Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide

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Adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide 1 (pituitary)
Protein ADCYAP1 PDB 2d2p.png
PDB rendering based on 2d2p.
Available structures
PDB Ortholog search: PDBe, RCSB
Identifiers
Symbols ADCYAP1 ; PACAP
External IDs OMIM102980 MGI105094 HomoloGene869 ChEMBL: 5692 GeneCards: ADCYAP1 Gene
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE ADCYAP1 206281 at tn.png
More reference expression data
Orthologs
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 116 11516
Ensembl ENSG00000141433 ENSMUSG00000024256
UniProt P18509 O70176
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_001099733 NM_009625
RefSeq (protein) NP_001093203 NP_033755
Location (UCSC) Chr 18:
0.9 – 0.91 Mb
Chr 17:
93.2 – 93.21 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]

Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide also known as PACAP is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ADCYAP1 gene.[1][2] PACAP is similar to vasoactive intestinal peptide. One of its effects is to stimulate enterochromaffin-like cells. It binds to vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor and to the PACAP receptor.

Function[edit]

This gene encodes adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide 1. Mediated by adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide 1 receptors, this polypeptide stimulates adenylate cyclase and subsequently increases the cAMP level in target cells. Adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide 1 not only is a hypophysiotropic hormone (i.e. a substance that induces activity in the hypophysis) but also functions as a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator. In addition, it plays a role in paracrine and autocrine regulation of certain types of cells. This gene is composed of five exons. Exons 1 and 2 encode the 5' UTR and signal peptide, respectively; exon 4 encodes an adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide 1-related peptide; and exon 5 encodes the mature peptide and 3' UTR. This gene encodes three different mature peptides, including two isotypes: a shorter form and a longer form.[2]

Recently a version of this gene has been associated with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in women (but not men).[3] This disorder involves a maladaptive psychological response to traumatic, i.e. existence-threatening, events. Ressler et al. identified an association of a SNP in the gene coding for pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP), implicating this peptide and its receptor (PAC1) in PTSD.

Interactions[edit]

Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide has been shown to interact with Secretin receptor.[4]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Hosoya M, Kimura C, Ogi K, Ohkubo S, Miyamoto Y, Kugoh H, Shimizu M, Onda H, Oshimura M, Arimura A et al. (Feb 1992). "Structure of the human pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) gene". Biochim Biophys Acta 1129 (2): 199–206. doi:10.1016/0167-4781(92)90488-l. PMID 1730060. 
  2. ^ a b "Entrez Gene: ADCYAP1 adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide 1 (pituitary)". 
  3. ^ Ressler, KJ; Mercer, KB; Bradley, B; Jovanovic, T; Mahan, A; Kerley, K; Norrholm, SD; Kilaru, V; Smith, AK; Myers, AJ; Ramirez, M; Engel, A; Hammack, SE; Toufexis, D; Braas, KM; Binder, EB; May, V (Feb 24, 2011). "Post-traumatic stress disorder is associated with PACAP and the PAC1 receptor.". Nature 470 (7335): 492–7. doi:10.1038/nature09856. PMC 3046811. PMID 21350482. 
  4. ^ Felley, C P; Qian J M; Mantey S; Pradhan T; Jensen R T (Dec 1992). "Chief cells possess a receptor with high affinity for PACAP and VIP that stimulates pepsinogen release". Am. J. Physiol. (UNITED STATES) 263 (6 Pt 1): G901–7. ISSN 0002-9513. PMID 1335692. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

This article incorporates text from the United States National Library of Medicine, which is in the public domain.