Planetary flyby

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
The Galileo flybys featured both purely gravitional assists and scientific experiments

A planetary flyby is the act of sending a space probe past a celestial body close enough to record scientific data. [1]

Flybys commonly use gravity assists to "slingshot" a space probe on its journey to its primary objective, but may themselves be used as primary means.

Flybys[edit]

Flyby Date Launch Date Operator Spacecraft Details Mission Result
19 May 1961 12 February 1961 Soviet Union Venera 1 First Venus flyby (contact lost before flyby)[2] Failure
14 December 1962 27 August 1962 United States Mariner 2 First successful non-lunar planetary encounter and first successful Venus flyby[3] Success
19 June 1963 1 November 1962 Soviet Union Mars 1 First Mars flyby (contact lost)[4] Failure
19 July 1964 2 April 1964 Soviet Union Zond 1 Venus flyby (contact lost)[5] Failure
15 July 1965 28 November 1964 United States Mariner 4 First successful Mars flyby[6] Success
6 August 1965 30 November 1964 Soviet Union Zond 2 Mars flyby (contact lost)[7] Failure
27 February 1966 12 November 1965 Soviet Union Venera 2 Venus flyby (contact lost)[8] Failure
19 October 1967 14 June 1967 United States Mariner 5 Venus flyby[9] Success
31 July 1969 25 February 1969 United States Mariner 6 Mars flyby[10] Success
5 August 1969 27 March 1969 United States Mariner 7 Mars flyby[11] Success
3 December 1973 3 March 1972 United States Pioneer 10 First Jupiter flyby[12] Success
5 February 1974 4 November 1973 United States Mariner 10 Venus flyby[13] Success
10 February 1974 21 July 1973 Soviet Union Mars 4 Mars flyby (inadvertent; attempted Mars orbiter)[14] Failure
9 March 1974 9 August 1973 Soviet Union Mars 7 Mars flyby (inadvertent; attempted Mars lander)[15] Failure
12 March 1974 5 August 1973 Soviet Union Mars 6 Mars flyby (flyby succeeded but lander failed)[16] Failure
29 March 1974 4 November 1973 United States Mariner 10 First Mercury flyby[13] Success
21 September 1974 4 November 1973 United States Mariner 10 Mercury flyby[13] Success
3 December 1974 5 April 1973 United States Pioneer 11 Jupiter flyby[17] Success
16 March 1975 4 November 1973 United States Mariner 10 Mercury flyby[13] Success
19 December 1978 14 September 1978 Soviet Union Venera 12 Venus flyby and lander[18] Success
25 December 1978 9 September 1978 Soviet Union Venera 11 Venus flyby and lander[19] Success
5 March 1979 5 September 1977 United States Voyager 1 Jupiter flyby[20] Success
9 July 1979 20 August 1977 United States Voyager 2 Jupiter flyby[21] Success
1 September 1979 5 April 1973 United States Pioneer 11 First Saturn flyby[17] Success
12 November 1980 5 September 1977 United States Voyager 1 Saturn flyby[20] Success
25 August 1981 20 August 1977 United States Voyager 2 Saturn flyby[21] Success
1 March 1982 30 October 1981 Soviet Union Venera 13 Venus flyby and lander[22] Success
5 March 1982 4 November 1981 Soviet Union Venera 14 Venus flyby and lander[23] Success
11 June 1985 15 December 1984 Soviet Union Vega 1 Venus flyby, lander, and first balloon[24] Success
15 June 1985 21 December 1984 Soviet Union Vega 2 Venus flyby, lander, and balloon[25] Success
24 January 1986 20 August 1977 United States Voyager 2 First and only Uranus flyby[21] Success
25 August 1989 20 August 1977 United States Voyager 2 First and only Neptune flyby[21] Success
10 February 1990 13 October 1989 United States Galileo Venus flyby, first of three gravity assists to Jupiter[26] Success
2 July 1990 2 July 1985 European Union Giotto First Earth flyby, gravity assist for extended mission to 26P/Grigg–Skjellerup[27] Success
8 October 1990 13 October 1989 United States Galileo Earth flyby, second of three gravity assists to Jupiter[26] Success
8 January 1992 7 January 1985 Japan Sakigake Earth flyby[28] Success
8 February 1992 6 October 1990 European UnionUnited States Ulysses Jupiter flyby, inclination change gravity assist for solar mission[29] Success
8 December 1992 13 October 1989 United States Galileo Earth flyby, last of three gravity assists to Jupiter[26] Success
24 August 1993 25 September 1992 United States Mars Observer Mars flyby (inadvertent; attempted Mars orbiter)[30] Failure
23 January 1998 17 February 1996 United States NEAR Shoemaker Earth flyby, gravity assist to 433 Eros[31] Success
26 April 1998 15 October 1997 European UnionUnited States Cassini–Huygens Venus flyby, first of four gravity assists to Saturn[32] Success
24 June 1999 15 October 1997 European UnionUnited States Cassini–Huygens Venus flyby, second of four gravity assists to Saturn[33] Success
18 August 1999 15 October 1997 European UnionUnited States Cassini–Huygens Earth flyby, third of four gravity assists to Saturn[34] Success
30 December 2000 15 October 1997 European UnionUnited States Cassini–Huygens Jupiter flyby, last of four gravity assists to Saturn[35] Success
15 January 2001 27 February 1999 United States Stardust Earth flyby, gravity assist to 81P/Wild[36] Success
21 April 2002 4 July 1998 Japan Nozomi Earth flyby, first of two gravity assists to Mars[37] Success
19 June 2003 4 July 1998 Japan Nozomi Earth flyby, last of two gravity assists to Mars[37] Success
14 December 2003 4 July 1998 Japan Nozomi Mars flyby (inadvertent; planned Mars orbiter)[37] Failure
19 May 2004 9 May 2003 Japan Hayabusa Earth flyby, gravity assist to 25143 Itokawa[38] Success
4 March 2005 2 March 2004 European Union Rosetta Earth flyby, first of four gravity assists to 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko[39] Success
2 August 2005 3 August 2004 United States MESSENGER Earth flyby, first gravity assist to Mercury[40] Success
15 January 2006 27 February 1999 United States Stardust Earth flyby and sample return capsule reentry[36] Success
24 October 2006 3 August 2004 United States MESSENGER Venus flyby, second gravity assist to Mercury[40] Success
25 February 2007 2 March 2004 European Union Rosetta Mars flyby, second of four gravity assists to 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko[39] Success
5 June 2007 3 August 2004 United States MESSENGER Venus flyby, third gravity assist to Mercury. Also characterized the planet's atmosphere.[40] Success
13 November 2007 2 March 2004 European Union Rosetta Earth flyby, third of four gravity assists to 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko[39] Success
31 December 2007 12 January 2005 United States Deep Impact (EPOXI) Earth flyby[41] Success
14 January 2008 3 August 2004 United States MESSENGER Mercury flyby, fourth gravity assist before orbital insertion and primary mission[40] Success
6 October 2008 3 August 2004 United States MESSENGER Mercury flyby, fifth gravity assist before orbital insertion and primary mission[40] Success
29 December 2008 12 January 2005 United States Deep Impact (EPOXI) Earth flyby[41] Success
14 January 2009 27 February 1999 United States Stardust Earth flyby, gravity assist to 9P/Tempel[36] Success
18 February 2009 27 September 2007 United States Dawn Mars flyby, gravity assist to 4 Vesta[42] Success
29 June 2009 12 January 2005 United States Deep Impact (EPOXI) Earth flyby (distant)[43] Success
29 September 2009 3 August 2004 United States MESSENGER Mercury flyby, sixth and final gravity assist before orbital insertion and primary mission[40] Success
13 November 2009 2 March 2004 European Union Rosetta Earth flyby, last of four gravity assists to 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko[39] Success
28 December 2009 12 January 2005 United States Deep Impact (EPOXI) Earth flyby (distant)[43] Success
27 June 2010 12 January 2005 United States Deep Impact (EPOXI) Earth flyby[41] Success
6 December 2010 20 May 2010 Japan Akatsuki Venus flyby (inadvertent; planned Venus orbiter; later inserted into orbit)[44] Failure
8 December 2010 20 May 2010 Japan IKAROS Venus flyby, probe was a technological demonstrator that launched with Akatsuki[45] Success
9 October 2013 5 August 2011 United States Juno Earth flyby, gravity assist to Jupiter[46] Success
14 July 2015 19 January 2006 United States New Horizons First and only Pluto/Charon flyby[47] Success
3 December 2015 3 December 2014 Japan Hayabusa 2 Earth flyby, gravity assist to 162173 Ryugu[48] Success

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Flyby | Define Flyby at Dictionary.com". Retrieved 2015-07-15. 
  2. ^ "Venera 1". nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2015-12-23. 
  3. ^ "Mariner 2". nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2015-12-23. 
  4. ^ "Mars 1". nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2015-12-23. 
  5. ^ "Zond 1". nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2015-12-23. 
  6. ^ "Mariner 4". nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2015-12-23. 
  7. ^ "Zond 2". nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2015-12-23. 
  8. ^ "Venera 2". nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2015-12-23. 
  9. ^ "Mariner 5". nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2015-12-23. 
  10. ^ "Mariner 6". nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2015-12-23. 
  11. ^ "Mariner 7". nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2015-12-23. 
  12. ^ "Pioneer 10". nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2015-12-23. 
  13. ^ a b c d "Mariner 10". nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2015-12-23. 
  14. ^ "Mars 4". nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2015-12-23. 
  15. ^ "Mars 7". nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2015-12-23. 
  16. ^ "Mars 6". nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2015-12-23. 
  17. ^ a b "Pioneer 11". nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2015-12-23. 
  18. ^ "Venera 12". nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2015-12-23. 
  19. ^ "Venera 11". nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2015-12-23. 
  20. ^ a b "Voyager 1". nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2015-12-23. 
  21. ^ a b c d "Voyager 2". nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2015-12-23. 
  22. ^ "Venera 13". nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2015-12-23. 
  23. ^ "Venera 14". nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2015-12-23. 
  24. ^ "Vega 1". nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2015-12-23. 
  25. ^ "Vega 2". nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2015-12-23. 
  26. ^ a b c "Galileo - In Depth | Missions - NASA Solar System Exploration". NASA Solar System Exploration. Retrieved 2015-12-23. 
  27. ^ "Giotto". nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2015-12-23. 
  28. ^ "Sakigake". nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2015-12-23. 
  29. ^ "Ulysses - In Depth | Missions - NASA Solar System Exploration". NASA Solar System Exploration. Retrieved 2015-12-23. 
  30. ^ "Mars Observer". nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2015-12-23. 
  31. ^ "NEAR Shoemaker". nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2015-12-23. 
  32. ^ "Cassini Completes First Venus Flyby". Cassini Solstice Mission. Retrieved 2015-12-23. 
  33. ^ "Cassini Completes Second Venus Flyby". Cassini Solstice Mission. Retrieved 2015-12-23. 
  34. ^ "Cassini Completes Earth Flyby". Cassini Solstice Mission. Retrieved 2015-12-23. 
  35. ^ "Cassini celebrates 10 years since Jupiter encounter". phys.org. Science X network. Retrieved 2015-12-23. 
  36. ^ a b c "Stardust/NExT". nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2015-12-23. 
  37. ^ a b c "Nozomi". nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2015-12-23. 
  38. ^ "Hayabusa". nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2015-12-23. 
  39. ^ a b c d "Rosetta". nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2015-12-23. 
  40. ^ a b c d e f "MESSENGER". nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2015-12-23. 
  41. ^ a b c "Deep Impact/EPOXI". nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2015-12-23. 
  42. ^ "Dawn". nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2015-12-23. 
  43. ^ a b "NASA - EPOXI Mission - Mission". epoxi.umd.edu. Retrieved 2015-12-23. 
  44. ^ "Akatsuki". nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2015-12-23. 
  45. ^ "IKAROS". nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2016-01-05. 
  46. ^ "Juno". nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2015-12-23. 
  47. ^ "New Horizons Pluto Kuiper Belt Flyby". nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2015-12-23. 
  48. ^ "Hayabusa 2". nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2015-12-23.