The most common plank is the forearm plank which is held in a push-up-like position, with the body's weight borne on forearms, elbows, and toes. Many variations exist such as the side plank and the reverse plank. The plank is commonly practiced in Pilates and yoga, and by those training for boxing and other sports.
The "extended plank" adds substantial difficulty to the standard plank exercise. To perform the extended plank, a person begins in the push-up position and then extends the arms or hands as far forward as possible.
The plank strengthens the abdominals, back and shoulders. Muscles involved in the front plank include:
- Primary muscles: erector spinae, rectus abdominis (abs), and transverse abdominis.
- Secondary muscles (synergists/segmental stabilizers): trapezius (traps), rhomboids, rotator cuff, the anterior, medial, and posterior deltoid muscles (delts), pectorals (pecs), serratus anterior, gluteus maximus (glutes), quadriceps (quads), and gastrocnemius.
Muscles involved in the side plank include:
- Primary: transversus abdominis muscle, gluteus medius and gluteus minimus muscles (abductors), the adductor muscles of the hip, and the external, and internal obliques.
- Secondary: gluteus maximus (glutes), quadriceps (quads), and hamstrings.
Guiness World Records lists the record for longest duration of a front plank, resting on elbows, as 8 hours and 1 minute, set by Chinese policeman Mao Weidong on May 14, 2016. Retired Marine George Hood completed a record attempt in June 2018, holding a plank for 10 hours, 10 minutes, and 10 seconds.
The longest time in an elbow plank:
- by a woman is 3 hours, 31 minutes and 0 seconds by Maria Kalimera (Cyprus) in September 2015.
- by a woman with a 60-lb pack is 17 min and 26 sec by Eva Bulzomi (USA) in July 2013.
- with a 100-lb pack is 17 min 02 sec by Silehm Boussehaba (France) in December 2018.
- with a 200-lb pack is 4 min 2 sec by Silehm Boussehaba (France) in March 2018.
The longest single-arm plank while balancing on medicine balls is 47.54 seconds, by William Borger (Canada) in October 2016.
Medicine ball plank
- Chaturanga Dandasana - yoga low plank
- Crunch (exercise)
- Planche (exercise)
- Vasishtasana - yoga side plank
- Knack Weight Training for Women: Step-by-Step Exercises for Weight Loss, Leah Garcia, p. 57. Quote:"Plank variations are abundant, and small changes increase the intensity of the exercise."
- Weight Training for Dummies, Liz Neporent, Suzanne Schlosberg, Shirley J. Archer, p. 263.
- Core Strength For Dummies, LaReine Chabut. Quote:"It's used in all yoga sun salutations and other poses. It is also a Pilates-based exercise used in many of Joseph Pilates exercises..."
- Pocket Guide to Fitness, Louiza Patsis, p. 176. Quote:"The "plank exercise" is used in Pilates classes."
- Kettlebells for Dummies, Sarah Lurie, p.260. Quote:"If you've done other exercises like yoga or Pilates before, you may be familiar with the plank position already."
- "The Plank". Boot Camp & Military Fitness Institute. 2013-12-02. Retrieved 2019-08-07.
- Longest time in an abdominal plank position (male), Guinness World Records
- Danger, Jessica (2018-06-29). "Retired Marine Sets 10+ Hour Plank World Record". Morning Chalk Up. Retrieved 2019-10-05.
- "Longest time in an abdominal plank position (female)". Guinness World Records.
- "Longest time in an abdominal plank position with a 60-lb pack (female)". Guinness World Records.
- "Longest time in an abdominal plank position with a 100 lb pack". Guinness World Records.
- "Longest time in an abdominal plank position with a 200-lb pack". Guinness World Records.
- "Longest single-arm plank while balancing on medicine balls". Guinness World Records.
- Media related to Planks at Wikimedia Commons