded in 1961 and is well known for its Conservatory of Performing Arts and its Pittsburgh Playhouse.

Primary education[edit]

Taylor Allderdice High School in Pittsburgh in November 2006

Pittsburgh Public Schools teachers are paid well relative to their peers, ranking 17th in 2000 among the 100 largest cities by population for the highest minimum salary. In 2018, the starting teacher salary offered to teachers with a BA was $46,920. The maximum annual salary for a teacher with a master's degree was $95,254.[258]

Local public schools include many charter and magnet schools, including City Charter High School (computer and technology focused), Pittsburgh Montessori School (formerly Homewood Montessori), Pittsburgh Gifted Center, Barack Obama Academy of International Studies 6-12, Pittsburgh Creative and Performing Arts 6–12, Pittsburgh Science and Technology Academy, the Western Pennsylvania School for Blind Children, and the Western Pennsylvania School for the Deaf.

Private schools in Pittsburgh include Bishop Canevin High School, Central Catholic High School, Oakland Catholic High School, Winchester Thurston School, St. Edmund's Academy, Hillel Academy of Pittsburgh, Yeshiva Schools and The Ellis School. Shady Side Academy maintains a PK–5 primary school campus in the Point Breeze neighborhood, in addition to its 6–12 middle and upper school campuses in nearby suburban Fox Chapel. Other private institutions outside of Pittsburgh's limits include North Catholic High School and Seton-La Salle Catholic High School.

The city also has an extensive library system, both public and university. Most notable are the Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh and the University of Pittsburgh's University Library System, which rank as the ninth-largest public and 18th-largest academic libraries in the nation, respectively.[259][260]



KDKA-AM's studios at Gateway Center

There are two major daily newspapers in Pittsburgh: the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette and the Pittsburgh Tribune-Review online only (no longer in print for Pittsburgh Area). Weekly papers in the region include the Pittsburgh Business Times, Pittsburgh City Paper, Pittsburgh Catholic, Pittsburgh Jewish Chronicle, The New People, and the New Pittsburgh Courier. Independent student-written university-based newspapers include The Pitt News of the University of Pittsburgh, The Tartan of Carnegie Mellon University, The Duquesne Duke of Duquesne University, and The Globe of Point Park University. The University of Pittsburgh School of Law is also home to JURIST, the world's only university-based legal news service.[261]


The Pittsburgh metro area is served by multiple local television and radio stations. The Pittsburgh designated market area (DMA) is the 22nd-largest in the U.S. with 1,163,150 homes (1.045% of the total U.S.).[262] The major network television stations include KDKA-TV 2 (CBS), WTAE 4 (ABC), WPXI 11 (NBC), WINP-TV 16 (Ion), WPKD-TV 19 (Independent), WPNT 22 (The CW/MyNetworkTV), WPCB 40 (Cornerstone), and WPGH-TV 53 (Fox). KDKA-TV, WINP-TV, and WPCB are owned-and-operated by their respective networks.

WQED 13 is the local PBS member station in Pittsburgh. It was established on April 1, 1954, and was the first community-sponsored television station and the fifth public station in the United States. The station has produced much original content for PBS, including Mr. Rogers' Neighborhood, several National Geographic specials, and Where in the World is Carmen Sandiego?[263]


A wide variety of radio stations serve the Pittsburgh market. The first was KDKA 1020 AM, also the world's first commercially licensed radio station, which began airing on November 2, 1920.[264] Other stations include KQV 1410 AM (news), WBGG 970 AM (sports), KDKA-FM 93.7 FM (sports), WKST-FM 96.1 FM (Top 40), WAMO-AM 660 AM and 107.3 FM (urban contemporary) WBZZ 100.7 FM (adult contemporary), WDVE 102.5 FM (album rock), WPGB 104.7 FM (Country), and WXDX 105.9 FM (modern rock). There are also three public radio stations in the area: WESA 90.5 FM (National Public Radio affiliate), WQED 89.3 FM (classical), and WYEP 91.3 FM (adult alternative). Three non-commercial stations are run by Carnegie Mellon University (WRCT 88.3 FM), the University of Pittsburgh (WPTS 92.1 FM), and Point Park University (WPPJ 670 AM).


Pittsburgh's 116-year-old film industry accelerated after the 2006 passage of the Pennsylvania Film Production Tax Credit.[265] According to the Pittsburgh Film Office, over 124 major motion pictures have been filmed, in whole or in part, in Pittsburgh, including The Mothman Prophecies, Wonder Boys,[266] Dogma,[266] Hoffa, The Silence of the Lambs,[266] Sudden Death, Flashdance,[266] Southpaw, Striking Distance, Mrs. Soffel, Jack Reacher, Inspector Gadget, The Next Three Days, The Perks of Being a Wallflower,[266] Zack and Miri Make a Porno, and Fences.[266][267] Pittsburgh became "Gotham City" in 2011 during filming of The Dark Knight Rises.[161] George A. Romero shot nearly all his films in the area, including his Living Dead series.[268]

Film production in Pittsburgh has notably impacted the region's economy and job creation, largely due to the 25% tax credit incentive established in 2007.[269][270] The Pittsburgh Film Office states that the film and television industry provides employment to over 10,000 people and pays over $500 million in wages in southwestern Pennsylvania.[271] Furthermore, the industry supports over 345,000 local businesses and contributes over $41 billion to them.[270]

From 2017 to 2023, Pittsburgh has welcomed a series of major film and television productions like Fences, Mindhunter, Ma Rainey's Black Bottom, Sweet Girl, and I'm Your Woman.[272] These productions have significantly contributed to the local economy by hiring local personnel, leasing local facilities and equipment, purchasing local goods and services, and enhancing local tourism and visibility.[273]

In addition to a thriving film industry, Pittsburgh is home to several film festivals, film schools, and organizations that encourage and promote independent and diverse filmmakers. Notable film festivals include the Three Rivers Film Festival, the Pittsburgh Shorts Film Festival, the JFilm Festival, the ReelAbilities Film Festival, and the Black Bottom Film Festival.[274][275] The local film schools include Pittsburgh Filmmakers, Point Park University - Cinema & Digital Arts, and University of Pittsburgh - Film Studies.[276][277]

Moreover, Pittsburgh is developing a robust film studio infrastructure, with several sound stages and production facilities available for hire. Prominent film studios in Pittsburgh are 3 Rivers Studios, Cinelease Studios, Post Script Films, Deeplocal, and The Videohouse.[278][279][280][281][282] There are also plans in the pipeline to develop a new film studio complex at the Carrie Furnace site in Rankin and Swissvale.[283]


The city is served by Duquesne Light, one of the original 1912 power companies founded by George Westinghouse.[284] Water service is provided by the Pittsburgh Water and Sewer Authority[285] and Pennsylvania American Water. Natural gas is provided by Equitable Gas, Columbia Gas, Dominion Resources, Direct Energy, and Novec.[286]

Health care[edit]

UPMC's flagship, UPMC Presbyterian
Allegheny General Hospital, the flagship of the Allegheny Health Network

The two largest area health care providers are the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (UPMC) (since 1893) and Allegheny Health Network (since 1882). Both hospitals annually rank as among the best overall in the United States, with UPMC ranked among U.S. News & World Report's "Honor Roll" every year since 2000.[citation needed]

The first military hospital in U.S. history and the first west of the Atlantic Plain—General Edward Hand Hospital—served the area from 1777 to 1845.[287] Since 1847, Pittsburgh has hosted the world's first "Mercy Hospital".[288] This was followed by West Penn hospital in 1848, Passavant Hospital in 1849,[28] the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine in 1883, Children's Hospital in 1887, and Magee Womens Hospital in 1911. In 1954, Allegheny General (AGH) was among the first to administer Cobalt therapy.[289]

In 1980, UPMC announced a $250 million ($1.05 billion today) expansion and also hired transplant pioneer Thomas Starzl.[290] In 1984, Allegheny General surgeons pioneered modern brain surgery. Starzl arranged the 1985 liver transplant of 5-year-old Amie Garrison as a UPMC surgery team flew to Baylor University, starting its transplant program.[291] Also in 1985, UPMC surgeons Drs. Griffith, Hardesty, and Trento revealed a new device after a heart-lung transplant. In 1986, UPMC announced a $230 million ($639 million today) modernization. In 1996, UPMC's planned Sicily ISMETT branch was approved by the Italian government as transplant surgeons to supervise and deliver the world's third (both earlier ones done at UPMC)--and first public—cross species marrow transplant at University of California, San Francisco.[292] UPMC's Thomas Detre founded the International Society for Bipolar Disorders at a world medical conference in Pittsburgh in 1999.[293]

The $80 million ($142 million today) UPMC Sports Performance Complex for the Pittsburgh Panthers & Pittsburgh Steelers opened in 2000. In 2002, AGH opened its $30 million ($51.6 million today), 5-floor, 100,000 sq. ft., cancer center. The $130 million ($220 million today) 350,000 sq. ft. Hillman Cancer Center opened in 2003 as UPMC entered into an 8-year, $420 million ($678 million today) agreement with IBM to upgrade medical technologies & health information systems.[citation needed]

In 2009, the $600 million ($849 million today) UPMC Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh opened. The campus was featured in world news in 2012 for several unique approaches to patient care.[294] UPMC officially adopted in Erie, Pennsylvania's Hamot Medical Center in 2010. The Pittsburgh Penguins announced a state of the art training facility with UPMC in 2012.[295] UPMC announced in 2013 it had partnered with Nazarbayev University to help found its medical school.[296]

Health discoveries[edit]

While he was a professor at the University of Pittsburgh, American virologist Jonas Salk developed one of the first successful polio vaccines, which came into use in 1955.

UPMC has pioneered several world firsts including the first known cystic fibrosis heart-lung transplant (1983), the world's first simultaneous liver and heart transplant operation on a child (6-year-old Stormie Jones in 1984), the youngest heart-lung transplant (9 years old in 1985), the world's first heart-liver-kidney transplant (1989), the world's first heart-liver transplant on an infant (1997),[297] the first pediatric heart-double lung-liver transplant (1998), the nation's first double hand transplant (2009), and the first total forearm and hand transplant (2010), as well as the state's first heart transplant (1968).[298][299]

The Lancet published a 2012 UPMC study of two 9-year quadriplegics being able to move a robotic arm by thought, to pick up objects, shake hands, and even eat. Wiring the brain around spine damage to restore arm and leg muscle function was successful using robotic arms controlled via an embedded computer to translate signals near a small group of neurons with 200 needles.[300]


Aerial view of Pittsburgh's numerous bridges

Pittsburgh is a city of bridges. With 446,[301] it has three bridges more than Venice, Italy, which has historically held the title "City of Bridges."[302] Around 40 bridges cross the three rivers near the city. The Smithfield Street Bridge was the world's first lenticular truss bridge. The city's Three Sisters Bridges offer a picturesque view of the city from the North. The south-western "entrance" to Downtown for travelers coming in from Interstate 79 and the Pittsburgh International Airport is through the Fort Pitt Tunnel and over the Fort Pitt Bridge. The Fort Duquesne Bridge carrying Interstate 279 is the main gateway from Downtown to both PNC Park, Acrisure Stadium and the Rivers Casino. The Panhandle Bridge carries Pittsburgh Regional Transit's Blue/Red/Silver subway lines across the Monongahela River. The renovated J&L Steel Company bridge has been a key traffic/running-biking trail conduit connecting the Southside Works and Pittsburgh Technology Center. Over 2,000 bridges span the landscape of Allegheny County.[303]

Public transportation statistics[edit]

Pittsburgh is served by Pittsburgh Regional Transit, the 26th-largest transit agency in the country prior to the COVID-19 pandemic. The average amount of time people spend commuting with public transit in Pittsburgh, for example to and from work, on a weekday is 73 min. 23% of public transit riders ride for more than 2 hours every day. The average amount of time people wait at a stop or station for public transit is 17 minutes, while 33% of riders wait for over 20 minutes on average every day. The average distance people usually ride in a single trip with public transit is 3.9 mi (6.3 km), while 11% travel for over 7.5 mi (12 km) in a single direction.[304]

Expressways and highways[edit]

Expressways Other Highways
Parkway North US 19 PA 88

Parkway East & West
US 19
PA 121
Crosstown PA 8 PA 130
Allegheny Valley Expressway PA 50 PA 380
Ohio River Boulevard PA 51 PA 837
    PA 60 PA 885

Locals refer to the interstates fanning out from downtown Pittsburgh as the "parkways." Interstate 376 is both the "parkway east" connecting to Interstate 76 (Pennsylvania Turnpike) and the "parkway west" connecting to Interstate 79, the Pittsburgh International Airport, the Ohio end of the Turnpike and Interstate 80. The "parkway north" is Interstate 279 connecting to I-79. The "crosstown" is Interstate 579 allowing access to the heart of downtown, the Liberty Tunnels and the PPG Paints Arena. The 45-mile-long and 70-mile-long expressway sections of Pennsylvania Route 28 and U.S. Route 22 also carry traffic from downtown to the northeast and western suburbs, respectively. Interstate 70, 79 and 76 (the Turnpike) roughly form a triangular-shaped "beltway" with Interstate 68 and 80 within the media market's northern and southern limits. Turnpike spurs such as the Mon–Fayette Expressway, Pennsylvania Route 576 and Route 66 also help traffic flow. The non-expressway Pittsburgh/Allegheny County Belt System serves navigation in the region.


Pittsburgh International Airport provides commercial passenger service from over 15 airlines to the Pittsburgh metropolitan area. Arnold Palmer Regional Airport also provides limited commercial passenger service and is 44 miles (71 km) east of Pittsburgh.

Other airports that have or have had scheduled commercial service include Morgantown Municipal Airport (79 miles (127 km) south of Pittsburgh), Youngstown–Warren Regional Airport (81 miles (130 km) northwest of Pittsburgh), Akron–Canton Airport (120 miles (190 km) northwest of Pittsburgh), Johnstown–Cambria County Airport (60 miles (97 km) east of Pittsburgh) and Erie International Airport (123 miles (198 km) north of Pittsburgh).

Intercity passenger rail and bus[edit]

Amtrak provides intercity rail service to Pittsburgh Union Station, via the Capitol Limited between Chicago and Washington, D.C., and the Pennsylvanian to New York City.

Megabus, Greyhound Lines, and Fullington Trailways connect Pittsburgh with distant cities by bus; Greyhound and Fullington Trailways buses stop at the Grant Street Transportation Center intercity bus terminal. Popular destinations include Philadelphia, New York City, and Washington, D.C.[305]

Until declines in passenger travel in the 1950s and 1960s, several stations served Pittsburgh: Baltimore & Ohio Station, Pittsburgh & Lake Erie Railroad Station, Wabash Pittsburgh Terminal and Pittsburgh Union Station.

Regional mass transit[edit]

Steel Plaza subway station

Pittsburgh Regional Transit, formerly known as the Port Authority of Allegheny County, is the region's mass transit system. While serving only a portion of the Pittsburgh area, the nation's 20th-largest metropolitan area, it is the 11th-largest transit agency in the United States.[306] Pittsburgh Regional Transit runs a network of intracity and intercity bus routes, the Monongahela Incline Funicular railway (more commonly known as an "incline") on Mount Washington, a light rail system that runs mostly above-ground in the suburbs and underground as a subway in the city, and one of the nation's largest busway systems.[307] Pittsburgh Regional Transit owns the Duquesne Incline but it is operated by a non-profit preservation trust,[308] but accepts Pittsburgh Regional Transit passes and charges PRT fares.

The Bus System lines are labeled by number and letter. These are the largest portion of Pittsburgh Regional Transit and serve on streets and designated busways. Buses serve most of the county, extending as far as Pittsburgh International Airport, Monroeville, McCandless, and the borders of Westmoreland County and Beaver County, Pennsylvania. Meanwhile, the light rail system (commonly known as the "T") runs along both new tracks and those refurbished from the streetcar era. The light rail runs from Acrisure Stadium to South Hills Village and Library, taking commuters through one of two routes: one which serves Castle Shannon, Mt. Lebanon, and Beechview, and the other is an express line using railways through Overbrook.

Freight rail[edit]

Union Station, built in 1903

Pittsburgh's rail industry dates to 1851 when the Pennsylvania Railroad first opened service between the Pittsburgh and Philadelphia. The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad entered the city in 1871. In 1865, Andrew Carnegie opened the Pittsburgh Locomotive and Car Works, which manufactured for the industry until 1919. Carnegie also founded the Union Railroad in 1894 for heavy freight services and it still serves the area's steel industry, while George Westinghouse's Wabtec has been a leader in rail engines and switching since 1869.

Pittsburgh is home to one of Norfolk Southern Railway's busiest freight corridors, the Pittsburgh Line, and operates up to 70 trains per day through the city. The suburban Conway Rail Yard, built in 1889, was the largest freight rail center in the world from 1956 until 1980 and is today the nation's second-largest. CSX, the other major freight railroad in the eastern U.S., also has major operations around Pittsburgh.


The Port of Pittsburgh ranks as the 20th-largest port in the United States with almost 34 million short tons of river cargo for 2011, the port ranked ninth-largest in the U.S. when measured in domestic trade.[309]

Notable people[edit]

Sister cities[edit]

Pittsburgh's sister cities are:[310]

See also[edit]

Explanatory notes[edit]

  1. ^ The neighborhoods are Arlington Heights, Bluff, Brighton Heights, Crafton Heights, Duquesne Heights, East Hills, Fineview, Highland Park, Middle Hill, Mount Oliver, Mount Washington, Northview Heights, Perry North (also known as Observatory Hill), Perry South (also known as Perry Hilltop), Polish Hill, Ridgemont, South Side Slopes, Spring Hill-City View, Squirrel Hill, Stanton Heights, Summer Hill, Troy Hill, and Upper Hill.
  2. ^ The warmest daily minimum at the current observation location, Pittsburgh Int'l, is only 77 °F (25 °C) on July 23, 2010, and July 16, 1980.[77]
  3. ^ Mean monthly maxima and minima (i.e. the highest and lowest temperature readings during an entire month or year) calculated based on data at said location from 1991 to 2020.
  4. ^ Records kept September 1874 to June 1935 at the Weather Bureau Office across the Allegheny River from downtown, at Allegheny County Airport from July 1935 to 14 September 1952, and at Pittsburgh Int'l (KPIT) since 15 September 1952. Due to its river valley and urban location as well as elevation, many of the summertime warm minima temperature records set at the WBO have not even come close to being matched at KPIT, which is at-elevation and located in the western suburbs. For more information, see Threadex
  5. ^ a b From 15% sample
  6. ^ The Pittsburgh Power of the Arena Football League and the Pittsburgh Passion of the Independent Women's Football League (IWFL) use these colors as well.
  7. ^ Pittsburgh and Sheffield are both known as Steel City for their connections with the steel industry.


  1. ^ "ArcGIS REST Services Directory". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved October 16, 2022.
  2. ^ a b "Census Population API". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved October 12, 2022.
  3. ^ "2020 Population and Housing State Data". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved November 14, 2021.
  4. ^ Deto, Ryan (August 8, 2023). "Lawrence County added to Pittsburgh metro area". TribLIVE.com. Archived from the original on August 11, 2023. Retrieved January 4, 2024. the Pittsburgh metro area now includes eight counties: Allegheny, Armstrong, Beaver, Butler, Fayette, Lawrence, Washington and Westmoreland
  5. ^ "Total Real Gross Domestic Product for Pittsburgh, PA (MSA)". fred.stlouisfed.org.
  6. ^ "Approved Markers". Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission. Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. Retrieved December 26, 2018.
  7. ^ "Pittsburgh". Encyclopaedia Britannica. November 28, 2023.
  8. ^ a b
  9. ^
  10. ^
  11. ^ a b
  12. ^ "30 Years: Pittsburgh moves from heavy industry to medicine, tech, energy". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette.
  13. ^ a b c d e Lubove, Roy (1995). Twentieth Century Pittsburgh Volume 1: Government, Business, and Environmental Change. University of Pittsburgh Press. pp. 106–141. doi:10.2307/j.ctt9qh7tx. ISBN 978-0-8229-5551-1. JSTOR j.ctt9qh7tx.
  14. ^ a b
  15. ^
  16. ^
  17. ^ a b
  18. ^ a b Ritenbaugh, Stephanie (May 14, 2014). "In The Lead: Pittsburgh leads with the most bars per person". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Archived from the original on May 15, 2014. Retrieved May 14, 2014.
  19. ^ a b c "How to Spell Pittsburgh". Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh. Archived from the original on October 1, 2008. Retrieved September 22, 2006.
  20. ^ Conradt, Stacy (October 1, 2013). "How Pittsburgh Got Its "H" Back". Mental Floss. Retrieved May 18, 2019.
  21. ^ "Pittsburgh Facts". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. January 1, 2003. Archived from the original on May 31, 2012. Retrieved October 21, 2007.
  22. ^ "An ACT to erect the town of Pittsburgh ..." Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh. Archived from the original on July 6, 2007. Retrieved September 22, 2006.
  23. ^ Stewart, George R. (1967) [1945]. Names on the Land: A Historical Account of Place-Naming in the United States (Sentry edition (3rd) ed.). Houghton Mifflin. pp. 342–344.
  24. ^ Lowry, Patricia (July 17, 2011). "Are yinz from Pittsburg?". The Next Page. Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved March 14, 2023.
  25. ^ Solon J. Buck, Elizabeth Buck, The Planting of Civilization in Western Pennsylvania, 1976, Google Boeken. Books.google.com. Retrieved on July 17, 2013.
  26. ^ Hanna, Charles A. (Charles Augustus) (December 6, 1911). "The wilderness trail; or, The ventures and adventures of the Pennsylvania traders on the Allegheny path, with some new annals of the Old West, and the records of some strong men and some bad ones". New York, London, G.P. Putnam's Sons – via Internet Archive.
  27. ^ "friendsoftheriverfront.org". Friendsoftheriverfront.org. Archived from the original on January 11, 2008. Retrieved January 5, 2009.
  28. ^ a b c d e "Historic Pittsburgh: Chronology". University of Pittsburgh Library System. Retrieved December 26, 2017.
  29. ^ "The Battle of the Monongahela". World Digital Library. 1755. Retrieved August 3, 2013.
  30. ^ a b Lorant, Stefan (1999). Pittsburgh, The Story of an American City (5th ed.). Esselmont Books, LLC. ISBN 978-0-685-92012-1.
  31. ^ "Pittsburgh". Encyclopædia. 2008. Retrieved November 6, 2008.
  32. ^ White, Phillip M. (June 2, 2011). American Indian Chronology: Chronologies of the American Mosaic. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 44.
  33. ^ Ranlet, Phillip (2000). The British, the Indians, and smallpox: what actually happened at Fort Pitt in 1763? Pennsylvania history; 67(3).
  34. ^ Dixon, David (2005). Never Come to Peace Again: Pontiac's Uprising and the Fate of the British Empire in North America. University of Oklahoma Press.
  35. ^ Chamber of Commerce of Pittsburgh (1921). Pittsburgh First, the Official Organ of The Chamber of Commerce of Pittsburgh.
  36. ^ Full text of "The county court for the district of West Augusta, Virginia, held at Augusta town, near Washington, Pennsylvania, 1776–1777". Archive.org. Retrieved on July 17, 2013.
  37. ^ "A brief history of Greene County and its courts: a struggle for possession" (PDF).
  38. ^ Christopher, Joan (December 9, 2005). "Constables for 1771". Pa-roots.org. Archived from the original on August 22, 2016. Retrieved May 24, 2016.
  39. ^ Bauder, Bob (March 10, 2019). "Pittsburgh recognized as starting point for Lewis and Clark expedition". Pittsburgh Tribune Review.
  40. ^ O'NEILL, BRIAN (May 13, 2018). "Lewis & Clark started here (sorry, St. Louis)". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette.
  41. ^ a b William J. Switala, Underground Railroad in Pennsylvania, Stackpole Books, 2001, pp. 88-89
  42. ^ Exhibit: Free at Last? Slavery in Pittsburgh in the 18th and 19th Centuries, 2009, University of Pittsburgh Library
  43. ^ "Vintage Map of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 1902 - Ted's Vintage Art". Teds Vintage Art - Buy Historic Art Prints & Wall Decor. Retrieved June 3, 2019.
  44. ^ PRECLÍK, Vratislav. Masaryk a legie (Masaryk and legions), váz. kniha, 219 str., vydalo nakladatelství Paris Karviná, Žižkova 2379 (734 01 Karviná) ve spolupráci s Masarykovým demokratickým hnutím (Masaryk democratic movement, Prague), 2019, ISBN 978-80-87173-47-3, s. 8 - 48, s. 84 - 124, s. 125 - 148, s. 157, s. 164 - 169, s. 170 - 194
  45. ^ "Race and Hispanic Origin for Selected Cities and Other Places: Earliest Census to 1990". U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on August 12, 2012. Retrieved January 3, 2012.
  46. ^ Boucher, Amber (February 18, 2003). "Kids' Corner: 1910-30 saw huge black migration". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Archived from the original on December 9, 2018. Retrieved May 18, 2019.
  47. ^ Lubove, Roy, ed. Pittsburgh. New York: New Viewpoints, 1976.
  48. ^ "The Pittsburgh Press – Google News Archive Search". Retrieved June 11, 2015.
  49. ^ "The Way We Were". November 21, 2013. Retrieved June 11, 2015.
  50. ^ Kalson, Sally (November 19, 2003). "Cartoonist draws, fires a blank with Pittsburgh joke". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette.
  51. ^ Briem, Christopher (December 30, 2011). "More Pittsburgh real estate trends". Nullspace. Retrieved January 1, 2012.
  52. ^ "US to host next G20 world meeting". BBC News. May 28, 2009. Retrieved May 22, 2010.
  53. ^ "Level III Ecoregions of Pennsylvania". U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Archived from the original on February 3, 2021. Retrieved September 29, 2013.
  54. ^ Lowry, Patricia (March 16, 2004). "Learning the steps: Pitt researcher fell for city's stairs and has published a book that maps them". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved December 4, 2021.
  55. ^ Bob Regan, Pittsburgh Steps, The Story of the City's Public Stairways, Globe Pequot, ISBN 978-1-4930-1384-5
  56. ^ "Golden Triangle (Pittsburgh)". Emporis.com. Archived from the original on November 4, 2012. Retrieved April 11, 2009.
  57. ^ "Pittsburgh Neighborhoods". City of Pittsburgh Portal. Archived from the original on June 29, 2007. Retrieved July 17, 2007.
  58. ^ "U.S. Steel Tower, Pittsburgh". Emporis Buildings. Archived from the original on April 1, 2012. Retrieved July 17, 2007.
  59. ^ "Port Authority Map of Pittsburgh, PA". Pittsburgh Port Authority. Archived from the original on February 21, 2015. Retrieved February 22, 2015.
  60. ^ Allegheny City: A History of Pittsburgh's North Side by Dan Rooney and Carol Peterson
  61. ^ O'Neill, Brian (January 8, 2014). "Rising home prices tell Pittsburgh's uplifting story". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette.
  62. ^ "American Eagle Outfitters Announces Pittsburgh's SouthSide Works Location As New Corporate Headquarters" (Press release). American Eagle Outfitters. October 21, 2005. Archived from the original on July 17, 2012. Retrieved October 21, 2007.
  63. ^ "Pittsburgh Strong: Historic Tribute to a Vibrant Jewish Community". October 29, 2018.
  64. ^ Young, Virginia Alvino (February 9, 2018). "'Smoketown' Traces The Rise And Fall Of The Other Great Black Renaissance In Pittsburgh". www.wesa.fm. Retrieved February 3, 2020.
  65. ^ Toker, Franklin (2009). "Chapter 2: Downtown: A Golden Triangle" (PDF). Pittsburgh: A New Portrait. University of Pittsburgh Press. p. 77. ISBN 978-0-8229-4371-6.
  66. ^ "Pittsburgh Art in Public Places: Downtown Walking Tour" (PDF) (Fourth ed.). Pittsburgh: Office of Public Art. 2016. p. 88. Retrieved August 20, 2023.
  67. ^ Scarpaci, Joseph L.; Patrick, Kevin Joseph (June 28, 2006). Pittsburgh and the Appalachians: cultural and natural resources in a postindustrial age. University of Pittsburgh Pre. ISBN 978-0-8229-4282-5. Retrieved February 3, 2011.
  68. ^ O'Neill, Brian (2009). The Paris of Appalachia: Pittsburgh in the Twenty-first Century. Carnegie Mellon University Press. ISBN 978-0-88748-509-1. Retrieved May 17, 2010.
  69. ^ Behe, Regis (March 3, 2006). "Steel city an unlikely haven for writers". Pittsburgh Tribune-Review. Archived from the original on December 11, 2006. Retrieved February 7, 2011.
  70. ^ Watson, Bruce (December 2, 2010). "America's 11 Best Cities for Telecommuters". DailyFinance. Archived from the original on March 25, 2012. Retrieved February 7, 2011.
  71. ^ Frankel, Todd (June 6, 2017). "In Pittsburgh, the 'Paris of the Appalachians,' they're not buying Trump's climate talk". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 18, 2019.
  72. ^ Peel, M. C.; Finlayson, B. L. & McMahon, T. A. (2007). "Updated world map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification". Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. 11 (5): 1633–1644. Bibcode:2007HESS...11.1633P. doi:10.5194/hess-11-1633-2007. ISSN 1027-5606.
  73. ^ Roberts, Michael (July 31, 2013). "Photos: Ten most chill major cities in the summertime – and where Denver places". Westword. Retrieved March 24, 2020.
  74. ^ Roehr, Daniel; Fassman-Beck, Elizabeth (March 5, 2015). Living Roofs in Integrated Urban Water Systems. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-317-53703-8.
  75. ^ "2023 USDA Plant Hardiness Zone Map". planthardiness.ars.usda.gov.
  76. ^ a b "WMO Climate Normals for PITTSBURGH/GR PITTSBURGH INTL,PA 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved July 19, 2020.
  77. ^ a b c d e f "NowData – NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved June 10, 2021.
  78. ^ "Pittsburgh Precipitation Records" (PDF). Retrieved May 15, 2020.
  79. ^ "Pittsburgh Historical Snowfall Totals 1883 to Current". NWS Pittsburgh, PA. Retrieved June 20, 2014.
  80. ^ "Cloudiness – Mean Number of Days". National Climatic Data Center. August 20, 2008. Archived from the original on February 23, 2003. Retrieved May 15, 2011.
  81. ^ "Station: Pittsburgh INTL AP, PA". U.S. Climate Normals 2020: U.S. Monthly Climate Normals (1991–2020). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved June 10, 2021.
  82. ^ "Average Percent Sunshine through 2009". National Climatic Data Center. Retrieved November 15, 2012.
  83. ^ "Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA - Monthly weather forecast and Climate data". Weather Atlas. Retrieved July 4, 2019.
  84. ^ Guay, Jessica (April 19, 2023). "American Lung Association report puts Pittsburgh area among worst for air quality - CBS Pittsburgh". www.cbsnews.com. Retrieved February 7, 2024.
  85. ^ US EPA, OAR (September 23, 2016). "Air Data - Multiyear Tile Plot". www.epa.gov. Retrieved February 7, 2024.
  86. ^ "EPA: Air Quality Trends By City 2000-2022". EPA.
  87. ^ Fitzgerald, Rich (December 27, 2023). "Rich Fitzgerald: Reflecting on 12 years of service". TribLIVE.com. Retrieved February 7, 2024.
  88. ^ "Air Quality in Pittsburgh Metro Area Worsened for both Ozone and Particle Pollution, Finds 2019 'State of the Air' Report". American Lung Association (Press release). April 24, 2019.
  89. ^ American Lung Association State of the Air 2013 – Most Polluted Cities Archived January 7, 2015, at the Wayback Machine. Stateoftheair.org. Retrieved on July 17, 2013.
  90. ^ "Report: Pittsburgh's air quality improving, but still among most polluted", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Post-gazette.com (April 24, 2013). Retrieved on July 17, 2013.
  91. ^ Heinrichs, Allison. "Region passes L.A. on pollution list". Pittsburgh Tribune-Review. Archived from the original on May 1, 2008. Retrieved August 10, 2008.
  92. ^ "8 Northeast states sue over pollution". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved June 11, 2015.
  93. ^ "Allegheny County and Pittsburgh-New Castle, PA". State of the Air 2011. American Lung Association. 2012. Archived from the original on August 25, 2012. Retrieved May 28, 2012.
  94. ^ "Pittsburgh Air Quality No Longer Worst in U.S." WPXI. April 28, 2010. Archived from the original on September 18, 2012. Retrieved May 7, 2011.
  95. ^ Seltenrich, Nate (February 18, 2013). "Tree on the Corner May Be Worth More Than Your House". Next City. Retrieved May 18, 2019.
  96. ^ a b c d Frazier, Reid (November 11, 2020). "Study: Pittsburgh kids near polluting sites have higher asthma rates". StateImpact Pennsylvania. Retrieved December 16, 2023.
  97. ^ Hurdle, Jon. "For Low-Income Pittsburgh, Clean Air Remains an Elusive Goal". Yale E360. Retrieved December 16, 2023.
  98. ^ a b "Women For a Healthy Environment". Women For a Healthy Environment. Retrieved December 16, 2023.
  99. ^ Biggs, John (June 22, 2016). "Smell PGH lets you report weird smells in Pittsburgh". Tech Crunch. Retrieved May 18, 2019.
  100. ^ Lancianese, Adelina (March 28, 2018). "New Report Finds Industrial Pollution Flowing Illegally into PA Rivers". WESA (FM). Retrieved May 19, 2019.
  101. ^ "Understanding Sewer Collection System". 3 Rivers Wet Weather. Retrieved May 19, 2019.
  102. ^ Smeltz, Adam (January 22, 2017). "Peduto forges ahead to restructure PWSA leadership". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved April 24, 2018.
  103. ^ "About the Wet Weather Issue". 3riverswetweather.org. Archived from the original on February 2, 2019. Retrieved April 16, 2018.
  104. ^ "Raw sewage flows into Pittsburgh's rivers. Is there an environmentally friendly fix that won't break the bank?". PublicSource. December 6, 2017. Retrieved April 24, 2018.
  105. ^ Krauss, M. J. (January 30, 2018). "ALCOSAN More Than Doubling Wastewater Treatment Plant To Diminish Sewage Overflows". Archived from the original on September 26, 2018. Retrieved April 19, 2018.
  106. ^ Hopey, Don (June 7, 2017). "EPA, Alcosan near agreement on sewage-control plan". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved April 16, 2018.
  107. ^ "Clean Water Plan: Plan Documents". Alcosan. Retrieved July 8, 2024.
  108. ^ a b Lindstrom, Natasha (January 18, 2018). "Gov. Wolf to sign bill placing Pittsburgh's water system under PUC oversight". triblive.com. Retrieved April 16, 2018.
  109. ^ Smeltz, Adam (February 3, 2017). "City to turn to advisory panel to study water, sewer issues". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved April 16, 2018.
  110. ^ Morrison, Oliver (October 18, 2021). "The untold story of Pittsburgh's water crisis and a future of $300 water bills". PublicSource. Retrieved December 16, 2023.
  111. ^ a b c Morrison, Oliver (October 19, 2021). "The main cause of Pittsburgh's lead crisis wasn't corporate management". PublicSource. Retrieved December 16, 2023.
  112. ^ a b c Lurie, Julia. "Pittsburgh's Drinking Water Was Clean Until This Company Came Along". Wired. ISSN 1059-1028. Retrieved December 16, 2023.
  113. ^ a b c Glenza, Jessica (July 25, 2017). "Pittsburgh officials may have 'deflected' attention from lead-contaminated water". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved December 16, 2023.
  114. ^ a b c "PWSA Continues to Provide Protection for Those with Lead Service Lines". www.pgh2o.com. January 24, 2023. Retrieved December 16, 2023.
  115. ^ a b Marusic, Kristina. "Lead detected in 80% of Allegheny County, Pa., water systems: Report - EHN". www.ehn.org. Retrieved December 16, 2023.
  116. ^ Center, Thomas Merton (February 9, 2017). "The Racist, Classist Origins of Pittsburgh's Water Crisis". Retrieved December 16, 2023.
  117. ^ "Census of Population and Housing". Census.gov. Retrieved June 4, 2016.
  118. ^ "U.S. Census Bureau QuickFacts: Pittsburgh city, Pennsylvania". Census.gov. Retrieved May 12, 2022.
  119. ^ a b "2020 Census". April 1, 2020.
  120. ^ a b "Pittsburgh (city), Pennsylvania". State & County QuickFacts. U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on May 8, 2012. Retrieved May 11, 2012.
  121. ^ a b c d "Pennsylvania – Race and Hispanic Origin for Selected Cities and Other Places: Earliest Census to 1990". U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on August 12, 2012. Retrieved May 11, 2012.
  122. ^ "1980 census of population. Characteristics of the population. General Social and Economic Characteristic" (PDF).
  123. ^ "Pennsylvania: 1990, Part 1" (PDF).
  124. ^ "P004: Hispanic or Latino, and Not Hispanic or Latino by Race – 2000: DEC Summary File 1 – Pittsburgh city, Pennsylvania". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 26, 2024.
  125. ^ "P2: Hispanic or Latino, and Not Hispanic or Latino by Race – 2010: DEC Redistricting Data (PL 94-171) – Pittsburgh city, Pennsylvania". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 26, 2024.
  126. ^ "P2: Hispanic or Latino, and Not Hispanic or Latino by Race – 2020: DEC Redistricting Data (PL 94-171) – Pittsburgh city, Pennsylvania". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 26, 2024.
  127. ^ "Statistics". www.niaf.org. March 29, 2009. Archived from the original on January 7, 2010. Retrieved April 12, 2009.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  128. ^ Wolowyna, Oleh (January 9, 2000). "Demographic, social, cultural characteristics of persons of Ukrainian ancestry in Chicago". The Ukrainian Weekly No. 2, Vol. LXVIII. Archived from the original on September 6, 2008. Retrieved May 16, 2008. (based on 1990 US Census)
  129. ^ LeMay, Michael C. (December 10, 2012). Transforming America: Perspectives on U.S. Immigration [3 volumes]: Perspectives on U.S. Immigration. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 9780313396441.
  130. ^ a b "Pittsburgh, PA, Metropolitan Statistical Area". Metro-Area Membership Report. The Association of Religion Data Archives. Archived from the original on April 12, 2018. Retrieved August 17, 2013.
  131. ^ "The 2017 Greater Pittsburgh Jewish Community Study" (PDF). Brandeis University. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 21, 2019. Retrieved December 22, 2019.
  132. ^ Melton, J. Gordon (October 15, 2023). "Jehovah's Witness | History, Beliefs & Facts". Britannica. Retrieved October 18, 2023.
  133. ^ "Religious Landscape Study". Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project. Retrieved October 18, 2023.
  134. ^ a b "Religious Landscape Study". Pew Research Center. November 3, 2020.
  135. ^ "Geography Profile: Pittsburg city, PA". data.census.gov. Retrieved February 17, 2022.
  136. ^ "Pittsburgh-Area's Wealthiest Towns: Sewickley Makes the List". Sewickley, PA Patch. January 23, 2013. Retrieved December 1, 2022.
  137. ^ "The Demographic Statistical Atlas of the United States - Statistical Atlas". statisticalatlas.com. Retrieved December 1, 2022.
  138. ^ "U.S. Census Bureau: American Community Survey (ACS): Percent of People 25 Years and Over Who Have Completed a Bachelor's Degree: Population 25 years and over (Place level)". Census.gov. August 22, 2007. Archived from the original on December 12, 2003. Retrieved April 11, 2009.
  139. ^ "U.S. Census Bureau: American Community Survey (ACS): Percent of People 25 Years and Over Who Have Completed High School (Including Equivalency): Population 25 years and over (Place level)". Census.gov. August 22, 2007. Archived from the original on September 8, 2003. Retrieved April 11, 2009.
  140. ^ Logan, John R.; Stults, Brian J. (March 24, 2011). The Persistence of Segregation in the Metropolis: New Findings from the 2010 Census (PDF) (Report). Project US2010. Retrieved July 24, 2012.
  141. ^ "The Demographic Statistical Atlas of the United States - Statistical Atlas". statisticalatlas.com. Retrieved December 1, 2022.
  142. ^ "New Americans in Pittsburgh" (PDF). American Immigration Council. Pittsburgh. September 2023. p. 2. Retrieved December 22, 2023.
  143. ^ a b Klein, Emily (December 27, 2017). "The Hill District, a community holding on through displacement and development". PublicSource. Retrieved December 16, 2023.
  144. ^ a b Gillette, Howard (2022). The Paradox of Urban Revitalization: Progress and Poverty in America's Postindustrial Era. University of Pennsylvania Press. pp. 191–214. ISBN 978-0-8122-5371-9. JSTOR j.ctv1rdtwq2.
  145. ^ "East Liberty will lose more affordable housing, but seller aims to fight long-term displacement". 90.5 WESA. April 5, 2022. Retrieved December 16, 2023.
  146. ^ Davis, Jeremiah (January 8, 2018). "What's left when the gentrifiers come marching in". PublicSource. Retrieved December 16, 2023.
  147. ^ About Our Region Pittsburgh Technology Council Archived March 27, 2014, at the Wayback Machine
  148. ^ Bobkoff, Dan (December 16, 2010). "From Steel To Tech, Pittsburgh Transforms Itself". NPR. Retrieved December 21, 2010.
  149. ^ Chetty, Raj; Hendren, Nathaniel; Kline, Patrick; Saez, Emmanuel (January 2014). "Where Is The Land of Opportunity? The Geography of Intergenerational Mobility in the United States". NBER Working Paper Series. Working Paper Series (Working Paper 19843). National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper: 67. doi:10.3386/w19843. Archived (PDF) from the original on February 2, 2014. Retrieved January 27, 2014.
  150. ^ Scully, M.S. (January 24, 2014). "Pittsburgh #2: Top 10 cities to achieve the American Dream". Pittsburgh Tribune-Review. Archived from the original on January 27, 2014. Retrieved January 27, 2014.
  151. ^ "Bakery Square at Eastside, Pittsburgh :: Commercial, Residential Hotel Development". Walnut Capital and RCG Longview Fund. Retrieved December 8, 2010.
  152. ^ Moore, Andrew (December 8, 2010). "It's a beautiful day in this neighborhood: growing in Pittsburgh". The Official Google Blog. Retrieved December 8, 2010.
  153. ^ Erdley, Debra. "Irish view Pittsburgh's comeback as their pot of gold". Pittsburgh Tribune-Review. Archived from the original on June 4, 2011. Retrieved June 3, 2011.
  154. ^ Foster, Lionel (February 21, 2013). "What Steel City can teach Charm City". The Baltimore Sun. Retrieved July 17, 2013.
  155. ^ Miller, Harold D. (December 5, 2010). "Pittsburgh's Future: Thank Seniors for Helping Us Get Through the Recession". Pittsburgh's Future: Making Southwestern Pennsylvania One of the World's Greatest Regions. Retrieved December 8, 2010.
  156. ^ "Top Private Employers". Pittsburgh Regional Alliance. Archived from the original on October 10, 2006. Retrieved April 14, 2007.
  157. ^ Hronec, Jordan (May 23, 2022). "2022 Fortune 500: Pittsburgh rankings see new top performer". Pittsburgh Business Times. Retrieved June 11, 2022.
  158. ^ "2022 Fortune 500: Pittsburgh rankings see new top performer". WPXI. May 24, 2022. Retrieved June 11, 2022.
  159. ^ Chatsko, Maxx. (February 6, 2013) Will the Dreamliner Ground Pittsburgh's Economy? (AA, ATI, BA, PPG, RTI). Fool.com. Retrieved on July 17, 2013.
  160. ^ Administrator. "Arts & Economic Prosperity III – Greater Pittsburgh Arts Council". Archived from the original on September 24, 2015. Retrieved June 11, 2015.
  161. ^ a b c
  162. ^ Riely, Kaitlynn. "Invention convention INPEX gathers in Pittsburgh". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved January 10, 2014.
  163. ^ "The Metropolis Guide to the Best Cities to Live, Work, and Play in (2015)". Metropolis. July 28, 2015. Retrieved May 18, 2019.
  164. ^ "Pittsburgh Named One of the Most Livable Cities in the World". KDKA-TV. July 31, 2015. Retrieved May 18, 2019.
  165. ^ "A Summary of the Liveability Ranking and Overview—August 2014". The Economist. August 25, 2014. Retrieved May 18, 2019.
  166. ^ "These are the top 10 most liveable cities in America". CNBC. August 17, 2018. Retrieved May 14, 2021.
  167. ^ "Pittsburgh: The Home of Zombies". Visit Pittsburgh. October 6, 2022. Retrieved March 1, 2023.
  168. ^ "Pittsburgh Zombies". Positively Pittsburgh. February 11, 2015. Retrieved March 1, 2023.
  169. ^ "'Furries' leave visible prints Downtown and in Pittsburgh's coffers – Pittsburgh Post-Gazette". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette.
  170. ^ "The Wax Works: Mary Lou Williams Pens Song About Pittsburgh". The Pittsburgh Courier. October 22, 1966. p. 13. Retrieved March 8, 2024.
  171. ^ "Mary Lou Williams and Group – Pittsburgh: Tracklist; Credits". Discogs.
  172. ^ Wiz Khalifa "Black & Yellow" Hits Number One. Rap Radar (February 10, 2011). Retrieved on January 14, 2012.
  173. ^ We Found Love Rihanna Featuring Calvin Harris. Billboard.com
  174. ^ "Mr. Smalls". Archived from the original on August 6, 2020. Retrieved November 13, 2019.
  175. ^ a b "Here's An Infographic of the Most Metal Cities in America". MetalSucks. June 16, 2016. Retrieved September 29, 2021.
  176. ^ Locklin, Kristy (July 9, 2019). "Black Forge Coffee House opening McKees Rocks location next week". NEXTpittsburgh. Retrieved September 29, 2021.
  177. ^ a b Matos, Michaelangelo (July 11, 2011). "How The Internet Transformed The American Rave Scene". The Record. NPR. Retrieved March 10, 2021.
  178. ^ a b c Kelly, Justin (2018). "Hot Mass: Rebuilding Pittsburgh's Dance Music Culture". Attack Magazine. Retrieved March 10, 2021.
  179. ^ Pro, Johnna A. (September 26, 2000). "Police out to crash drug-laced 'rave' parties". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Archived from the original on May 9, 2021. Retrieved March 10, 2021.
  180. ^ Barnes, Tom (January 9, 2001). "S. Siders raving over rink's late parties: Sleep-starved residents giving Ricciardi an earful". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Archived from the original on May 9, 2021. Retrieved March 10, 2021.
  181. ^ Silver, Jonathan D.; Barnes, Tom (January 3, 2001). "Word of rave performance resulted in added police". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Archived from the original on May 9, 2021. Retrieved March 10, 2021.
  182. ^ Carter, Kelly (October 3, 2000). "Nonprogressive portrayals - Letters to the editor". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Archived from the original on May 9, 2021. Retrieved March 10, 2021.
  183. ^ "How America's Standout Party Hot Mass Is Changing Pittsburgh". Electronic Beats. February 3, 2016. Retrieved March 10, 2021.
  184. ^ Stolman, Elissa (April 16, 2014). "The Secret Techno Sex Parties of Pittsburgh". Thump. Vice Media. Retrieved March 10, 2021.
  185. ^ Kim, Michelle (October 14, 2020). "How Yaeji Found Her Voice". Mixmag Asia. Retrieved March 10, 2021.
  186. ^ Posner, Nina (October 1, 2020). "Yaeji: All Together Now". Crack Magazine. Retrieved March 10, 2021.
  187. ^ a b "August Wilson House". augustwilsonhouse.org. Retrieved December 16, 2023.
  188. ^ "Rachel Louise Carson". Pennsylvania Center for the Book. Fall 2003. Archived from the original on June 11, 2010. Retrieved January 14, 2012.
  189. ^ "August Wilson | Biography, Plays, Movies, Ma Rainey, & Facts". Britannica. Retrieved January 17, 2023.
  190. ^ Sherman, Jerome L. (December 16, 2006). "Presidential biographer gets presidential medal". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved December 4, 2021.
  191. ^ Hayes, John (October 11, 1998). "The write stuff". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Archived from the original on January 18, 2022. Retrieved December 4, 2021.
  192. ^ "Welcome to Chiller Theater Memories!". Chillertheatermemories.com. Retrieved January 5, 2009.
  193. ^ "SAVINI.COM: The Official Tom Savini Home page". Savini.com. Retrieved January 5, 2009.
  194. ^ "PARSEC: Pittsburgh's Premiere Science Fiction Organization". Parsec-sff.org. November 5, 2006. Archived from the original on May 12, 2008. Retrieved January 5, 2009.
  195. ^ "Revenant: The Premiere Zombie Magazine – Features". Revenantmagazine.com. Archived from the original on May 12, 2008. Retrieved January 5, 2009.
  196. ^ "Write or Die: A Science Fiction & Fantasy Writing Group". Word.pghfree.net. January 1, 2010. Retrieved May 24, 2016.
  197. ^ "Pittsburgh South Writes Homepage". Interzone.com. Archived from the original on October 25, 2007. Retrieved January 5, 2009.
  198. ^ "Pittsburgh Worldwrights". Cs.cmu.edu. May 27, 2005. Archived from the original on April 20, 1999. Retrieved January 5, 2009.
  199. ^ Rodger Turner, Webmaster. "The SF Site: A Conversation With Mary Soon Lee". Sfsite.com. Retrieved January 5, 2009.
  200. ^ "Pittsburgh". The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2nd ed.). Oxford University Press. 2012. ISBN 978-0199734962.
  201. ^ Phillips, Jenn; Oberlin, Loriann Hoff; Pattak, Evan M.; Margittai, Michele (May 2008). Insiders' Guide to Pittsburgh (4th ed.). Globe Pequot Press. p. 4. ISBN 978-0762747962.
  202. ^ "Pittsburgh named 2019 Food City by hospitality consulting firm". www.bizjournals.com. Retrieved August 21, 2019.
  203. ^ "Here's how Pittsburgh has earned the title of 2019 Food City of the Year". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved February 24, 2019.
  204. ^ CBS Pittsburgh (March 31, 2023). "Picklesburgh voted America's best specialty food festival". CBS News. Retrieved November 1, 2023.
  205. ^ "History". pittsburghspeech.pitt.edu. Retrieved October 19, 2018.
  206. ^ Sultan, Tim (March 17, 2006). "It's Not the Sights, It's the Sounds". The New York Times. Archived from the original on January 9, 2007. Retrieved August 14, 2007.
  207. ^ "Overview". Pittsburgh Speech and Society. Retrieved August 14, 2007.
  208. ^ Visit Pittsburgh, Frick Park, Pittsburgh, PA, 2015 version. Accessed November 16, 2015.
  209. ^ a b c Puko, Tim (May 17, 2010). "Huge flood-control cost, planning mess put Southwestern Pennsylvania in bind – Pittsburgh Tribune-Review". Pittsburgh Tribune-Review. Archived from the original on May 20, 2010. Retrieved December 4, 2021.
  210. ^ Stephenson, Philip A. (September 15, 2005). "Damage repaired, trauma remains after 2004 floods". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved December 4, 2021.
  211. ^ Anderson, R.M.; Beer, K.M.; Buckwalter, T.F.; Clark, M.E.; McAuley, S.D.; Sams, J.I. III; Williams, D.R. (2000). "Water Quality in the Allegheny and Monongahela River Basins Pennsylvania, West Virginia, New York, and Maryland, 1996–98". U.S. Geological Survey Circular (1202).
  212. ^ Barcousky, Len (March 17, 2011). "The historic St. Patrick's Day Flood of 1936: two eyewitness accounts". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved March 17, 2011.
  213. ^ Hille, Bob (October 6, 2009). "Black & Gold mettle: Pittsburgh Is Best Sports City". Sporting News. Archived from the original on December 20, 2011. Retrieved July 12, 2010.
  214. ^ "Pittsburgh Among Top Baseball Cities". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, February 19, 2013. Retrieved on July 17, 2013.
  215. ^ "Why Pittsburgh's teams wear black and gold". MLB.com. Retrieved December 13, 2022.
  216. ^ Wilson, Aaron (November 21, 2012). "Ray Rice said he wasn't being disrespectful to Steelers' Terrible Towel, apologizes". The Baltimore Sun. Retrieved June 11, 2015.
  217. ^ "TRAIL INFO - About the Trail". GREAT ALLEGHENY PASSAGE. Retrieved July 16, 2019.
  218. ^ "Best Pittsburgh Mountain Biking Spots". August 20, 2016. Retrieved July 16, 2019.
  219. ^ "Hartwood Acres". Trail Pittsburgh. Retrieved July 16, 2019.
  220. ^ Perrotto, John (August 14, 2006). "Baseball Plog". Beaver County Times. Archived from the original on November 12, 2007. Retrieved August 14, 2006.
  221. ^ "1997 Pennant Races". Archived from the original on February 11, 2015. Retrieved June 11, 2015.
  222. ^ "Pittsburgh Steelers Owner: Art Rooney net worth, political donations - Sports Illustrated". www.si.com. July 17, 2018. Retrieved October 9, 2020.
  223. ^ "ESPN ranks Steelers fans No. 1". Pittsburgh Tribune-Review. August 30, 2008. Archived from the original on October 8, 2008. Retrieved August 30, 2008.
  224. ^ Starrett, Agnes Lynch (1937). Through one hundred and fifty years: the University of Pittsburgh. University of Pittsburgh Press. p. 198.
  225. ^ "Pitt Panthers College Football History, Stats, Records". College Football at Sports-Reference.com. Retrieved November 21, 2023.
  226. ^ Rossi, Rob (August 20, 2010). "Pittsburgh Power unveiled as arena football expansion team". Pittsburgh Tribune-Review. Archived from the original on August 23, 2010. Retrieved August 20, 2010.
  227. ^ "Mellon Arena roof may open for final show". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette.
  228. ^ Grant, Tim (November 30, 2015). "Pittsburgh loves ice skating, but how many rinks might prove too many?". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved February 6, 2016.
  229. ^ "Association Rankings - MYHockey". myhockeyrankings.com. Retrieved June 14, 2022.
  230. ^ Regular Season Records: Field Goals Archived July 24, 2013, at the Wayback Machine. NBA.com. Retrieved on July 17, 2013.
  231. ^ See page 67 of the NCAA Men's College Basketball Records (PDF file)
  232. ^ "NBA Number 1 Draft Picks Since 1947". www.landofbasketball.com. Retrieved January 10, 2021.
  233. ^ NBA's Color Line Is Broken Archived March 20, 2015, at the Wayback Machine. NBA.com. Retrieved on July 17, 2013.
  234. ^ Gentille, Sean. "Inside 'the court flip' that fixed Pitt's bizarre problem". The New York Times. Retrieved November 21, 2023.
  235. ^ "Pittsburgh Panthers Men's Basketball Index". College Basketball at Sports-Reference.com. Retrieved November 21, 2023.
  236. ^ Horrow, Richard B.; Burton, Rick (2020). The sport business handbook : insights from 100+ leaders who shaped 50 years of the industry. Human Kinetics. ISBN 978-1-4925-4310-7. OCLC 1102593197.
  237. ^ "Foxburg Country Club, the oldest course in continuous use in the United States - WPGA". wpga.org. Retrieved June 28, 2024.
  238. ^ Shedloski, Dave. "What He Means To Me". Golf Digest. ZergNet. Retrieved March 8, 2018.
  239. ^ Madden, Mark (February 27, 2021). "Mark Madden's Hot Take: Stars like 'Jumping Johnny' DeFazio made 'Studio Wrestling' must-see TV". TribLIVE.com. Retrieved March 21, 2024.
  240. ^ Madden, Mark (July 12, 1990). "Studio wrestling: Pittsburgh area wrestlers recall TV show's glory days". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette.
  241. ^ "History". Republican Party of Pennsylvania. Retrieved April 19, 2022.
  242. ^ "Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania – Transatlantic Cities Network". The German Marshall Fund of the United States. Archived from the original on June 19, 2010. Retrieved May 6, 2009.
  243. ^ Schocker, Laura (December 18, 2013). "What Pittsburgh Can Teach The Rest of the Country About Living Well". The Huffington Post.
  244. ^ "Caution Against Ranking". FBI. Retrieved August 8, 2012.
  245. ^ "A Word About UCR Data". FBI. Archived from the original on September 23, 2010. Retrieved October 12, 2010.
  246. ^ "Pittsburgh homicides hit lowest in 20 years". Pittsburgh Tribune Live. January 2020.
  247. ^ a b Byrdsong, T. Rashad; et al. (2015). "A Ground-Up Model for Gun Violence Reduction: A Community-Based Public Health Approach" (PDF). Journal of Evidence-Informed Social Work. 13 (1): 76–86. doi:10.1080/15433714.2014.997090. ISSN 2376-1407. PMID 26151769. S2CID 205889350.
  248. ^ a b Benzing, Jeffrey (January 16, 2016). "Pittsburgh's repeating tragedy of unsolved black homicides". PublicSource. Retrieved December 16, 2023.
  249. ^ Koscinski, Kiley (April 27, 2023). "Pittsburgh City Council preliminarily approves funding to support new police contract". 90.5 WESA. Retrieved December 16, 2023.
  250. ^ Felton, Julia (December 13, 2023). "Pittsburgh to use money from anti-violence trust fund on parks, recreation". TribLIVE.com. Retrieved December 16, 2023.
  251. ^ CampaignZero. "Police Scorecard: Pittsburgh, PA". Police Scorecard: Pittsburgh, PA. Retrieved December 16, 2023.
  252. ^ a b "National Universities: Top Schools". U.S. News & World Report. 2013. Retrieved January 2, 2014.
  253. ^ Hart, Peter (August 30, 2007). "University Times". Archived from the original on January 11, 2009. Retrieved May 23, 2008.
  254. ^ Leiter, Brian (November 10, 2006). "Welcome to the 2006–2008 Philosophical Gourmet Report". Retrieved April 29, 2008.
  255. ^ Gill, Cindy (Fall 2007). "The Company We Keep". Pitt. University of Pittsburgh. Archived from the original on January 14, 2008. Retrieved April 29, 2008.
  256. ^ Hart, Peter (April 5, 2007). "U.S. News ranks Pitt grad schools". University Times. Archived from the original on January 11, 2009. Retrieved March 24, 2008.
  257. ^ "Chatham University prepares for its first coed undergraduate class". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette.
  258. ^ "Pittsburgh Public Schools to pay new teachers more, scrap performance-based pay | TribLIVE.com". archive.triblive.com. Retrieved April 26, 2019.
  259. ^ "Nation's Largest Libraries". LibrarySpot. Archived from the original on May 29, 2007. Retrieved October 21, 2007.
  260. ^ Widdersheim, Michael M. Circulation of Power: The Development of Public Library Infrastructure in Greater Pittsburgh, 1924-2016. Berlin: De Gruyter Saur, 2023.
  261. ^ "JURIST | School of Law | University of Pittsburgh". www.law.pitt.edu. Retrieved April 19, 2022.
  262. ^ Holmes, Gary. Nielsen Reports 1.1% increase in U.S. Television Households for the 2006–2007 Season Archived January 20, 2017, at the Wayback Machine. Nielsen Media Research. August 23, 2006. Retrieved on January 26, 2008.
  263. ^ Hoover, Bob; Kalson, Sally; Vancher, Barbara (March 28, 2004). "WQED at 50: Born in television's Golden Age, Pittsburgh's public broadcasting station pioneered educational programming". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved December 4, 2021.
  264. ^ "KDKA, First Commercial Radio Station". ETHW. Archived from the original on February 11, 2015. Retrieved December 4, 2021.
  265. ^ McNulty, Timothy (March 2, 2008). "Film workers here straining to keep up with four movies". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved December 4, 2021.
  266. ^ a b c d e f Purvey, Lee (September 1, 2013). "A look at movie locations around Pittsburgh". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved May 24, 2016.
  267. ^ Eberson, Sharon (January 5, 2017). "'Fences' film shoot generated $9.4 million for Pittsburgh businesses, hires". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. PG Publishing Co., Inc. Retrieved January 5, 2017.
  268. ^ Phox, Jason (October 21, 2022). "It's scary how much George Romero still influences Pittsburgh's film industry". NEXTPittsburgh. Retrieved November 14, 2023.
  269. ^ "Pittsburgh Film Office – The Pittsburgh Film Office is a non-profit economic development agency promoting southwestern Pennsylvania to the film industry".
  270. ^ a b "Film Pittsburgh". filmpittsburgh.org.
  271. ^ "Casting Notices". Pittsburgh Film Office.
  272. ^ Machosky, Michael (December 26, 2020). "The 16 best movies ever made in Pittsburgh". NEXTpittsburgh.
  273. ^ "MPAA Unveils Latest State-By-State Figures on Economic Impact of Film and Television Industry".
  274. ^ "Festivals". filmpittsburgh.org.
  275. ^ "Film Festivals in Pittsburgh | Pittsburgh Annual Events". Visit Pittsburgh.
  276. ^ "Film Schools in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania | K12 Academics". www.k12academics.com. February 6, 2014.
  277. ^ www.filmstudies.pitt.edu https://www.filmstudies.pitt.edu/. {{cite web}}: Missing or empty |title= (help)
  278. ^ "3 Rivers Studios". 3riversstudios.com.
  279. ^ "Pittsburgh | Cinelease Studios". cineleasestudios.com.
  280. ^ "Video Production Services Pittsburgh | Post Script Productions". Post Script Productions LLC.
  281. ^ "Deeplocal – Creative Technology & Experience Design". Deeplocal.
  282. ^ "Video Production Pittsburgh | The Videohouse | TV Crews". thevideohouse.com.
  283. ^ Machosky, Michael (July 25, 2022). "Hollywood of Appalachia? Carrie Furnace gets $7.6 million for movie studio". NEXTpittsburgh.
  284. ^ Beaver, William (1987). "Duquesne Light and Shippingport: Nuclear Power Is Born in Western Pennsylvania". The Western Pennsylvania Historical Magazine. 70: 339–58.
  285. ^ "Pittsburgh Water and Sewer Authority – Home". Pittsburgh Water and Sewer Authority. Archived from the original on May 16, 2010. Retrieved November 19, 2010.
  286. ^ "PUC – Natural Gas Suppliers List". Retrieved June 11, 2015.
  287. ^ Society, Ingram Historical (August 1, 2007). Ingram. Arcadia. ISBN 9780738549934. Retrieved June 11, 2015.
  288. ^ "UPMC Hospitals". Archived from the original on February 23, 2012. Retrieved June 11, 2015.
  289. ^ "Pittsburgh Post-Gazette – Google News Archive Search". Retrieved June 11, 2015.
  290. ^ "Pittsburgh Post-Gazette – News Links". Post-gazette.com. Retrieved May 24, 2016.
  291. ^ "The Pittsburgh Press – Google News Archive Search". Retrieved June 11, 2015.
  292. ^ Altman, Lawrence K. (December 15, 1995). "Man Gets Baboon Marrow in Risky AIDS Treatment". The New York Times. Retrieved May 24, 2016.
  293. ^ "About ISBD". Archived from the original on July 22, 2012. Retrieved February 5, 2016.
  294. ^ "Superhero Window Washers Video". Abcnews.go.com. Retrieved May 24, 2016.
  295. ^ "Home – Pittsburgh Post-Gazette". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Archived from the original on July 5, 2012.
  296. ^ "Pitt's medical school to help Nazarbayev University in Kazakhstan develop its own". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved June 11, 2015.
  297. ^ "Pittsburgh Post-Gazette". Retrieved June 11, 2015.
  298. ^ "Observer-Reporter – Google News Archive Search". Retrieved June 11, 2015.
  299. ^ "Pittsburgh Firsts: By Event, Pennsylvania Department, Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh". Archived from the original on January 12, 2016. Retrieved February 5, 2016.
  300. ^ "Pitt team inserts computer chip in brain so a person's thoughts can instigate motion". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Archived from the original on February 7, 2013. Retrieved June 11, 2015.
  301. ^ "Pittsburgh has Plenty of Bridges". KDKA-TV. June 16, 2006. Archived from the original on November 21, 2009. Retrieved July 8, 2009.
  302. ^ "Bridges of Venice". Archived from the original on July 7, 2011. Retrieved April 6, 2010.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link). abridgetovenezia.com
  303. ^ Gray, Richard; Greene, Brian; Fandray, Ryan; Turka, Robert (2015). Geology of Pittsburgh (PDF). Association of Environmental & Engineering Geologists. p. 44. Retrieved April 5, 2024.
  304. ^ "Pittsburgh, PA Public Transportation Statistics". Global Public Transit Index by Moovit. Retrieved June 19, 2017. Material was copied from this source, which is available under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
  305. ^ "Discover Pittsburgh's Neighborhoods".
  306. ^ "Pittsburgh ranked eighth among large cities for commuting without cars". TribLIVE.com. Retrieved June 11, 2015.
  307. ^ "Largest Transit Agencies" (PDF). American Public Transportation Association. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 27, 2007. Retrieved July 6, 2007.
  308. ^ "Duquesne Incline, historic cable car railway serving commuters and tourists since 1877, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania". Incline.pghfree.net. October 14, 2008. Retrieved January 5, 2009.
  309. ^ "U.S. PORT RANKING BY CARGO VOLUME 2011 : Short Tons : Foreign Trade" (PDF). Aapa.files.cms-plus.com\access-date=2016-05-24.
  310. ^ "Our Sister Cities". sistercitiespgh.org. Sister Cities Association of Pittsburgh. Archived from the original on May 19, 2021. Retrieved March 9, 2022.

Further reading[edit]

  • Allen Dieterich-Ward, Beyond Rust: Metropolitan Pittsburgh and the Fate of Industrial America (U of Pennsylvania Press, 2016). viii, 347 pp.
  • Kenneth J. Kobus, City of Steel: How Pittsburgh Became the World's Steelmaking Capital During the Carnegie Era. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2015.
  • Charles McCollester, The Point of Pittsburgh: Production and Struggle at the Forks of the Ohio. Pittsburgh, PA: Battle of Homestead Foundation, 2008.

External links[edit]