Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide

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Adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide 1 (pituitary)
Protein ADCYAP1 PDB 2d2p.png
PDB rendering based on 2d2p.
Available structures
PDB Ortholog search: PDBe, RCSB
External IDs OMIM102980 MGI105094 HomoloGene869 ChEMBL: 5692 GeneCards: ADCYAP1 Gene
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE ADCYAP1 206281 at tn.png
More reference expression data
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 116 11516
Ensembl ENSG00000141433 ENSMUSG00000024256
UniProt P18509 O70176
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_001099733 NM_009625
RefSeq (protein) NP_001093203 NP_033755
Location (UCSC) Chr 18:
0.9 – 0.91 Mb
Chr 17:
93.2 – 93.21 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]

Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide also known as PACAP is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ADCYAP1 gene.[1][2] PACAP is similar to vasoactive intestinal peptide. One of its effects is to stimulate enterochromaffin-like cells. It binds to vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor and to the PACAP receptor.


This gene encodes adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide 1. Mediated by adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide 1 receptors, this polypeptide stimulates adenylate cyclase and subsequently increases the cAMP level in target cells. Adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide 1 not only is a hypophysiotropic hormone (i.e. a substance that induces activity in the hypophysis) but also functions as a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator. In addition, it plays a role in paracrine and autocrine regulation of certain types of cells. This gene is composed of five exons. Exons 1 and 2 encode the 5' UTR and signal peptide, respectively; exon 4 encodes an adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide 1-related peptide; and exon 5 encodes the mature peptide and 3' UTR. This gene encodes three different mature peptides, including two isotypes: a shorter form and a longer form.[2]

Recently a version of this gene has been associated with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in women (but not men).[3] This disorder involves a maladaptive psychological response to traumatic, i.e. existence-threatening, events. Ressler et al. identified an association of a SNP in the gene coding for pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP), implicating this peptide and its receptor (PAC1) in PTSD.


Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide has been shown to interact with Secretin receptor.[4]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Hosoya M, Kimura C, Ogi K, Ohkubo S, Miyamoto Y, Kugoh H, Shimizu M, Onda H, Oshimura M, Arimura A et al. (Feb 1992). "Structure of the human pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) gene". Biochim Biophys Acta 1129 (2): 199–206. doi:10.1016/0167-4781(92)90488-l. PMID 1730060. 
  2. ^ a b "Entrez Gene: ADCYAP1 adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide 1 (pituitary)". 
  3. ^ Ressler, KJ; Mercer, KB; Bradley, B; Jovanovic, T; Mahan, A; Kerley, K; Norrholm, SD; Kilaru, V; Smith, AK; Myers, AJ; Ramirez, M; Engel, A; Hammack, SE; Toufexis, D; Braas, KM; Binder, EB; May, V (Feb 24, 2011). "Post-traumatic stress disorder is associated with PACAP and the PAC1 receptor.". Nature 470 (7335): 492–7. doi:10.1038/nature09856. PMC 3046811. PMID 21350482. 
  4. ^ Felley, C P; Qian J M; Mantey S; Pradhan T; Jensen R T (Dec 1992). "Chief cells possess a receptor with high affinity for PACAP and VIP that stimulates pepsinogen release". Am. J. Physiol. (UNITED STATES) 263 (6 Pt 1): G901–7. ISSN 0002-9513. PMID 1335692. 

Further reading[edit]

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This article incorporates text from the United States National Library of Medicine, which is in the public domain.