Planetary flyby

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A planetary flyby is the act of sending a space probe past a celestial body close enough to record scientific data. [1]

Flybys commonly use gravity assists to "slingshot" a space probe on its journey to its primary objective, but may themselves be used as primary means.

The Galileo flybys featured both purely gravitional assists and scientific experiments

1950s[edit]

  • Soviet Union Luna 1 – 2 January 1959 – First lunar flyby and first Soviet lunar flyby (inadvertent; intended as impactor);[2] first human-made object to reach heliocentric orbit
  • United States Pioneer 4 – 3 March 1959 – First successful lunar flyby and first American lunar flyby [3]
  • Soviet Union Luna 3 – 4 October 1959 – Lunar flyby; first imagery of far side of Moon; first gravity assist; first lunar gravity assist [4][5][6]

1960s[edit]

  • Soviet Union Venera 1 – 12 February 1961 – First Venus flyby (contact lost before flyby) [7]
  • United States Mariner 2 – 27 August 1962 – First successful non-lunar planetary encounter and first successful Venus flyby [8]
  • Soviet Union Mars 1 – 1 November 1962 – First Mars flyby (contact lost) [9]
  • Soviet Union Zond 1 – 2 April 1964 – Venus flyby (contact lost) [10]
  • United States Mariner 3 – 5 November 1964 – Attempted Mars flyby (failed to attain correct trajectory) [11]
  • United States Mariner 4 – 28 November 1964 – First Successful Mars flyby [12]
  • Soviet Union Zond 2 – 30 November 1964 – Mars flyby (contact lost) [13][14]
  • Soviet Union Zond 3 – 18 July 1965 – Lunar flyby [15]
  • Soviet Union Venera 2 – 12 November 1965 – Venus flyby (contact lost) [16]
  • United States Mariner 5 – 14 June 1967 – Venus flyby [17]
  • Soviet Union Zond 5 – 15 September 1968 – First lunar flyby to return to Earth [18]
  • Soviet Union Zond 6 – 10 November 1968 – Lunar flyby and return to Earth [19]
  • United States Mariner 6 – 25 February 1969 – Mars flyby [20]
  • United States Mariner 7 – 27 March 1969 – Mars flyby [21]
  • Soviet Union Zond 7 – 7 August 1969 – Lunar flyby and return to Earth [22]

1970s[edit]

Voyager 2 trajectory
  • United States Apollo 13 – 11 April 1970 – Manned lunar flyby and return to Earth (inadvertent; manned lunar landing aborted); Farthest from Earth a human has gone [23]
  • Soviet Union Zond 8 – 20 October 1970 – Lunar flyby and return to Earth[24]
  • United States Pioneer 10 – 3 March 1972 – First Jupiter flyby
  • United States Pioneer 11 – 5 April 1973 – Jupiter flyby and First Saturn flyby
  • United States Voyager 2 - 9 July 1979 - Jupiter flyby
  • Soviet Union Mars 4 – 21 July 1973 – Mars flyby (inadvertent; attempted Mars orbiter)
  • Soviet Union Mars 7 – 9 August 1973 – Mars flyby and attempted lander (inadvertent; missed Mars)
  • United States Mariner 10 – 4 November 1973 – Venus flyby and First Mercury flyby
  • United States Voyager 2 – 20 August 1977 – First Uranus/first Neptune flyby
  • United States Voyager 1 – 5 September 1977 – Jupiter/Saturn flyby, Farthest human-made object – currently (2014) about 130 AU
  • United States European Union ISEE-3 – 12 August 1978 – Solar wind investigations; later redesignated International Cometary Explorer and performed Comet Giacobini-Zinner and Comet Halley flybys – First comet flyby
  • Soviet Union Venera 11 – 9 September 1978 – Venus flyby and lander
  • Soviet Union Venera 12 – 14 September 1978 – Venus flyby and lander

1980s[edit]

  • Soviet Union Venera 13 – 30 October 1981 – Venus flyby and lander
  • Soviet Union Venera 14 – 4 November 1981 – Venus flyby and lander
  • Soviet Union Vega 1 – 15 December 1984 – Venus flyby, lander and first balloon; continued on to Comet Halley flyby
  • Soviet Union Vega 2 – 21 December 1984 – Venus flyby, lander and balloon; continued on to Comet Halley flyby
  • Japan Sakigake – 7 January 1985 – Comet Halley flyby
  • European Union Giotto – 2 July 1985 – Comet Halley flyby
  • Japan Suisei (Planet-A) – 18 August 1985 – Comet Halley flyby
  • United States Galileo – 18 October 1989 – Venus flyby, first asteroid flyby, first asteroid moon discovery, first Jupiter orbiter/atmospheric probe

1990s[edit]

Cassini-Huygens trajectory

2000s[edit]

  • United States Cassini–Huygens - 23 January 2000 - Asteroid 2685 Masursky flyby
  • United States Cassini–Huygens - 30 December 2000 - Jupiter and cruise science flyby
  • United States CONTOUR – 3 July 2002 – Attempted flyby of three comet nuclei (lost in space)
  • United States New Horizons –13 June 2006- Asteroid 132524 APL cruise science flyby
  • United States New Horizons -28 February 2007- Jupiter flyby and gravity assist; shakedown cruise of instrumentation

2010s[edit]

  • China Chang'e 2 – 1 October 2010 – Lunar orbiter, Asteroid 4179 Toutatis flyby
  • China Chang'e 5-T1 – 23 October 2014 - Lunar flyby/orbiter and Earth reentry probe; technology demonstration to prepare for Chang'e 5 mission
  • Japan PROCYON – 3 December 2014 – Asteroid flyby - flyby cancelled due to engine failure
  • United States New Horizons – 14 July 2015 – First Pluto/Charon flyby

See also[edit]

References[edit]