Planetary geology, alternatively known as astrogeology or exogeology, is a planetary science discipline concerned with the geology of the celestial bodies such as the planets and their moons, asteroids, comets, and meteorites. Although the geo- prefix typically indicates topics of or relating to the Earth, planetary geology is named as such for historical and convenience reasons; applying geological science to other planetary bodies. Due to the types of investigations involved, it is also closely linked with Earth-based geology.
Planetary geology includes such topics as determining the internal structure of the terrestrial planets, and also looks at planetary volcanism and surface processes such as impact craters, fluvial and aeolian processes. The structures of the giant planets and their moons are also examined, as is the make-up of the minor bodies of the Solar System, such as asteroids, the Kuiper Belt, and comets.
History of planetary geology
||The examples and perspective in this section deal primarily with the United States and do not represent a worldwide view of the subject. (January 2014)|
Eugene Shoemaker is credited with bringing geologic principles to planetary mapping and creating the branch of planetary science in the early 1960s, the Astrogeology Research Program, within the United States Geological Survey. He made important contributions to the field and the study of impact craters, Selenography, asteroids, and comets.
Today many institutions are concerned with the study and communication of planetary sciences and planetary geology. The Visitor Center at Barringer Meteor Crater near Winslow, Arizona includes a Museum of planetary geology. The Geological Society of America's Planetary Geology Division has been growing and thriving since May 1981 and has two mottos: "One planet just isn't enough!" and "“The GSA Division with the biggest field area!"
Major centers for planetary science research include the Lunar and Planetary Institute, the Applied Physics Laboratory, the Planetary Science Institute, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Southwest Research Institute, and Johnson Space Center. Additionally, several universities conduct extensive planetary science research, including Montana State University, Brown University, the University of Arizona, Caltech, Western Michigan University, MIT, and Washington University in St. Louis.
Features and terms
In planetary geology, a large area of a planet or moon that is strongly differentiated in colour or albedo is called a Regio. Examples include the Tombaugh Regio on Pluto and three regios of Venus: Alpha Regio, Beta Regio, and Ovda Regio.
- Geological features of the solar system
- Geological history of Earth
- Geology of Mercury
- Geology of Venus
- Geology of the Moon
- Geology of Mars
- Geology of Vesta
- Geology of Ceres
- Geology of Callisto
- Geology of Europa
- Geology of Ganymede
- Geology of Io
- Geology of Titan
- Geology of Triton
- Geology of Pluto
- Geology of Charon
- Chapman, Mary G. "Gene Shoemaker - Founder of Astrogeology". USGS. Retrieved 21 May 2012.
- J. F. Bell III; B. A. Campbell; M. S. Robinson (2004). Remote Sensing for the Earth Sciences: Manual of Remote Sensing (3rd ed.). John Wiley & Sons. Retrieved 2006-08-23.
- Roberge, Aki (1998-04-21). "The Planets After Formation". Department of Terrestrial Magnetism. Archived from the original on 2006-08-13. Retrieved 2006-08-23.