Sports in Pittsburgh

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Sports in Pittsburgh have been played dating back to the American Civil War. Baseball, hockey, and the first professional American football game had been played in the city by 1892. Pittsburgh was first known as the "City of Champions" when the Pittsburgh Pirates, Pittsburgh Panthers, and Pittsburgh Steelers won multiple championships in the 1970s.[1] Today, the city has three major professional sports franchises, the Pirates, Steelers, and Penguins; while the University of Pittsburgh Panthers compete in a Division I BCS conference, the highest level of collegiate athletics in the United States, in both football and basketball. Local universities Duquesne and Robert Morris also field Division I teams in men's and women's basketball and Division I FCS teams in football. Robert Morris also fields Division I men's and women's ice hockey teams.

Pittsburgh is once again being called the "City of Champions" as its Steelers and Penguins are recent champions of the NFL and NHL, respectively, in 2009. These accomplishments and others helped Pittsburgh earn the title of "Best Sports City" in 2009 from the Sporting News.[2] Including the 2008–09 seasons, the Steelers have reached the NFL playoffs in six of the last eight seasons—winning two Super Bowl titles—and the Penguins have reached the NHL playoffs the last four years with back-to-back finals appearances, an Atlantic Division Crown, and a Stanley Cup championship, none of which won at home (the last championship won in Pittsburgh was in 1960 by the Pirates).

The flag of Pittsburgh is colored with black and gold, based on the colors of William Pitt's coat of arms; Pittsburgh is the only city in the United States in which all professional sporting teams share the same colors. The city's first National Hockey League (NHL) franchise, the Pittsburgh Pirates were the first to wear black and gold as their colors. The colors were adopted by founder of the Pittsburgh Steelers, Art Rooney, in 1933. In 1948, the Pittsburgh baseball Pirates switched their colors from red and blue to black and gold. Pittsburgh's second NHL franchise, the Pittsburgh Penguins, wore blue and white, due to then-general manager Jack Riley's upbringing in Ontario. In 1979, after the Steelers and Pirates had each won their respective league championships, the Penguins altered their color scheme to match, despite objections from the Boston Bruins.[3][4]

In 1975, late Steelers radio broadcaster Myron Cope invented the Terrible Towel, which has become "arguably the best-known fan symbol of any major pro sports team."[5] Cope was one of multiple sports figures born in Pittsburgh and its surrounding area; others include golfer Arnold Palmer, Olympian Kurt Angle, and basketball player Jack Twyman. Pittsburgh is also sometimes called the "Cradle of Quarterbacks"[6][7] due to the number of prominent players of that position who hail from the area, including NFL greats Jim Kelly, George Blanda, Johnny Unitas, Joe Namath, Dan Marino, and Joe Montana.

PNC Park and the city of Pittsburgh

Professional team sports[edit]

The City of Pittsburgh has had various professional sports franchises throughout its history and today is home to three teams competing at the highest professional level in their respective sports: the Pittsburgh Steelers of the NFL, the Pittsburgh Penguins of the NHL, and the Pittsburgh Pirates of Major League Baseball.

Baseball[edit]

We had 'em all the way
Pirates broadcaster Bob Prince, after a comeback[8]

Prior to 1876, three amateur Pittsburgh baseball teams—the Enterprise, the Xanthas, and the Olympics—competed, most often at Recreation Park.[9] On April 15, 1876, Recreation Park was the site of a game between the Xanthas and the Pittsburgh Alleghenies (alternately spelled "Alleghenys"[10]), an unrelated forerunner to the "Alleghenys" team which would later be renamed the Pirates. The Alleghenies won the game 7–3.[11] The 1877 squad was the most successful yet, finishing within 1 game of the pennant in the International Association; only a Canadian team had a better record, allowing the city potential bragging rights for being the best American team that season. 1882 marked the first "major league" and fully professional season for the Pittsburgh Alleghenies (Pirates) and in 1887, the Alleghenies moved from American Association to the National League after owner William Nimick became frustrated over a contract dispute.[12] The Pirates were purchased in 1900 by Barney Dreyfuss, who would go down in history as the "Father of the modern World Series" and its precursor, the Chronicle-Telegraph Cup, both of which saw the Pirates participate in the inaugural series. He recruited Hall of Famers Fred Clarke and Pittsburgh native Honus Wagner and built the first concrete and steel (first "modern") baseball stadium, Forbes Field. Under Dreyfuss, the Pirates won pre-World Series world titles in 1901 and 1902, National League pennants from 1901–1903, 1909, 1925 and 1927 and World Series in 1909 and 1925. The 1902 squad set major league records for winning percentage and even today is the second most winning team ever fielded in the sport.[13] The franchise won the World Series three more times—in 1960, 1971, and 1979. In 1960, the team became the first to win a World Series on a home run, and remain the only team to win on a homer in the decisive seventh game. In 1979, the Pirates tied their own 1925 World Series team, coming back from a 1-game to 3 deficit, winning three in a row for the title, thus becoming (and remain) the only franchise in the history of all sports to win world titles more than once coming back from a 1–3 deficit. The 1979 Pirates also are unique in that they are the only team in all sports to have their players capture all four MVP awards (Seasonal, All Star Game, Playoff and World Series) in a single season.[14] Since 1970 the team has won their division and qualified for the playoffs nine times, six in the 1970s and three times in a row from 1990 to 1992. Pirates have won the league MVP award in 1960, 1966, 1979, 1990 and 1992 and the Cy Young Award in 1960 and 1990. In 2001, the team opened PNC Park on the city's North Shore, regularly ranked as one of the top three baseball parks in the country.

In addition to the Pirates, the Pittsburgh Stogies, Pittsburgh Burghers and Pittsburgh Rebels played in various leagues from 1884 to 1915. The Rebels won the pennant in 1912 and finished just a half game shy of a pennant in 1915.[15] The Pittsburgh Keystones, Homestead Grays (playing in the city limits), and Pittsburgh Crawfords played in the Negro Leagues. With players including Josh Gibson and Cumberland Posey the Grays won 12 league titles—the most by any Negro League team[1]—including nine consecutive from 1937 to 1945. The Crawfords finished their eight-year existence with a .633 winning percentage, with a line-up including Gibson, Cool Papa Bell, and Satchel Paige and claimed four straight league titles from 1933 until 1936, with the 1935 team judged by some[who?] as the greatest one to ever take the field in the Negro Leagues, or perhaps in baseball period. Just as they initially played in the first "modern" ballpark in the majors (Forbes Field), Crawfords owner Gus Greenlee constructed the first steel and concrete "modern" stadium in the Negro Leagues, with Greenlee Field opening in the Hill District on April 29, 1932.[16]

Basketball[edit]

The city has enjoyed championship basketball since the sport began. Pittsburgh South Side won titles in 1904, 1907 and 1913, coming in second place in 1908, 1911 and 1915. The "Black Fives" league enjoyed success in the city with Monticello-Loendi winning national championships in 1912, and four in a row from 1920–23. The Pittsburgh Pirates from 1937–39 and Pittsburgh Raiders in 1944–45 continued professional basketball in the city in the National Basketball League. Pittsburgh had one of the founding members of what became the NBA, the Pittsburgh Ironmen however only played a single season 1947–48 before folding. The Pittsburgh Renaissance (or Rens) played from 1961 until 1963 in the ABL, posting the city's best record in almost 40 years when they finished 2nd in 1962.

The most lasting legacy of pro roundball in Pittsburgh was the Pittsburgh Pipers-Pittsburgh Condors of the American Basketball Association from 1967 until 1972. In the first ABA World Championship in 1968, the Pipers defeated the New Orleans Buccaneers, which were owned by Harry Connick Sr..[citation needed]

After the ABA Pipers/Condors folded in 1972 the city hosted the Pittsburgh Piranhas of the CBA in the mid-1990s. The franchise made it to the championship round in the 1994–95 season only to come away second best. In the late 2000s the Pittsburgh Xplosion, a development league team owned by former NBA player Freddie Lewis,[17] played in a revamped ABA/CBA at Mellon Arena and the Petersen Events Center before ceasing operations prior to the 2008–09 season because of the economic recession. Another professional basketball team, the Pittsburgh Phantoms of the American Basketball Association, played during the 2009–10 season and held their games at the Carnegie Library of Homestead, but folded prior to the following season.

Hockey[edit]

First played in Pittsburgh in 1895, ice hockey grew in popularity after the Duquesne Gardens opened in 1899. In 1901 the Western Pennsylvania Hockey League (WPHL), a semi-professional ice hockey league based in Pittsburgh in the early 1900s, may have been involved in the first trade involving professional hockey players. In 1907, the WPHL was the first league to openly hire hockey players. The league played its games in three Pittsburgh hockey arenas, the Gardens, the Schenley Park Casino and the Winter Garden at Exposition Hall. The Casino, which was destroyed by a fire in 1896, had the first artificial ice surface in North America, was the first place in Pittsburgh where organized ice hockey was played and had the most modern indoor lighting system of the time era, that consisted of 1,500 incandescent lamps, 11 arc lights and 4 white calcium lights. In 1905–1907, the city was represented in the International Professional Hockey League, the first fully professional hockey league, by the Pittsburgh Professionals.

Pittsburgh Civic Arena was replaced by CONSOL Energy Center in 2010

The Gardens housed the largest indoor rink in the world and was home to the city's first NHL franchise, the Pittsburgh Pirates, from 1925 to 1930. The Gardens also was home to the Pittsburgh Shamrocks and the Pittsburgh Yellow Jackets of the International Hockey League as well as the Pittsburgh Hornets of the American Hockey League.[18]

In 1961, Pittsburgh Civic Arena was constructed for use of the Pittsburgh Civic Light Opera. Founded, by Jack McGregor and Peter Block as part of the 1967 NHL expansion, the Pittsburgh Penguins have played home games at Civic Arena since their inception.[19] The Penguins won back-to-back Stanley Cup championships in 1991 and 1992. The franchise recorded their third Stanley Cup in 2009.[20] The teams included players Mark Recchi, Kevin Stevens, Jaromír Jágr, and Mario Lemieux.[21] Lemieux holds multiple franchise records and was elected to the Hockey Hall of Fame in 1997.[22][23] He suffered from multiple injuries, including Hodgkin's lymphoma, throughout his career.[24] In 1999, Lemieux purchased the Penguins and saved the franchise from bankruptcy. He returned to play one year later as the first player/owner of the modern era.[25] The Penguins, led by top point scorers Evgeni Malkin and Sidney Crosby, returned to the Stanley Cup finals in 2008 and won the franchise's third Cup in 2009.[26] As of 2008, the Penguins rank 113% above the national average for male television viewers aged 18 to 34.[27] Forbes projects that the franchise will become more valuable after their move to the Consol Energy Center in 2010.[28] The franchise recorded their fourth Stanley Cup in 2016 and their fifth Stanley Cup in 2017.

Football[edit]

On November 12, 1892, William Heffelfinger was paid $500 to participate in an American football game for the Allegheny Athletic Association. With this transaction, Heffelfinger became the first person to be paid to play football.[citation needed] The first professional football game was held at Recreation Park in Pittsburgh.[citation needed] Heffelfinger scored the game's only points as the Allegheny Athletic Association defeated the Pittsburgh Athletic Club, 4–0.[29][30] The early professional football era was also represented in Pittsburgh, by top athletic association teams in the Western Pennsylvania Professional Football Circuit. The Duquesne Country and Athletic Club, was the top pro team in the state in 1898 and 1899. The first ever pro football all-star game was played at Exposition Park between the Duquesne Country and Athletic Club and a collection of players from several teams in the area on December 3, 1898. Duquesne won the game 16-0. Later the Homestead Library & Athletic Club, fielded the top pro team in the state in 1900 and 1901. In 1902 the top players in the area, mainly from the Duquesne Country and Athletic Club line-up, formed the Pittsburgh Stars of the first National Football League. The Stars were suspected of being financed by Barney Dreyfuss and William Chase Temple, the owners of baseball's Pittsburgh Pirates. The team featured baseball players in the line-up including Christy Mathewson, a future Hall of Fame pitcher with the New York Giants and Fred Crolius, and outfielder with Pirates. The team won the league's only championship in 1902.

In 1933, as the oldest of nine children Art Rooney, who had been raised on the North Side of Pittsburgh, founded the Pittsburgh Steelers.[31] Originally nicknamed the Pirates,[32] the team later changed their name to the Steelers, to represent the city's heritage of producing steel. The Steelers' first season with a winning record came in 1942. However, they lost their first playoff game in 1947.[33] In 1969, the Steelers hired head coach Chuck Noll who strategically drafted players in order to improve the team.[34] Three years later, in the first playoff game at Three Rivers Stadium Pittsburgh's rookie running back Franco Harris returned an errant pass that bounced off an opposing player for a game-winning touchdown in a play that later became labeled the Immaculate Reception. In 1974, the Steelers won their first Super Bowl in franchise history—a feat which they would repeat in 1975, 1978, and 1979 to become the first NFL franchise to win four Super Bowls. In 1992, Noll was succeeded by Bill Cowher, who led the franchise to its fifth Super Bowl victory in 2005. Mike Tomlin succeeded Cower and led the Steelers to an NFL record sixth Super Bowl victory in 2008.[33] As of 2009, the Steelers have 18 members in the Pro Football Hall of Fame.[35] In October 1964, Ernie Stautner, who played on the Steelers from 1950 to 1963, became the only Steelers' player to have his number—70—retired.[36] Charles "Mean Joe" Greene had his number -75- retired in 2014. In 2008, ESPN.com ranked Steelers' fans as the best in the NFL, citing their "unbelievable" sellout streak of 299 consecutive games.[37][38] Steelers Chairman Dan Rooney, son of founder Art Rooney, became the majority owner of the Steelers in November 2008 along with his son Art II, after they bought all of the shares of two of his four brothers.[39]

Outside of the NFL, the city was represented by the Pittsburgh Americans of the second American Football League in 1936 and 1937. It was also be briefly represented by the Pittsburgh Maulers of the United States Football League, in 1984, and the Pittsburgh Gladiators (now the Tampa Bay Storm), of the Arena Football League from 1987 until 1990. A second Arena Football League team, the Pittsburgh Power, played in the Consol Energy Center from 2011 until 2014.[40]

In addition, Pittsburgh is home to two women's full-contact football teams: the Pittsburgh Passion, and the Pittsburgh Rebellion. Founded in 2002, as members of the National Women's Football Association and having played in the Independent Women's Football League, the Passion are currently members of the Women's Football Alliance.[41] and play their home games at West Allegheny High School in nearby Imperial. The team went 12–0 and won a national title in 2007 as members of the NWFA.[42] The Rebellion, established in 2017, who compete in the Legends Football League, play their home games at the downtown Highmark Stadium.

The "most established area minor-league football team" the Pittsburgh Colts are members of the North American Football League's Regional American Football League.[43][44]

Soccer[edit]

The Pittsburgh Riverhounds are members of the USL Professional Division and play in Highmark Stadium.[45]

The amateur club Pittsburgh Beadling have contested for regional and national titles for over 100 years, winning the National Amateur Cup in 1954,[46] and historic teams such as the suburban Harmarville Hurricanes won national titles in 1952 and 1956 and contested for it in 1953. Pittsburgh Gallatin, Pittsburgh-Heidleberg and Pittsburgh Morgan Strasser all winning national titles in the 1920s, the 1930s, the 1940s and the 1950s.

The region's interest in soccer continues as modern stars such as natives Justin Evans, Meghan Klingenberg, Don Malinowski, John Stollmeyer, A. J. Wood and Marvell Wynne II have all achieved international success.

Rugby[edit]

The Pittsburgh Sledgehammers are a rugby league team based in Cheswick, Pennsylvania (outside of Pittsburgh) which was formed in 2010 and plays in the AMNRL competition.

The Pittsburgh Harlequins are a rugby union team also based in Cheswick. The Pittsburgh Harlequins Rugby Club was founded in 1973 by a group of University of Pittsburgh law students. The organization has an active roster of 45 players and an alumni roster inclusive of more than 70 seasons of play. The Harlequins Rugby Club is a Division I member of the Mid-Atlantic Rugby Football Union. Over 300 active players wear the Harlequin jerseys every year at the Division 1 men's, Under 19, and Under 14 levels. In 1995, the Founders Field Center for Athletic Leadership was developed to support the Harlequins Men's and Youth programs. The 12 acre Founders Field facility includes lighting, irrigation, a clubhouse, locker rooms, concessions, and parking.

Individual sports and recreation[edit]

Golf[edit]

Golf has deep roots in the area with the region boasting the oldest course in continuous use in the nation: Foxburg Country Club dating from 1887. The suburban Oakmont Country Club has hosted the U.S. Open championships more than any other course in the nation (9) along with two U.S. Women's Open championships, three PGA Championships, and eight U.S. Amateurs.

Such golf legends as Arnold Palmer, Jim Furyk and Rocco Mediate learned the game and began their careers on Pittsburgh area courses. Suburban courses such as Laurel Valley Golf Club and the Pittsburgh Field Club have hosted PGA Championships (1937, 1965), the Ryder Cup (1975), LPGA Championships (1957–1958), Senior Players Championships (2012–2013) and the Senior PGA Championship (2005).

Local courses have sponsored annual major tournaments for 39 years:

The region has deep roots in the sport of Golf boasting the oldest continuous country club in the U.S. at Foxburg dating back to 1887.

The suburban Oakmont Country Club has hosted the U.S. Open Championships more than any other course at nine, and thus the Pittsburgh metro area more than any other metro. Oakmont has also hosted two U.S. Women's Open championships, three PGA Championships, and eight U.S. Amateurs. Other area courses such as Laurel Valley Golf Club and the Pittsburgh Field Club have hosted PGA Championships, the Ryder Cup, LPGA Championships and Senior PGA Championships.

The region has hosted annual PGA Tour events such as the 84 Lumber Classic (2001–2006) at Mystic Rock, the Dapper Dan Open 1939–49, the Pittsburgh Open (1950s), the Tri State Open (1980s),[47] the Pittsburgh Senior Classic (1993–1998) and since 2010 the annual Mylan Classic.

Golf greats such as Arnold Palmer, Jim Furyk, Rocco Mediate and others hail from the region.[citation needed]

Fishing[edit]

Since the 1960s the city has focused on revitalizing its rivers, hosting the Bassmaster Classic and the Forrest Wood Cup in the 2000s and seeing a boom in local fishing participation. Among the variety are Catfish and Trout. [1]

Rowing/Rafting/Kayaking[edit]

Pittsburgh is the host city for both the annual Three Rivers Regatta (since 1977) and the annual Head of the Ohio (since 1987) races and events. The University of Pittsburgh, Carnegie Mellon University and Duquesne University as well as several area high schools have long standing rowing teams.

In 2010 National Geographic named the city to its top six of "Best Cities for Kayaking". [2] Kayak Pittsburgh is the largest river recreation rental in the area located on the North Shore on the Allegheny River.

Suburban Ohiopyle State Park offers some of the best white-water rafting in the country.

Trails/Camping/Biking[edit]

Pittsburgh has multiple mountain biking areas close to the city in area parks and in the surrounding suburbs. Frick Park has biking trails and Hartwood Acres Park has many miles of single track trails. A recent project, "Rails to Trails", has converted miles of former railroads to recreational trails, including a Pittsburgh-Washington, D.C. bike/walking trail. Kayaking is popular on the city's three rivers.

Pittsburgh and its region are internationally known for its extensive and varied trail system. Such assets as the Three Rivers, Ohio River, Youghiogheny River, Beaver River, Indian Creek, Panhandle, Laurel Highlands, Rachel Carson, Five Star and Montour offer stunning, natural, suburban and urban views of the metropolitan area. The Great Allegheny Passage provides an all natural-trail (non motorized) link to Washington, D.C., while the North Country Trail passes through the northern suburbs of the city and connects Bismarck, North Dakota to the Plattsburgh, New York area, with such cities as Duluth, Minnesota and Buffalo, New York in its path.

Within the urban core of the city and its immediate surroundings the Steps of Pittsburgh offer an urban hiking experience. "Urban oasis" parks that bring the wilds of nature into the middle of the urban core and feature over a mile of trails within their individual boundaries include: Point State, Frick, Highland, Schenley, Riverview, Grandview, South Side, Riverfront, Three Rivers, Point of View, and Roberto Clemente.

Large 500-2,000 acre suburban parks that feature several miles of diverse trails each are plentiful throughout the metropolitan area.

For hikers/trailblazers that desire a historical or cultural element to nature the metropolitan area offers the Fort Necessity National Battlefield, Bushy Run Battlefield, the Bear Run conservancy containing both Fallingwater and Kentuck Knob, the smaller yet hikable Meadowcroft Rock Shelter features pre-Columbian archeology. The large urban parks described earlier such as Schenley Park includes several historical/cultural sites including Phipps Conservatory and proximity to Schenley Plaza, the Cathedral of Learning, Hillman Library and the Frick Gallery. Riverview includes the Allegheny Observatory and Point includes the Fort Pitt Museum and the remains of Fort Duquesne.

For true environmentalists and wildlife fans the metro area includes the Jennings Environmental Education Center, as well the Allegheny Islands State Park, Ohio River Islands National Wildlife Refuge and Ohioplye for hiking and water sports.

Tennis[edit]

Such teams as the Pittsburgh Triangles have built a small but loyal fan base for tennis in the region, being a perennial championship contender in the 1970s and winning a world title in 1975. Generations later the region still has deep tennis roots with the year-round all-weather Mellon Park Tennis Center being a world class facility for the sport, and helping to develop natives such as Bjorn Fratangelo, Bonnie Gadusek, Donald Johnson and Gretchen Magers in succeeding in international competition and rankings.

From 1979 to 1984 the city also hosted a yearly international tournament, the Pittsburgh Open.

Skiing/skating[edit]

Seven Springs Mountain Resort, Hidden Valley, Pennsylvania, Wisp Ski Resort and Boyce Park offer skiing with both PPG Place and North Park offering ice skating. In 2011, the Pittsburgh Penguins created a new public rink in the South Side neighborhood's Southside Works called "Penguin Pond".

Year round ice skating and skating events can be enjoyed at indoor area rinks including the Rostraver Ice Garden, Island Sports Center, IceoPlex at Southpointe and Bladerunners Ice Complex.

Such notable olympians as natives Kristi Leskinen, Kylie Gleason Suna Murray, Ron Robertson, Mike Seibert, Suzanne Semanick, Jamie Silverstein and Taylor Toth have trained and began their careers at area facilities.

College sports[edit]

There are several universities within the city that field athletic teams in NCAA Division I including the University of Pittsburgh (often referred to as "Pitt"), Duquesne University and Robert Morris University. Of these, Pitt is the only school that is a member of the so-called "Power Five" conferences that are primary partners in the College Football Playoff structure (the Atlantic Coast Conference). Other universities in Pittsburgh that field athletic teams include Carnegie Mellon University (Division III), Chatham University (Division III), Point Park University (NAIA), and Carlow University (NAIA).

Football[edit]

College football in Pittsburgh dates back to the University of Pittsburgh which first organized a football team in 1889 and played its first sanctioned game in 1890. In the first half of the 20th century, Pitt, Duquesne, and Carnegie Tech (now called Carnegie Mellon) all fielded football squads that made "major" bowl game appearances from the 1920s through the 1930s. These appearances included Duquesne in the 1933 and 1936 Orange Bowl, Carnegie Tech in the 1938 Sugar Bowl, and the University of Pittsburgh appearing in four Rose Bowls (1927, 1929, 1932, 1936) as well as nearby Washington and Jefferson College in the 1922 Rose Bowl.[48] In particular, Pitt was a national power during this era, claiming 8 national championships under the guidance of coaching legends such as Pop Warner and Jock Sutherland. More recently, the Panthers won another National Championship in 1976 and competed for several more through the 1980s. Multiple inductees into the College Football Hall of Fame played at Pitt, including Dan Marino, Tony Dorsett, Mike Ditka, and Larry Fitzgerald.[49] Pitt is the only university in Western Pennsylvania to still play college football at the highest level, the Football Bowl Subdivision, while Duquesne and Robert Morris have football teams that compete in the Football Championship Subdivision, and Carnegie Mellon fields a Division III football team.

Basketball[edit]

The Petersen Events Center, basketball home of the Pittsburgh Panthers

Three Pittsburgh universities, the University of Pittsburgh, Duquesne University, and Robert Morris University, compete in NCAA Division I basketball. Pitt and Duquesne are the traditional basketball powers in the city, but all three universities have made multiple appearances in the National Invitation Tournament and NCAA Tournament. Pitt claims two pre-NCAA tournament National Championships in 1928 and 1930 [3] while Duquesne won the NIT title in 1955, its second straight trip to the NIT title game. Since the 2000–2001 season, a team from the region has always reached a post-season tournament, with Pitt having won multiple Big East Conference championships and having appeared in nine consecutive NCAA Tournaments, advancing to the Sweet 16 four times and the Elite Eight once. In the years 1941, 1964, 1980, 1981, 1982, 1989, 1992 and 2008, two of the city's universities sent teams to tournaments; in 2009 and 2010, all three universities earned bids to post season tournaments.

Pitt women's basketball has also made recent appearances in the NCAA Tournament.[50] A rivalry game between Pitt and Duquesne, termed the City Game, is played annually between the two schools' men's and women's basketball teams, as well as their baseball teams.

Other collegiate sports[edit]

Along with college football and men's and women's basketball, the area universities compete in many additional sports. The University of Pittsburgh also fields NCAA Division I teams in baseball (its oldest sport first played in 1869[51]), cross country, gymnastics, track and field, soccer, softball, swimming and diving, tennis, volleyball, and wrestling.[52] The Duquesne Dukes, in addition to many of the sports above, also participates in Division I lacrosse, golf, and rowing.[53] Robert Morris University fields Division I teams in men's and women's hockey, among other sports.[54]

Major Events[edit]

Event Number Venue Years
PGA Championship 5 Oakmont Country Club
Pittsburgh Field Club
Laurel Valley Golf Club
1922, 1951, 1978
1937
1965
Senior PGA Championship 1 Laurel Valley Golf Club 2005
PGA Tour Champions 5 Laurel Valley Golf Club
Fox Chapel Golf Club
1989
2012, 2013, 2014
US Open 9 Oakmont Country Club 1927, 1935, 1953, 1962, 1973,
1983, 1994, 2007, 2016
Ryder Cup 1 Laurel Valley Golf Club 1975
MLB All Star Game 5 Forbes Field
Three Rivers Stadium
PNC Park
1944, 1959
1974, 1994
2006
NHL All Star Game 1 Pittsburgh Civic Arena 1990
NHL Entry Draft 2 Pittsburgh Civic Arena
Consol Energy Center
1997
2012
NHL Stadium Series 1 Heinz Field 2017
NHL Winter Classic 1 Heinz Field 2011
AHL All-Star Game 1 Duquesne Gardens 1956
NCAA Men's Final Four Tournament 3 Pittsburgh Civic Arena
Consol Energy Center
1997, 2002
2012
NCAA Men's Frozen Four Tournament 1 Consol Energy Center 2013
NCAA Women's Final Four Tournament 3 Pittsburgh Civic Arena
Petersen Events Center
2001
2007, 2010

Annual events[edit]

Pittsburgh Vintage Grand Prix

Pittsburgh also hosts several annual major sporting events, including the:

The city's vibrant rivers have attracted annual world title competitions of the Forrest Wood Cup in 2009 and the Bassmaster Classic in 2005.

Annual events continue during the winter months at area ski resorts such as Boyce Park, Seven Springs, Hidden Valley and Wisp as well as ice skating at PPG Place and North Park.

Rivers[edit]

A Formula-1 ChampBoat Series race, the Pittsburgh Three Rivers Regatta, which is the largest inland regatta in the country during July at Point State Park.[55] There is also an annual large rowing regatta, the Head of the Ohio, which was founded in 1987 and is one of the largest inland regattas in the United States.[56]

Motorsports[edit]

The Pittsburgh Vintage Grand Prix, the last remaining vintage automobile race run on city streets in the United States, is held annually at Schenley Park.[57][58]

Running[edit]

For 30 years Pittsburgh has also hosted a large 10K and 5K road race, the Richard S. Caliguiri City of Pittsburgh Great Race, which attracts nearly 10,000 athletes and has been ranked as a Top Twenty Multi-Race Events by USA Track & Field's publication On The Roads.[59] In addition, the 28th Pittsburgh Marathon will be hosted in the city in May 2018.[60]

Basketball[edit]

Pittsburgh was previously home to the first national high school all-star basketball game, The Dapper Dan Roundball Classic, from 1965 to 1992, prior to its move to Detroit and later Chicago.[61] It has long been home to the City Game between Pitt and Duquesne.

Cycling[edit]

Since 1983 the Dirty Dozen Cycle Race has been held in the city.

Awards banquet[edit]

Since 1936 the Dapper Dan Charities, a civic sports organization founded in part by a former editor Pittsburgh Post-Gazette has hosted an annual local and national celebrity and sport star dinner first at the William Penn Hotel then at the Hilton ballrooms and more recently at the David L. Lawrence Convention Center.

Other events[edit]

Pittsburgh has its own cricket league conducted by Pittsburgh Cricket Association[62] which was founded in 2005. The league features about 16 teams and the games are held at linbrook park and edgebrook field. The Pittsburgh Cricket Association, revived in 2004 from the long dormant 1882 Pittsburgh Cricket Club charter, comprises 16 active teams and more than 250 members.

PCA is a 501(c)(3) non-profit corporation organized for charitable purposes to further the sport of cricket in Pittsburgh and surrounding areas. The specific purposes for which this corporation is organized are: To promote, encourage, foster and cultivate interest in the sport of cricket; To initiate, sponsor, promote and carry out plans, policies and activities that would further the development and advancement of cricket in Pittsburgh and North Eastern PA; To develop, foster and train amateur athletes for representation in state, national and international cricket competitions; to promote building of facilities for other non-traditional sports like badminton, table tennis and rugby. [63]

People[edit]

Pittsburgh native Mark Cuban, owner of the Dallas Mavericks

Multiple professional athletes were born or raised in the Pittsburgh area. Major League Baseball players Ken Griffey Sr.,[64] his son Ken Griffey Jr.,[65] and Hall of Famer Stan Musial were born in Donora, Pennsylvania.[66] Hall of Fame inductee, player and manager of the Pittsburgh Pirates, Honus Wagner was born and raised in Chartiers.[67] Major League outfielder Tito Francona and pitcher Doc Medich were born in Aliquippa, Pennsylvania.[68][69] Super Bowl winning coaches Bill Cowher and Mike Ditka were born in Pittsburgh and Carnegie respectively.[70][71] Super Bowl winning quarterback Joe Namath and Heisman Trophy winner Tony Dorsett were born in Beaver Falls and Rochester respectively. 3 Time Super Bowl MVP Joe Montana is from New Eagle. Jim Kelly from Pittsburgh was the leading QB of the Buffalo Bills to 4 straight Super Bowl appearances. Johnny Unitas, National Football League's most valuable player in 1959, 1964 and 1967 is from Pittsburgh as well.[72][73] Owner of the Dallas Mavericks, Mark Cuban and Basketball Hall of Fame member Jack Twyman were born in Pittsburgh.[74][75] Olympic gold medalists Swin Cash and Kurt Angle were born in McKeesport and Pittsburgh respectively.[76][77][78] Professional golfers Rocco Mediate and Arnold Palmer were born in Greensburg and Latrobe respectively.[79][80] Author Jim O'Brien, who was born in Pittsburgh, has authored 20 books about Pittsburgh sports.[81]

Cradle of quarterbacks[edit]

The Pittsburgh region also has developed many notable athletes that have gone on to outstanding careers in professional sports. The region has produced a multitude of NFL quarterbacks, giving Western Pennsylvania the nickname "Cradle of Quarterbacks."[7][82] Dan Marino, Joe Montana, Joe Namath, Jim Kelly, Johnny Unitas, Bruce Gradkowski, Marc Bulger, George Blanda, Johnny Lujack, Jeff Hostetler, Gus Frerotte, Willie Thrower, Warren Heller, Johnny Gildea, Tyler Palko, Alex Van Pelt, Sandy Stephens, Terry Hanratty, Mike McMahon, Major Harris, Matt Cavanaugh, Chuck Fusina, Rod Rutherford, Ted Marchibroda, Babe Parilli, John Hufnagel, Tom Sherman, Richie Lucas, Boyd Brumbaugh, Scott Zolak, Ed Matesic, Tom Clements, Coley McDonough, Charley Seabright and former Pittsburgh Steelers quarterback Charlie Batch all hail from within a 50-mile radius of the city.

Performance of the 4 major sports[edit]

Professional franchises[edit]

Present[edit]

Franchise Founded Sport Current Venue League League Championships
Pittsburgh Penguins 1967 Ice hockey PPG Paints Arena National Hockey League 1990–91, 1991–92, 2008–09, 2015–2016, 2016-2017
Pittsburgh Pirates 1882 Baseball PNC Park Major League Baseball 1901, 1902, 1909, 1925, 1960, 1971, 1979
Pittsburgh Steelers 1933 American football Heinz Field National Football League 1974, 1975, 1978, 1979, 2005, 2008
Pittsburgh Bullets 2011 Basketball Youth Places Sportsplex North American Basketball Development Leagues Association
Pittsburgh Passion 2003 Women's American football West Allegheny High School Women's Football Alliance 2007 (NWFA), 2014, 2015 (IWFL)
Pittsburgh Riverhounds 1999 Soccer Highmark Stadium United Soccer League
Steel City Yellow Jackets 2014 Basketball A Giving Heart Community Center American Basketball Association
Pittsburgh Rebellion 2017 Women's American football Highmark Stadium Legends Football League
Fort Pitt Regiment 2013 Soccer Thomas J. Birko Memorial Field National Premier Soccer League
Pittsburgh Thunderbirds 2015 Ultimate George K. Cupples Stadium American Ultimate Disc League
Keystone State Wrestling Alliance 2000 Professional wrestling "KSWA Arena" on 51st

Past[edit]

Club Sport League Venue First season
(in Pittsburgh)
Last season
(in Pittsburgh)
Championships
(in Pittsburgh)
Fate of team
Allegheny Athletic Association American football Western Pennsylvania Professional Football Circuit Recreation Park 1890 1896 1890, 1892, 1894, 1896 Club folded team
Duquesne Country and Athletic Club American football Western Pennsylvania Professional Football Circuit Exposition Park III 1895 1900 1895, 1898, 1899 Club folded team
Duquesne Country and Athletic Club ice hockey Western Pennsylvania Hockey League Duquesne Gardens, Winter Garden at Exposition Hall 1908 1920 Club folded team
Fort Pitt Hornets ice hockey United States Amateur Hockey Association, Duquesne Gardens 1924 1925 Team partially merged into the Pittsburgh Pirates
Glassport Odds American football Western Pennsylvania Professional Football Circuit  ?? 1913 1950 Folded
Harmarville Hurricanes soccer U.S. Open Cup, National Amateur Cup  ?? 1947 1967 1952, 1956 Folded
Homestead Grays baseball Negro League Forbes Field 1912 1950 1937, 1938, 1939, 1940, 1941, 1943, 1944, 1948 Folded
Homestead Library & Athletic Club American football Western Pennsylvania Professional Football Circuit Carnegie Library of Homestead 1900 1901 1900, 1901 Club folded team
Hope-Harvey/Majestic Radios/J.P. Rooneys American football Independent Exposition Park III 1921 1932 1930, 1931 Team morphed into the Pittsburgh Pirates/Steelers
McKeesport Olympics American football Western Pennsylvania Professional Football Circuit, Independent  ?? 1896 c. 1940 Folded
Pennsylvania Enforcers/Pittsburgh Cougars ice hockey America East Hockey League IceoPlex at Southpointe 2007 2009 Folded
Pennsylvania Pit Bulls/Pittsburgh Hard Hats/Pittsburgh Xplosion basketball American Basketball Association, Continental Basketball Association Pittsburgh Civic Arena / Peterson Events Center 2004 2008 Folded
Pittsburgh baseball Ohio–Pennsylvania League  ?? 1912 1912 Relocated to New Martinsville after just 4 days
Pitcairn Quakers American football Western Pennsylvania Professional Football Circuit Broadway Stadium 1904 1920 Folded
Pittsburgh Allegheny baseball International Association for Professional Base Ball Players Union Park 1876 1878 Folded
Pittsburgh Americans American football American Football League II Forbes Field 1936 1937 Folded
Pittsburgh Athletic Club American football Western Pennsylvania Professional Football Circuit East Liberty Park 1891 1898 1891 Folded team
Pittsburgh Athletic Club ice hockey Western Pennsylvania Hockey League Duquesne Gardens 1899 1909 1899, 1900, 1901 Folded team
Pittsburgh Bankers ice hockey Western Pennsylvania Hockey League Duquesne Gardens 1900 1909 1903, 1908, 1909 Club folded team
Pittsburgh Bulls indoor lacrosse Major Indoor Lacrosse League Pittsburgh Civic Arena 1990 1993 Folded
Pittsburgh Burghers baseball Players' League Exposition Park III 1890 1890 Folded with the League
Pittsburgh Cannons soccer American Soccer League  ?? 1972 1972 Folded
Pittsburgh Crawfords baseball Independent, Negro National League (II), Negro American League Greenlee Field 1931 1938 1932*, 1933*, 1934, 1935, 1936 Relocated to Toledo
Pittsburgh CrosseFire indoor lacrosse National Lacrosse League Mellon Arena 2000 2000 Relocated to Washington D.C.
Pittsburgh Filipinos baseball United States Baseball League, Federal League Exposition Park III 1912 1913 1912 Became the Pittsburgh Stogies/Rebels
Pittsburgh Force women's American football Women's Football Alliance Campbell Field Munhall, Pennsylvania 2009 2014 Inactive
Pittsburgh Forge ice hockey Island Sports Center North American Hockey League 2001 2004 2003 Relocated to Toledo
Pittsburgh Gladiators arena football Pittsburgh Civic Arena Arena Football League 1987 1990 Relocated to Tampa
Pittsburgh Hornets ice hockey American Hockey League Duquesne Gardens, Pittsburgh Civic Arena 1936-37 1966-67 1951–52, 1954–55, 1966–67 Folded
Pittsburgh Ironmen basketball Basketball Association of America Duquesne Gardens 1946–47 1946-47 Folded
Pittsburgh Keystones baseball Negro National League Ammon Field 1887 1921 1887, 1922 Folded
Pittsburgh Keystones ice hockey Western Pennsylvania Hockey League Schenley Park Casino, Duquesne Gardens 1895 1904 1902 Club folded team
Pittsburgh Lyceum American football Western Pennsylvania Professional Football Circuit Duquesne University, Recreation Park 1902 192? Club folded team
Pittsburgh Lyceum ice hockey Western Pennsylvania Hockey League Duquesne Gardens, Winter Garden 1907 1920 Club folded team
Pittsburgh Maulers American football United States Football League Three Rivers Stadium 1984 1984 Folded
Pittsburgh Monticello/Loendi basketball Black Fives League  ?? 1903 192? 1912, 1920, 1921, 1922, 1923 Folded
Pittsburgh Phantoms basketball American Basketball Association Langley High School, Carnegie Library of Homestead 2009 2010 Folded
Pittsburgh Phantoms soccer United Soccer Association Forbes Field 1967 1967 Folded
Pittsburgh Phantoms roller hockey Roller Hockey International Pittsburgh Civic Arena 1994 1994 Folded
Pittsburgh Pipers/Condors basketball American Basketball Association Pittsburgh Civic Arena 1967–68 1970–72 1967–68 Folded
Pittsburgh Piranhas basketball Continental Basketball Association A.J. Palumbo Center 1994-95 1994-95 Folded
Pittsburgh Pirates ice hockey National Hockey League Duquesne Gardens 1925-26 1929–1930 Relocated to Philadelphia
Pittsburgh Pirates / Raiders basketball National Basketball League  ?? 1937–39 1945 Folded
Pittsburgh Pirates (WPHL) ice hockey Western Pennsylvania Hockey League Duquesne Gardens 1907 1908 Folded
Pittsburgh Power arena football Arena Football League CONSOL Energy Center 2011 2014 Folded
Pittsburgh Professionals ice hockey International Professional Hockey League Duquesne Gardens 1904 1907 Folded with the League
Pittsburgh Rens basketball American Basketball League Pittsburgh Civic Arena 1961 1963 Folded with the League
Pittsburgh Shamrocks ice hockey International Hockey League Duquesne Gardens 1935-36 1935-36 Folded
Pittsburgh South Side basketball Western Pennsylvania Basketball League/
Central Basketball League
 ?? 1903 1915 1904, 1907, 1913 Folded
Pittsburgh Spirit indoor soccer Major Soccer League Pittsburgh Civic Arena 1978 1986 Folded
Pittsburgh Stars American football National Football League (1902) Recreation Park 1902 1902 1902 Folded with the League
Pittsburgh Stingers indoor soccer Continental Indoor Soccer League Pittsburgh Civic Arena 1994 1995 Folded
Pittsburgh Stogies baseball Union Association Exposition Park II 1884 1884 Folded with the League
Pittsburgh Stogies/Rebels baseball Federal League Exposition Park III 1914 1915 Folded with the League
Pittsburgh Triangles tennis World TeamTennis Pittsburgh Civic Arena 1974 1976 1975 Folded
Pittsburgh Victorias ice hockey Western Pennsylvania Hockey League Duquesne Gardens 1902 1904 1903 Club folded team
Pittsburgh Winter Garden ice hockey Independent Winter Garden at Exposition Hall 1915 1916 Club folded team
Pittsburgh Yellow Jackets ice hockey United States Amateur Hockey Association, Duquesne Gardens 1915 1925 1924, 1925 Became the Pittsburgh Pirates
Pittsburgh Yellow Jackets ice hockey International Hockey League, Eastern Amateur Hockey League Duquesne Gardens 1930-31 1936-1937 Folded
Steel City Derby Demons roller derby Women's Flat Track Derby Association Romp'n Roll Roller Skating Rink 2006 2006 Folded

*The championships listed for the teams are the highest possible achievement in their respective leagues for each season. For baseball seasons prior to the advent of the World Series in 1903 and the Negro League World Series in 1942, National League Championships and Negro National League Championships are listed.

Professional arenas[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Gallo, DJ (April 21, 2008). "So good, they donate champions". ESPN.com. Retrieved January 10, 2009. 
  2. ^ Hille, Bob (October 6, 2009), "Black & Gold mettle: Pittsburgh is Best Sports City", Sporting News, Charlotte, North Carolina, retrieved October 7, 2009 
  3. ^ Dvorchak, Robert (November 10, 2008). "Vintage Penguins jerseys selling up a blue streak". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved January 8, 2009. 
  4. ^ Potter, Chris (June 3, 2004). "Why are our colors always black and gold for our sports teams?". Pittsburgh City Paper. Retrieved January 8, 2009. 
  5. ^ "Former Steelers broadcaster, Terrible Towel creator Cope dies". ESPN. Associated Press. February 28, 2008. Retrieved May 15, 2008. 
  6. ^ McHugh, Roy (January 20, 1991). "VIEWS OF SPORT; True Grit: Quarterbacks From Steel Belt Football". The New York Times. Retrieved July 1, 2009. 
  7. ^ a b Mike White (August 25, 2005). "Tradition of Western Pennsylvania quarterbacks continues". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. 
  8. ^ O'Brien 1998, p. 18
  9. ^ McCollister, John (1998). The Bucs! The Story of the Pittsburgh Pirates. Lenexa, Kansas: Addax Publishing Group. p. 21. ISBN 1-886110-40-9. 
  10. ^ "Pittsburgh Pirates History & Encyclopedia". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved January 7, 2009. 
  11. ^ William Benswanger (March–June 1947). "Professional Baseball in Pittsburgh" (PDF). An Informal Game. Western Pennsylvania Historical Magazine. Retrieved January 8, 2009. 
  12. ^ Finoli, Ranier 2003, pp. 1–3
  13. ^ Finoli, Ranier 2003, p. 472
  14. ^ Finoli, Ranier 2003, p. 612
  15. ^ Finoli, Ranier 2003, pp. 605–07
  16. ^ Finoli, Ranier 2003, pp. 607–09
  17. ^ "Freddie Lewis: General Manager / Majority Owner". Front Office. PittsburghXplosion.com. Retrieved January 9, 2009. 
  18. ^ Anne Madarasz (March 2008). "On Ice. Remembering Duquesne Gardens". Sports History. Pittsburgh Sports Report. Retrieved January 7, 2009. 
  19. ^ O'Brien 1994, p. 310
  20. ^ "Stanley Cup Champions and Finalists". NHL.com. Retrieved January 7, 2009. 
  21. ^ "1990-91 Pittsburgh Penguins". Hockey-Reference.com. Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved January 7, 2009. 
  22. ^ "Pittsburgh Penguins Career Leaders". Hockey-Reference.com. Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved January 7, 2009. 
  23. ^ "Mario Lemieux". Hockey-Reference.com. Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved January 7, 2009. 
  24. ^ O'Brien 1994, p. 398
  25. ^ "Front Office". Executive Staff. PittsburghPenguins.com. Retrieved January 6, 2009. 
  26. ^ "2007-08 Pittsburgh Penguins". Hockey-Reference.com. Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved January 7, 2009. 
  27. ^ Rossi, Rob (October 24, 2008). "'Igloo' chills Penguins' opponents". Pittsburgh Tribune-Review. Retrieved October 24, 2008. 
  28. ^ Rossi, Rob (October 30, 2008). "Forbes rates Pens 18th most valuable NHL team". Pittsburgh Tribune-Review. Retrieved October 30, 2008. 
  29. ^ "Nov. 12: Birth of pro football". Pro Football History. ProFootballhof.com. Retrieved January 7, 2009. 
  30. ^ "Pro Football's Birth Certificate". Pro Football History. ProFootballhof.com. Retrieved January 7, 2009. 
  31. ^ O'Brien 2001, pp. 13, 33
  32. ^ NFL.com. "NFL history 1933". NFL.com. Retrieved April 27, 2008. 
  33. ^ a b "Steelers' History" (PDF). Steelers.com. Retrieved April 27, 2008. 
  34. ^ "Chuck Noll". ProFootballhof.com. Retrieved January 7, 2009. 
  35. ^ "Hall of Famers by Franchise". Pittsburgh Steelers. ProFootballhof.com. Archived from the original on August 22, 2008. Retrieved January 8, 2009. 
  36. ^ "Ernest Alfred "Ernie" Stautner". Steelers.com. February 16, 2006. Retrieved January 8, 2009. 
  37. ^ "ESPN ranks Steelers fans No. 1". Pittsburgh Tribune-Review. August 30, 2008. Retrieved August 30, 2008. 
  38. ^ Mosley, Matt (August 29, 2008). "NFL's best fans? We gotta hand it to Steelers (barely)". ESPN.com. Retrieved August 30, 2008. 
  39. ^ Bouchette, Ed; Gerry Dulac (November 21, 2008). "Two Rooney brothers to sell all shares". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved January 8, 2009. 
  40. ^ Rossi, Rob (August 20, 2010). "Pittsburgh Power unveiled as arena football expansion team". Pittsburgh Tribune-Review. Retrieved August 20, 2010. 
  41. ^ "Pittsburgh Passion". PittsburghPassion.com. Retrieved January 10, 2009. 
  42. ^ "2007 Season in Review". History. PittsburghPassion.com. Retrieved January 10, 2009. 
  43. ^ Billson, Marky (June 30, 2005). "Two strong quarterbacks will help Pittsburgh Colts". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. PG South. 
  44. ^ "2008 RAFL Teams And Divisions". RAFL.net. Retrieved January 10, 2009. 
  45. ^ Rujumba, Karamagi (July 9, 2008). "County unveils plan for sports complex". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved July 9, 2008. 
  46. ^ "100 Years of Beadling Soccer". Beadling Soccer Club. Retrieved December 31, 2011. 
  47. ^ Pittsburgh Post-Gazette - Google News Archive Search
  48. ^ College Football Data Warehouse
  49. ^ "University of Pittsburgh Panthers football history" (PDF). University of Pittsburgh. 2006. Retrieved January 9, 2009. 
  50. ^ "Panthers tournament history". ESPN.com. March 17, 2008. Retrieved January 9, 2009. 
  51. ^ The Owl, 1937, pg 222, accessdate=2008-11-07
  52. ^ "Pittsburgh Panthers Athletics official site". PittsburghPanthers.com. Retrieved January 9, 2009. 
  53. ^ "Duquesne Dukes Athletics official site". GOduqusene.com. Retrieved January 9, 2009. 
  54. ^ "Robert Morris University Athletics official site". RMUcolonials.com. Retrieved January 9, 2009. 
  55. ^ Pittsburgh Three Rivers Regatta, accessdate=2009-01-10
  56. ^ Head of the Ohio, accessdate=2009-01-10
  57. ^ Pittsburgh Vintage Grand Prix, accessdate=July 20, 2012
  58. ^ Sanata, Larry (July 9, 2012). "History in the Park". Autoweek. 62 (14): 23. 
  59. ^ Great Race, accessdate=2009-01-10
  60. ^ "Our Story". About Us. PittsburghMarathon.com. Archived from the original on March 2, 2009. Retrieved January 9, 2009. 
  61. ^ Dick Vitale, A classic showcase for high school talent, ESPN.com, accessdate=2009-03-19
  62. ^ Home :: Pittsburgh Cricket Association
  63. ^ About PCA :: Pittsburgh Cricket Association
  64. ^ "Ken Griffey Statistics". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved January 8, 2009. 
  65. ^ "Ken Griffey Statistics". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved January 8, 2009. 
  66. ^ "Stan Musial Statistics". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved January 8, 2009. 
  67. ^ Finoli, Ranier 2003, p. 243
  68. ^ "Tito Francona Statistics". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved January 8, 2009. 
  69. ^ "Doc Medich Statistics". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved January 8, 2009. 
  70. ^ "Bill Cowher Coaching Statistics". ProFootball-Reference.com. Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved January 9, 2009. 
  71. ^ "Mike Ditka". Members. ProFootballhof.com. Retrieved January 9, 2009. 
  72. ^ "Joe Namath". Members. ProFootballhof.com. Retrieved January 9, 2009. 
  73. ^ "Tony Dorsett". Members. ProFootballhof.com. Retrieved January 9, 2009. 
  74. ^ Biertempfel, Rob (October 22, 2006). "Cuban hoping to work his magic here someday". Pittsburgh Tribune-Review. Retrieved January 9, 2009. 
  75. ^ "Jack Twyman Statistics". Basketball-Reference.com. Retrieved January 9, 2009. 
  76. ^ "Swin Cash". Biography. WNBA.com. Retrieved January 9, 2009. 
  77. ^ "Swin Cash Biography". SwinCash.com. Retrieved January 9, 2009. 
  78. ^ "Kurt Angle Biography". The Washington Post. Retrieved January 9, 2009. 
  79. ^ "Rocco Mediate Profile". PGAtour.com. Retrieved January 9, 2009. 
  80. ^ "Arnold Palmer Profile". PGAtour.com. Retrieved January 9, 2009. 
  81. ^ O'Brien 2008, p. 8
  82. ^ McHugh, Roy (January 20, 1991). "VIEWS OF SPORT; True Grit: Quarterbacks From Steel Belt Football". The New York Times. Retrieved July 1, 2009. 

References[edit]

  • Finoli, David; Bill Ranier (2003). The Pittsburgh Pirates Encyclopedia. United States: Sports Publishing LLC. ISBN 1-58261-416-4. 
  • O'Brien, Jim (2001). The Chief: Art Rooney and his Pittsburgh Steelers. Pittsburgh: James P. O'Brien – Publishing. ISBN 1-886348-06-5. 
  • O'Brien, Jim (1994). Penguin Profiles. Pittsburgh: James P. O'Brien – Publishing. ISBN 0-916114-16-3. 
  • O'Brien, Jim (1998). We Had 'Em All the Way: Bob Prince and his Pittsburgh Pirates. Pittsburgh: James P. O'Brien – Publishing. ISBN 1-886348-03-0. 
  • O'Brien, Jim (2008). Pittsburgh Proud. Pittsburgh: James P. O'Brien – Publishing. ISBN 978-1-886348-14-1. 

Further reading[edit]

  • McCollister, John (2002). Bucs: The Story of the Pittsburgh Pirates. Lenexa, Kansas: Addax Publishing Group. ISBN 978-1-886110-40-3. 
  • McCollister, John (2008). The good, the bad, and the ugly Pittsburgh Pirates: heart-pounding, jaw-dropping, and gut-wrenching moments from Pittsburgh Pirates history. Chicago: Triumph Books. ISBN 978-1-57243-982-5. 
  • Mendelson, Abby (2005). The Pittsburgh Steelers: The Official Team History, Updated Edition. Lanham, Maryland: Taylor Trade Publishing. ISBN 1-58979-246-7. 
  • Sciullo Jr., Sam (2005). Pitt: 100 Years of Pitt Basketball. Champaign, Illinois: Sports Publishing. ISBN 1-59670-081-5. 
  • Sciullo Jr., Sam (1994). Greatest Moments in Pitt Football History. Athlon.