|Predecessor||American Birth Control League|
|Formation||October 16, 1916[note 1]|
|United States, and worldwide through Planned Parenthood Global and IPPF|
|Alexis McGill Johnson|
(President and CEO)
Planned Parenthood Federation of America, Inc. (PPFA), or Planned Parenthood, is a nonprofit organization that provides reproductive health care in the United States and globally. It is a tax-exempt corporation under Internal Revenue Code section 501(c)(3) and a member association of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF). PPFA has its roots in Brooklyn, New York, where Margaret Sanger opened the first birth control clinic in the U.S. in 1916. Sanger founded the American Birth Control League in 1921, which changed its name to Planned Parenthood in 1942.
Planned Parenthood consists of 159 medical and non-medical affiliates, which operate over 600 health clinics in the U.S. It partners with organizations in 12 countries globally. The organization directly provides a variety of reproductive health services and sexual education, contributes to research in reproductive technology and advocates for the protection and expansion of reproductive rights. Research shows that closures of Planned Parenthood clinics lead to increases in maternal mortality rates.
PPFA is the largest single provider of reproductive health services, including abortion, in the U.S. In their 2014 Annual Report, PPFA reported seeing over 2.5 million patients in over 4 million clinical visits and performing a total of nearly 9.5 million discrete services including 324,000 abortions. Its combined annual revenue is US$1.3 billion, including approximately $530 million in government funding such as Medicaid reimbursements. Throughout its history, PPFA and its member clinics have experienced support, controversy, protests, and violent attacks.
The origins of Planned Parenthood date to October 16, 1916, when Margaret Sanger, her sister Ethel Byrne, and Fania Mindell opened the first birth control clinic in the U.S. in the Brownsville section of the New York borough of Brooklyn. They distributed birth control, birth control advice, and birth control information. All three women were arrested and jailed for violating provisions of the Comstock Act, accused of distributing obscene materials at the clinic. The so-called Brownsville trials brought national attention and support to their cause. Sanger and her co-defendants were convicted on misdemeanor charges, which they appealed through two subsequent appeals courts. While the convictions were not overturned, the judge who issued the final ruling also modified the law to permit physician-prescribed birth control. The women's campaign led to major changes in the laws governing birth control and sex education in the United States.
In 1921, the clinic was organized into the American Birth Control League, the core of the only national birth-control organization in the U.S. until the 1960s. By 1941, it was operating 222 centers and had served 49,000 clients. In 1923, Sanger opened the Birth Control Clinical Research Bureau (BCCRB) for the purposes of dispensing contraceptives under the supervision of licensed physicians and studying their effectiveness.
Some found the ABCL's title offensive and "against families", so the League began discussions for a new name. In 1938, a group of private citizens organized the Citizens Committee for Planned Parenthood to aid the American Birth Control League in spreading scientific knowledge about birth control to the general public. The BCCRB merged with the ABCL in 1939 to form the Birth Control Federation of America (BCFA). In 1942 the name of the BCFA was changed to the Planned Parenthood Federation of America.
1940s – 1960s
Under the leadership of National Director D. Kenneth Rose, the PPFA expanded its programs and services through the 1940s, adding affiliate organizations throughout the country. By the end of World War II, the Federation was no longer solely a center for birth control services or a clearing house for contraceptive information but had emerged as a major national health organization. PPFA's programs included a full range of family planning services including marriage education and counseling, and infertility services. The leadership of the PPFA, largely consisting of businessmen and male physicians, endeavored to incorporate its contraceptive services unofficially into regional and national public health programs by emphasizing less politicized aspects such as child spacing.
During the 1950s, the Federation further adjusted its programs and message to appeal to a family-centered, more conservative post war populace, while continuing to function, through its affiliated clinics, as the more reliable source of contraceptives in the country.
From 1942 to 1962, PPFA concentrated its efforts on strengthening its ties to affiliates, expanding public education programs, and improving its medical and research work. By 1960, visitors to PPFA centers across the nation numbered over 300,000 per year.
Largely relying on a volunteer workforce, by 1960 the Federation had provided family planning counseling in hundreds of communities across the country. Planned Parenthood was one of the founding members of the International Planned Parenthood Federation when it was launched at a conference in Bombay (now Mumbai), India, in 1952.
In 1961, the population crisis debate, along with funding shortages, convinced PPFA to merge with the World Population Emergency Campaign, a citizens fund-raising organization to become PPFA-World Population.
Both Planned Parenthood and Margaret Sanger are strongly associated with the abortion issue today. For much of the organization's history, however, and throughout Sanger's life, abortion was illegal in the U.S., and discussions of the issue were often censored. During this period, Sanger – like other American advocates of birth control – publicly condemned abortion, arguing that it would not be needed if every woman had access to birth control.
1960s – present
Following Margaret Sanger, Alan Frank Guttmacher became president of Planned Parenthood, serving from 1962 until 1974. During his tenure, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the sale of the original birth control pill, giving rise to new attitudes towards women's reproductive freedom. Also during his presidency, Planned Parenthood lobbied the federal government to support reproductive health, culminating with President Richard Nixon's signing of Title X to provide governmental subsidies for low-income women to access family planning services. The Center for Family Planning Program Development was also founded as a semi-autonomous division during this time. The center became an independent organization and was renamed the Guttmacher Institute in 1977.
Planned Parenthood began to advocate abortion law reform beginning in 1955, when the organization's medical director, Mary Calderone, convened a national conference of medical professionals on the issue. The conference was the first instance of physicians and other professionals advocating reform of the laws which criminalized abortion, and it played a key role in creating a movement for the reform of abortion laws in the U.S. Focusing, at first, on legalizing therapeutic abortion, Planned Parenthood became an increasingly vocal proponent of liberalized abortion laws during the 1960s, culminating in its call for the repeal of all anti-abortion laws in 1969. In the years that followed, the organization played a key role in landmark abortion rights cases such as Roe v Wade (1973) and Planned Parenthood v Casey (1992). Once abortion was legalized during the early 1970s, Planned Parenthood also began acting as an abortion provider.
Faye Wattleton became the first African American president of the Planned Parenthood Federation of America in 1978. Wattleton, who was also the youngest president in Planned Parenthood's history, served in this role until 1992. During her term, Planned Parenthood grew to become the seventh largest charity in the country, providing services to four million clients each year through its 170 affiliates, whose activities were spread across 50 states.
From 1996 to 2006, Planned Parenthood was led by Gloria Feldt. Feldt activated the Planned Parenthood Action Fund (PPAF), the organization's political action committee, launching what was the most far reaching electoral advocacy effort in its history. The PPAF serves as the nonpartisan political advocacy arm of PPFA. It engages in educational and electoral activity, including legislative advocacy, voter education, and grassroots organizing to promote the PPFA mission. Feldt also launched the Responsible Choices Action Agenda, a nationwide campaign to increase services to prevent unwanted pregnancies, improve quality of reproductive care, and ensure access to safe and legal abortions. Another initiative was the commencement of a "Global Partnership Program", with the aim of building a vibrant activist constituency in support of family planning.
On February 15, 2006, Cecile Richards, the daughter of former Texas governor Ann Richards, and formerly the deputy chief of staff to the U.S. Rep. Nancy Pelosi (the Democratic Leader in the United States House of Representatives), became president of the organization. In 2012, Richards was voted one of Time magazine's 100 Most Influential People in the World.
Richards' tenure as president of the organization ended on April 30, 2018. Current Planned Parenthood board member Joe Solmonese was appointed as transition chair to temporarily oversee day-to-day operations of Planned Parenthood after Richards’ departure.
On September 12, 2018, the organization announced that Leana Wen would take over as president, effective November 2018. Wen was removed as president of Planned Parenthood by the organization's board of directors on July 16, 2019. Alexis McGill Johnson, a board member and former chairwoman, became the organization's acting president.
Margaret Sanger Awards
In 1966, PPFA began awarding the Margaret Sanger Award annually to honor, in their words, "individuals of distinction in recognition of excellence and leadership in furthering reproductive health and reproductive rights." In the first year, it was awarded to four men: Carl G. Hartman, William Henry Draper Jr., Lyndon B. Johnson, and Martin Luther King Jr. Later recipients have included John D. Rockefeller III, Katharine Hepburn, Jane Fonda, Hillary Clinton, and Ted Turner.
The services provided by PPFA affiliates vary by location, with just over half of all Planned Parenthood affiliates in the U.S. performing abortions. Services provided by PPFA include birth control and long-acting reversible contraception; emergency contraception; clinical breast examinations; cervical cancer screening; pregnancy testing and pregnancy options counseling; prenatal care; testing and treatment for sexually transmitted infections; sex education; vasectomies; LGBT services; and abortion. Contrary to the assumption of some, Planned Parenthood conducts cancer screenings but does not provide mammograms.
In 2013, PPFA reported seeing 2.7 million patients in 4.6 million clinical visits. Roughly 16% of its clients are teenagers. According to PPFA, in 2014 the organization provided 3.6 million contraceptive services, 4.5 million sexually transmitted infection services, about 1 million cancer related services, over 1 million pregnancy tests and prenatal services, over 324,000 abortion services, and over 100,000 other services, for a total of 9.5 million discrete services. PPFA is well known for providing services to minorities and to poor people; according to PPFA, approximately four out of five of their clients have incomes at or below 150 percent of the federal poverty level. Services for men's health include STD testing and treatment, vasectomy procedures, and erectile dysfunction services. Education is available regarding male birth control and lowering the risk of sexually transmitted diseases.
Planned Parenthood won the 2020 Webby Award for Machine Learning and Bots for their Sex Education chatbot.
PPFA has two national offices in the United States: one in Washington, D.C., and one in New York City. It has three international offices, including a hub office in London, England. It has 68 medical and related affiliates and 101 other affiliates including 34 political action committees. These affiliates together operate more than 700 health centers in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. PPFA owns about $54 million in property, including real estate. In addition, PPFA spends a little over $1 million per year for rented space. The largest facility, a $26 million, 78,000-square-foot (7,200-square-metre) structure, was completed in Houston, Texas, in May 2010.
PPFA's international outreach and other activities are performed by Planned Parenthood Global, a division of PPFA, and by the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) which now consists of more than 149 Member Associations working in more than 189 countries. The IPPF is further associated with International Planned Parenthood Federation affiliates in the Caribbean and the Americas, and IPPF European Network, as well as other organizations like Family Planning Queensland, Pro Familia (Germany) (de) and mouvement français pour le planning familial (French Movement for Family Planning) (fr). Offices are located in New York, NY; Washington, D.C.; Miami, FL; Guatemala City, Guatemala; Abuja, Nigeria; and Nairobi, Kenya. The organization's focus countries are Guatemala, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Peru, Senegal, Burkina Faso, Nigeria, Sudan, South Sudan, Uganda, Ethiopia, and Kenya. The Bloomberg Philanthropies donated $50 million for Planned Parenthood Global's reproductive health and family planning efforts in Tanzania, Nicaragua, Burkina Faso, Senegal and Uganda. Among specific countries and territories serviced by Planned Parenthood Global's reproductive planning outreach are Brazil, Colombia, El Salvador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Martinique, Mexico, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Venezuela, Puerto Rico, U.S. Virgin Islands, Dominican Republic, Barbados, Bolivia, Ecuador, Guadeloupe, Saint Martin, Guyana, Cape Verde and Samoa.
Planned Parenthood has received federal funding since 1970, when President Richard Nixon signed into law the Family Planning Services and Population Research Act, amending the Public Health Service Act. Title X of that law provides funding for family planning services, including contraception and family planning information. The law had support from both Republicans and Democrats. Nixon described Title X funding as based on the premise that "no American woman should be denied access to family planning assistance because of her economic condition."
Donors to Planned Parenthood have included the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, the Buffett Foundation, the Ford Foundation, the Turner Foundation, the Cullmans, and others. The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation's contributions to the organization have been specifically marked to avoid funding abortions. Some donors, such as the Buffett Foundation, have supported reproductive health that can include abortion services. Pro-life groups have advocated the boycott of donors to Planned Parenthood. Corporate donors include CREDO Mobile.
In the fiscal year ending June 30, 2014, total revenue was $1.3 billion: non-government health services revenue was $305 million, government revenue (such as Medicaid reimbursements) was $528 million, private contributions totaled $392 million, and $78 million came from other operating revenue. According to Planned Parenthood, 59% of the group's revenue is put towards the provision of health services, while non-medical services such as sex education and public policy work make up another 15%; management expenses, fundraising, and international family planning programs account for about 16%, and 10% of the revenue in 2013–2014 was not spent.
Planned Parenthood receives over a third of its money in government grants and contracts (about $528 million in 2014). By law (Hyde Amendment), federal funding cannot be allocated for abortions (except in rare cases), but some opponents of abortion have argued that allocating money to Planned Parenthood for the provision of other medical services allows other funds to be reallocated for abortions.
A coalition of national and local anti-abortion groups have lobbied federal and state governments to stop funding Planned Parenthood. As a result, federal and state legislators have proposed legislation to reduce funding levels. Eight states—Alabama, Arkansas, Indiana, Kansas, Louisiana, New Hampshire, Ohio, and Utah—have enacted such proposals. In some cases, the courts have overturned such actions, citing conflict with federal or state laws; in others the federal executive branch has provided funding in lieu of the states. In some states, Planned Parenthood was completely or partially defunded.
In August 2015, Louisiana Governor Bobby Jindal attempted to end Louisiana's contract with Planned Parenthood to treat Medicaid patients at a time when there was an epidemic of sexually transmitted diseases in Louisiana. Planned Parenthood and three patients sued the state of Louisiana, with the United States Department of Justice siding with Planned Parenthood.
On February 2, 2016, the U.S. House failed to override President Obama's veto of H.R. 3762 (Restoring Americans' Healthcare Freedom Reconciliation Act of 2015) which would have prohibited Planned Parenthood from receiving any federal Medicaid funds for one year.
Late in 2016, the Obama administration issued a rule effective in January 2017 banning U.S. states from withholding federal family-planning funds from health clinics that give abortions, including Planned Parenthood affiliates; this rule mandates that local and state governments give federal funds for services related to sexually transmitted infections, pregnancy care, fertility, contraception, and breast and cervical cancer screening to qualified health providers whether or not they give abortions. However, this rule was blocked by a federal judge the day before it would have taken effect. In 2017, it was overturned by new legislation.
The proposed American Health Care Act (H.R. 1628), announced by Congressional Republicans in March 2017, would have made Planned Parenthood "ineligible for Medicaid reimbursements or federal family planning grants."
On August 19, 2019, Planned Parenthood voluntarily withdrew from Title X funding due to a regulatory gag order stating that medical institutions that receive Title X funding cannot refer patients for abortions.
Planned Parenthood is an advocate for the legal and political protection of reproductive rights. This advocacy includes helping to sponsor abortion rights and women's rights events. The Federation opposes restrictions on women's reproductive health services, including parental consent laws for minors. To justify this position, Planned Parenthood has cited the case of Becky Bell, who died following an illegal abortion rather than seek parental consent for a legal one. Planned Parenthood also takes the position that laws requiring parental notification before an abortion can be performed on a minor are unconstitutional on privacy grounds.
The organization opposes laws requiring ultrasounds before abortions, stating that their only purpose is to make abortions more difficult to obtain. Planned Parenthood has also opposed initiatives that require waiting periods before abortions, and bans on late-term abortions including intact dilation and extraction, which has been illegal in the U.S. since 2003. Planned Parenthood supports the wide availability of emergency contraception such as the Plan B pill. It opposes conscience clauses, which allow pharmacists to refuse to dispense drugs against their beliefs. Planned Parenthood has been critical of hospitals that do not provide access to emergency contraception for rape victims. Citing the need for medically accurate information in sex education, Planned Parenthood opposes abstinence-only education in public schools. Instead, Planned Parenthood is a provider of, and endorses, comprehensive sex education, which includes discussion of both abstinence and birth control.
Planned Parenthood's advocacy activities are executed by the Planned Parenthood Action Fund, which is registered as a 501(c)(4) charity, and files financial information jointly with PPFA. The committee was founded in 1996, by then-president Gloria Feldt, for the purpose of maintaining reproductive health rights and supporting political candidates of the same mindset. In the 2012 election cycle, the committee gained prominence based on its effectiveness of spending on candidates. Although the Planned Parenthood Action Fund (PPAF) shares some leadership with the Planned Parenthood Federation of America, the president of PPAF, Cecile Richards, testified before Congress in September 2015 that she did not manage the organization. The Planned Parenthood Action Fund has 58 active, separately incorporated chapters in 41 states and maintains national headquarters in New York and Washington, D.C. Planned Parenthood has received grants from the Obama administration to help promote the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, or ObamaCare.
Planned Parenthood spends money on politics and elections through the Planned Parenthood Action Fund (its federal political action committee), through its Super PAC, and through a variety of related 501(c)(4) entities. Planned Parenthood endorsed Obama in the 2008 and 2012 presidential elections. In the 2014 election cycle, Planned Parenthood spent $6,587,100 on contributions to candidates and political parties (overwhelmingly to Democrats) and on independent expenditures.
Before the U.S. Supreme Court
Planned Parenthood regional chapters have been active in the American courts. A number of cases in which Planned Parenthood has been a party have reached the U.S. Supreme Court. Notable among these cases is the 1992 case Planned Parenthood v. Casey, the case that sets forth the current constitutional abortion standard. In this case, "Planned Parenthood" was the Southeast Pennsylvania Chapter, and "Casey" was Robert Casey, the governor of Pennsylvania. The ultimate ruling was split, and Roe v. Wade was narrowed but upheld in an opinion written by Sandra Day O'Connor, Anthony Kennedy, and David Souter. Harry Blackmun and John Paul Stevens concurred with the main decision in separately written opinions. The Supreme Court struck down spousal consent requirements for married women to obtain abortions, but found no "undue burden"—an alternative to strict scrutiny, which tests the allowable limitations on rights protected under the Constitution—from the other statutory requirements. Dissenting were William Rehnquist, Antonin Scalia, Clarence Thomas, and Byron White. Blackmun, Rehnquist, and White were the only justices who voted on the original Roe v. Wade decision in 1973 who were still on the Supreme Court to rule on this case, and their votes on this case were consistent with their votes on the original decision that legalized abortion. Only Blackmun voted to maintain Roe v. Wade in its entirety.
Other related cases include:
- Planned Parenthood of Central Missouri v. Danforth (1976). Planned Parenthood challenged the constitutionality of a Missouri law encompassing parental consent, spousal consent, clinic bookkeeping and allowed abortion methods. Portions of the challenged law were held to be constitutional, others not.
- Planned Parenthood Association of Kansas City v. Ashcroft (1983). Planned Parenthood challenged the constitutionality of a Missouri law encompassing parental consent, clinic record keeping, and hospitalization requirements. Most of the challenged law was held to be constitutional.
- Planned Parenthood v. ACLA (2001). The American Coalition of Life Activists (ACLA) released a flier and "Wanted" posters with complete personal information about doctors who performed abortions. A civil jury and the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals both found that the materials were indeed "true threats" and not protected speech.
- Gonzales v. Planned Parenthood (2003). Planned Parenthood sued U.S. Attorney General Alberto Gonzales for an injunction against the enforcement of the Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act of 2003. Planned Parenthood argued the act was unconstitutional because it violated the Fifth Amendment, namely in that it was overly vague, violated women's constitutional right to have access to abortion, and did not include language for exceptions for the health of the mother. Both the district court and the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals agreed, but that decision was overturned in a 5–4 ruling by the Supreme Court.
- Ayotte v. Planned Parenthood of Northern New England (2006). Planned Parenthood et al. challenged the constitutionality of a New Hampshire parental notification law related to access to abortion. In Sandra Day O'Connor's final decision before retirement, the Supreme Court sent the case back to lower courts with instructions to seek a remedy short of wholesale invalidation of the statute. New Hampshire ended up repealing the statute via the legislative process.
Other court cases
Some state attorneys general have subpoenaed medical records of patients treated by Planned Parenthood. Planned Parenthood has gone to court to keep from turning over these records, citing medical privacy and concerns about the motivation for seeking the records.
In 2006, Kansas Attorney General Phill Kline, a Republican, released some sealed patient records obtained from Planned Parenthood to the public. His actions were described as "troubling" by the state Supreme Court, but Planned Parenthood was compelled to turn over the medical records, albeit with more stringent court-mandated privacy safeguards for the patients involved. In 2007 Kline's successor, Paul J. Morrison, a Democrat, notified the clinic that no criminal charges would be filed after a three-year investigation, as "an objective, unbiased and thorough examination" showed no wrongdoing. Morrison stated that he believed Kline had politicized the Attorney General's office. In 2012, a Kansas district attorney found that the practices of the Kansas City-area Planned Parenthood clinic were "within accepted practices in the medical community" and dropped all of the remaining criminal charges. In all, the Planned Parenthood clinic had faced 107 criminal charges from Kline and other Kansas prosecutors, all of which were ultimately dismissed.
In 2006, the Indiana Court of Appeals ruled that Planned Parenthood was not required to turn over its medical records in an investigation of possible child abuse. In 2005, Planned Parenthood Minnesota, North Dakota, and South Dakota was fined $50,000 for violating a Minnesota state parental consent law.
In 2012, a Texas state court judge, Gary Harger, denied Planned Parenthood request for a temporary restraining order against the State of Texas, concluding that the State may exclude otherwise qualified doctors and clinics from receiving state funding if the doctors or clinics advocate for abortion rights.
A 2020 study found that closures of Planned Parenthood clinics resulted in increases in the maternal mortality rate: "Planned Parenthood clinic closures negatively impacted all women, increasing mortality by 6%–15% across racial/ethnic groups."
A 2016 study found that the exclusion of Planned Parenthood-affiliated clinics from Texas's Medicaid fee-for-service family-planning program was linked to reductions in the provision of contraception and an increase in child-bearing for women who used injectable contraceptives and who were covered by Medicaid.
Debate and opposition
Margaret Sanger and eugenics
In the 1920s, various theories of eugenics were popular among intellectuals in the U.S. In her campaign to promote birth control, Sanger teamed with eugenics organizations such as the American Eugenics Society, although she argued against many of their positions. Scholars describe Sanger as believing that birth control and sterilization should be voluntary, and not based on race. Sanger advocated for "voluntary motherhood"—the right to choose when to be pregnant—for all women, as an important element of women's rights. As part of her efforts to promote birth control, however, Sanger found common cause with proponents of eugenics, believing that she and they both sought to "assist the race toward the elimination of the unfit".
Critics of Planned Parenthood often refer to Sanger's connection with supporters of eugenics to discredit the organization by associating it, and birth control, with the more negative modern view of eugenics. Planned Parenthood has responded to this effort directly in a leaflet acknowledging that Sanger agreed with some of her contemporaries who advocated the voluntary hospitalization or sterilization of people with untreatable, disabling, or hereditary conditions, and limits on the immigration of the diseased. The leaflet also states that Planned Parenthood "finds these views objectionable and outmoded" but says that it was compelled to discuss the topic because "anti-family planning activists continue to attack Sanger [...] because she is an easier target" than Planned Parenthood.
Planned Parenthood has occupied a central position in the abortion debate in the U.S., and has been among the most prominent targets of the U.S. pro-life movement for decades. Some members of Congress, overwhelmingly Republican, have attempted since the 1980s to end federal funding of the organization, nearly leading to a government shutdown over the issue in 2011. Planned Parenthood has consistently maintained that federal money received by Planned Parenthood is not used to fund abortion services, but pro-life activists have argued that the federal funding frees up other resources that are, in turn, used to provide abortions.
Planned Parenthood is the largest single provider of abortions in the U.S., but pro-choice advocates have argued that the organization's family planning services reduce the need for abortions; in the words of Megan Crepeau of the Chicago Tribune, Planned Parenthood could be "characterized as America's largest abortion preventer". Pro-life activists dispute the evidence that greater access to contraceptives reduces abortion frequency.
Undercover videos by anti-abortion activists
Periodically, pro-life advocates and activists have tried to demonstrate that Planned Parenthood does not follow applicable state or federal laws. The groups called or visited Planned Parenthood health centers posing as victims of statutory rape, minors who by law need parental notification before abortion, racist donors seeking to earmark donations to reduce the African-American population, or pimps seeking abortions for underage prostitutes. As a result of some of these videos, several Planned Parenthood workers have been disciplined or fired. However, a 2005 review by the Bush administration's Department of Health and Human Services "yielded no evidence of clinics around the nation failing to comply with laws on reporting child abuse, child molestation, sexual abuse, rape or incest".
Live Action videos
Beginning in 2010, Live Action released several series of undercover videos filmed in Planned Parenthood centers. Live Action said one series showed Planned Parenthood employees at many affiliates actively assisting or being complicit in aiding a prostitution ring, advising patients on how to procure sex-selective abortions, while one who said they would immerse a child born alive after a botched abortion in a chemical solution to make it stop moving and breathing. No criminal convictions resulted, but some Planned Parenthood employees and volunteers were fired for not following procedure, and the organization committed to retraining its staff. Additionally, one center was placed on probation.
Center for Medical Progress videos
In 2015, an anti-abortion organization named the Center for Medical Progress (CMP) released several videos that had been secretly recorded. Members of the CMP posed as representatives of a biotechnology company in order to gain access to both meetings with abortion providers and abortion facilities. The videos showed how abortion providers made fetal tissue available to researchers, although no problems were found with the legality of the process. All of the videos were found to be altered, according to analysis by Fusion GPS and its co-founder Glenn R. Simpson, a former investigative reporter for The Wall Street Journal. The CMP disputed this finding, attributing the alterations to the editing out of "bathroom breaks and waiting periods." CMP had represented a longer version of the tapes as being "complete", as well as a shorter, edited version. The analysis by Fusion GPS concluded that the longer version was also edited, with skips and missing footage. Nonetheless, the videos attracted widespread media coverage; after the release of the first video, conservative lawmakers in Congress singled out Planned Parenthood and began to push bills that would strip the organization of federal family planning funding. No such attempts by Congress to cut federal family planning money from Planned Parenthood have become law. Conservative politicians in several states have also used this as an opportunity to cut or attempt to cut family planning funding at the state level.
Officials in twelve states initiated investigations into claims made by the videos, but none found Planned Parenthood clinics to have sold tissue for profit as alleged by CMP and other anti-abortion groups. An investigation by the U.S. House of Representatives Oversight and Government Reform Committee found no evidence of wrongdoing by Planned Parenthood. A select committee, the U.S. House Committee on Energy and Commerce Select Investigative Panel on Planned Parenthood, was formed to further investigate Planned Parenthood. The Republican-controlled Select Investigative Panel released its final report on December 30, 2016, recommending that Planned Parenthood be defunded. The report was heavily criticized as partisan and inaccurate by Democratic members of the committee, Planned Parenthood, and some news media.
In January 2016, a Texas grand jury chartered to investigate Planned Parenthood found no wrongdoing by Planned Parenthood but instead indicted CMP founder David Daleiden and member Sandra Merritt for creating and using false government IDs and attempting to purchase fetal tissue. The charges against Daleiden and Merritt in Texas were dismissed six months later on the grounds that the grand jury's indictment authority had extended only to Planned Parenthood. In March 2017, Daleiden and Merritt were charged with 15 felonies in the State of California – one for each of the people whom they had filmed without consent, and one for criminal conspiracy to invade privacy. In June 2017, all the invasion of privacy charges (but not that of conspiracy) were dismissed with leave to amend,
Violence by anti-abortion activists
In the U.S., abortion providers have been threatened with death, and facilities that provide abortions have been attacked or vandalized. Planned Parenthood clinics have been the target of a number of instances of violence by anti-abortion activists, including bombing, arson and attacks with chemical weaponry. In 1994, John Salvi entered a Brookline, Massachusetts Planned Parenthood clinic and opened fire, murdering receptionist Shannon Elizabeth Lowney and wounding three others. He fled to another Planned Parenthood clinic where he murdered Leane Nichols and wounded two others. In 2012, a Grand Chute, Wisconsin, Planned Parenthood clinic was subject to a bombing perpetrated by an unknown individual. In 2015, a Planned Parenthood clinic in Pullman, Washington was heavily damaged by arson.
On November 27, 2015, a gunman shot and killed two civilians and a police officer during a five-hour gun battle at the Colorado Springs, Colorado clinic. The 57-year-old gunman, Robert Dear, surrendered to police and was taken into custody. During his arrest, he gave a "rambling" interview in which, at one point, he said "no more baby parts", echoing language used in the news media about the clinic following the Center for Medical Progress videos. Dear was declared incompetent to stand trial for the shooting, citing experts' finding that he suffers from "delusional disorder, persecutory type."
- Susan G. Komen for the Cure § Relationship with Planned Parenthood
- Timeline of reproductive rights legislation
- United States abortion-rights movement
- Planned Parenthood dates its beginnings to 1916, when Margaret Sanger opened her first birth control center in Brooklyn. Its predecessor, the American Birth Control League, was founded in 1921, and the organization adopted the name Planned Parenthood in 1942.
- Pradhan, Rachana (August 10, 2015). "Bush role in Bloomberg charity gets attention: The billionaire's philanthropy partnered with Planned Parenthood on women's health". Politico. Archived from the original on November 1, 2015. Retrieved November 5, 2015.
- "Planned Parenthood At a Glance". www.plannedparenthood.org. Archived from the original on October 9, 2015. Retrieved October 7, 2015.
- "Planned Parenthood Federation of America (Inc.) and Related Entities, Consolidated Financial Statements and Supplementary Information, Audited, June 30, 2013 and 2014" (PDF). www.plannedparenthood.org. Archived (PDF) from the original on September 5, 2015. Retrieved October 7, 2015.
- Planned Parenthood Annual Report 2012–2013 Archived January 10, 2017, at the Wayback Machine, p. 18.
- Kathryn Cullen-DuPont (August 1, 2000). Encyclopedia of women's history in America. Infobase Publishing. p. 11. ISBN 978-0-8160-4100-8. Archived from the original on June 18, 2013. Retrieved November 28, 2011.
- Hawkins, Summer Sherburne; Ghiani, Marco; Harper, Sam; Baum, Christopher F.; Kaufman, Jay S. (February 1, 2020). "Impact of State-Level Changes on Maternal Mortality: A Population-Based, Quasi-Experimental Study". American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 58 (2): 165–174. doi:10.1016/j.amepre.2019.09.012. ISSN 0749-3797. PMID 31859173.
- "Do State-Level Policies Impact Maternal Mortality Rates? | Econofact". February 24, 2020. Archived from the original on February 25, 2020. Retrieved February 25, 2020.
- Rover, Julie (April 13, 2011). "Planned Parenthood: A Thorn In Abortion Foes' Sides". NPR. Archived from the original on October 30, 2015. Retrieved November 5, 2015.
- Kelly, Erin (September 28, 2015). "Republicans try new way to defund Planned Parenthood, avoiding shutdown". USA Today. Archived from the original on October 26, 2015. Retrieved November 5, 2015.
- "#38 Planned Parenthood Federation of America". Forbes. Archived from the original on November 20, 2015. Retrieved November 5, 2015.
- "2014–2015 Annual Report" (PDF). Planned Parenthood. p. 30. Archived (PDF) from the original on February 20, 2016. Retrieved March 11, 2016.
- Ross, Janell. August 4, 2015. How Planned Parenthood actually uses its federal funding. Archived August 21, 2017, at the Wayback Machine The Washington Post. Retrieved: August 22, 2015.
- "Massachusetts abortion clinics boost security, lawmakers seek fix". Reuters. June 27, 2014.
- "Breast cancer fundraising lags after abortion dispute". Reuters. March 24, 2012.
- "Opponents of Texas abortion restrictions rally at Capitol". Reuters. July 1, 2013.
- "Anti-abortion protesters rally at Planned Parenthood sites". Reuters. August 22, 2015.
- "Social media at forefront of social protest". Reuters. February 3, 2012.
- For violence, see §Violence by anti-abortion activists.
- Goldberg, Michelle (February 7, 2012). "Awakenings: On Margaret Sanger". The Nation. Archived from the original on October 19, 2015. Retrieved November 5, 2015.
- Esther Katz (poster) (October 26, 2012). "Anniversary of the Brownsville Clinic Raid". Margaret Sanger Papers Project~Research Annex. Archived from the original on December 25, 2015. Retrieved March 27, 2016.
- Engelman, Peter C. (2011), A History of the Birth Control Movement in America, ABC-CLIO, ISBN 978-0-313-36509-6.
- Chesler, Ellen (1992), Woman of Valor: Margaret Sanger and the Birth Control Movement in America, Simon & Schuster, ISBN 0-671-60088-5.
- "People v. Sanger", 179 App. Div. 939, 166 N.Y.S. 1107 (1917)
- McVeigh, Frank; Loreen, Wolfer (2004), Brief history of social problems: a critical thinking approach (Illustrated ed.), University Press of America, ISBN 0-7618-2831-1
- Balter, Lawrence (2000), Parenthood in America: an encyclopedia, 1st (Illustrated ed.), ABC-CLIO, ISBN 1-57607-213-4
- "Collection: Planned Parenthood Federation of America records (PPFA I) | Smith College Finding Aids". findingaids.smith.edu. Archived from the original on September 11, 2020. Retrieved August 27, 2020. This article incorporates text available under the CC BY 3.0 license.
- Gordon, Linda (2002), The moral property of women: a history of birth control politics in America (3rd ed.), University of Illinois Press, ISBN 0-252-02764-7
- Sara Weydner. ""The Hour of Malthus Has Struck": The Foundation of the International Planned Parenthood Federation and Discourses of International Family Planning". academia.edu. Retrieved October 30, 2015.
- "Political Attacks on Planned Parenthood Are a Threat to Women's Health". Scientific American. Archived from the original on June 12, 2018. Retrieved January 2, 2017.
- Wayne, T. (2011). Planned parenthood. In M. Z. Stange C. K. Oyster & J. E. Sloan (Eds.), Encyclopedia of women in today's world (Vol. 4, pp. 1107–1108)
- Reagan, Leslie J. 1997. When Abortion Was a Crime : Women, Medicine, and Law in the United States, 1867–1973. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997
- "Alan Guttmacher", The Toledo Blade, p. 28, March 19, 1974, retrieved February 9, 2011
- Lepore, Jill (November 14, 2011). "Birthright: What's next for Planned Parenthood?". The New Yorker. Archived from the original on October 29, 2013. Retrieved April 22, 2012.
- "The History of the Guttmacher Institute". Official Website. Guttmacher Institute. Archived from the original on January 16, 2011. Retrieved February 9, 2011.
- Karen O'Connor (2010). Gender and Women's Leadership: A Reference Handbook. SAGE Reference. pp. 744–. ISBN 978-1-4129-6083-0. Archived from the original on December 23, 2016. Retrieved October 23, 2016.
- Middleton, Britt. "This Day in Black History: July 8, 1943". BET. Archived from the original on April 16, 2019. Retrieved November 5, 2015.
- "About Faye". Faye Wattleton. Archived from the original on November 3, 2015. Retrieved October 25, 2015.
- Marshall, Lauren (April 4, 2002), "Women's Rights Advocate Faye Wattleton Elected Newest Columbia Trustee", Columbia News, archived from the original on June 29, 2011, retrieved February 10, 2011
- "Planned Parenthood Chooses New President", Ms. Magazine, January 12, 2006, archived from the original on June 28, 2011, retrieved February 10, 2011
- "New President: Battle over abortion must be refought", Gadsden Times, pp. A5, April 10, 1996, retrieved February 10, 2011
- Lewin, Tamar (April 28, 1996), "Shifting gears as the world turns, Planned Parenthood will too under helm of new president", Chicago Tribune, p. 9
- "Planned Parenthood's file". Politifact. Archived from the original on October 31, 2015. Retrieved October 25, 2015.
- Johnson, Darragh (March 25, 2006). "Cecile Richards, Planned Parenthood's Choice Leader". The Washington Post. pp. C01. Archived from the original on October 3, 2018. Retrieved September 8, 2017.
- Fluke, Sandra (April 18, 2012). "Time Magazine: 100 Most Influential People in the World: Cecile Richards". Time.com. Archived from the original on August 14, 2013. Retrieved April 24, 2013.
- Arnold, Amanda (April 30, 2018). "The Internet Celebrates Planned Parenthood President on Her Last Day". The Cut. Archived from the original on October 1, 2018. Retrieved September 13, 2018.
- Domonoske, Camila (September 12, 2018). "Planned Parenthood Chooses Baltimore's Health Commissioner As Its Next President". NPR.org. Archived from the original on September 13, 2018. Retrieved September 13, 2018.
- Goldmacher, Shane (July 16, 2019). "Planned Parenthood Removes Leana Wen as President". The New York Times. Archived from the original on July 16, 2019. Retrieved July 16, 2019.
- "Author Wins Sanger Prize". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. April 27, 1966.
- "Population Planner Honored". Los Angeles Times. November 28, 1971. Archived from the original on November 7, 2012. Retrieved July 7, 2017.
- "LBJ Birth Policy Cited". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Associated Press. October 11, 1966.
- "Mrs. King receives award for husband". The Afro American. May 21, 1966.
- "Rockefeller 3d Wins Sanger Award". The New York Times. October 9, 1967. Archived from the original on November 6, 2012. Retrieved February 14, 2011.
- "REMINDER/Planned Parenthood Salutes Visionary Leaders in the Fight for Reproductive Freedom." Business Wire March 29, 2003: 5006. General OneFile. Web. February 11, 2011.
- Miller, S.A. (July 23, 2015). "Hillary Clinton defends Planned Parenthood in wake of undercover videos". Washington Times. Archived from the original on December 8, 2015. Retrieved November 5, 2015.
- Hesse, Monica (September 15, 2015). "Planned Parenthood is a symbol. This is the reality of one Ohio clinic". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on December 8, 2015. Retrieved November 5, 2015.
- "Planned Parenthood's Springfield clinic sees growing demand for long acting contraception". MassLive. July 9, 2015. Archived from the original on July 31, 2015. Retrieved August 2, 2015.
- Goldschmidt, Debra; Strickland, Ashley (August 4, 2015). "Planned Parenthood: Fast facts and revealing numbers". CNN. Archived from the original on November 4, 2015. Retrieved November 5, 2015.
- Bolcer, Julie (April 27, 2011). "The Gay Planned Parenthood Debate". The Advocate. Archived from the original on December 8, 2015. Retrieved November 5, 2015.
- Hee, Michelle Ye (October 2, 2015). "The repeated, misleading claim that Planned Parenthood 'provides' mammograms". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on May 4, 2017. Retrieved April 13, 2017.
- Richards, Thomas (2007). "Spotlight on: Planned Parenthood". Children's Legal Rights Journal. 27 (3): 57. Archived from the original on May 2, 2015. Retrieved February 14, 2011.
- Armour, Stephanie (October 13, 2015). "Planned Parenthood Stops Taking Reimbursements for Fetal Tissue". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on October 14, 2015. Retrieved October 13, 2015.
- Beaucar Vlahos, Kelley (April 24, 2008). "Pastors Accuse Planned Parenthood for 'Genocide' on Blacks". Fox News Channel. Archived from the original on July 23, 2015. Retrieved July 30, 2015.
- Eckholm, Erik (February 17, 2011). "Planned Parenthood Financing Is Caught in Budget Feud". The New York Times. Archived from the original on March 23, 2018. Retrieved February 12, 2017.
- Calmes, Jackie (September 1, 2015). "Louisiana Lays Bare Difficulty in Push to Cut Planned Parenthood Funding". The New York Times. Archived from the original on October 31, 2015. Retrieved November 5, 2015.
- "Men's Sexual Health | Understanding Male Sexual Health". www.plannedparenthood.org. Archived from the original on March 12, 2017. Retrieved March 5, 2017.
- "Birth Control for Men | How Can Men Prevent Pregnancy?". www.plannedparenthood.org. Archived from the original on March 6, 2017. Retrieved March 5, 2017.
- Kastrenakes, Jacob (May 20, 2020). "Here are all the winners of the 2020 Webby Awards". The Verge. Archived from the original on May 21, 2020. Retrieved May 22, 2020.
- Livio, Susan (January 16, 2011). "Planned Parenthood may double the number of N.J. abortion clinics while expanding nationwide". NJ.com. Archived from the original on February 23, 2011. Retrieved February 14, 2011.
- Davis, Tom (2005). Sacred work: Planned Parenthood and its clergy alliances. Rutgers University Press. ISBN 0-8135-3493-3. Archived from the original on April 30, 2016. Retrieved October 25, 2015.
- Planned Parenthood debuts new building Archived May 22, 2010, at the Wayback Machine Houston Chronicle May 20, 2010, 10:27PM retrieved June 28, 2010
- "Planned Parenthood Global", Planned Parenthood, 2016, archived from the original on January 19, 2016, retrieved February 18, 2016
- "In face of Zika virus, women ponder abortion, childlessness". CBS News. January 28, 2016. Archived from the original on February 25, 2016. Retrieved February 18, 2016.
- "International Planned Parenthood Federation/Western Hemisphere Region – From choice, a world of possibilities". ippfwhr.org. Archived from the original on September 26, 2017. Retrieved February 23, 2016.
- "IPPF". ippfen.org. Archived from the original on February 18, 2016. Retrieved February 23, 2016.
- "Planned Parenthood Brochure, Health Has No Borders" (PDF). www.plannedparenthood.org. Archived (PDF) from the original on November 28, 2015. Retrieved October 7, 2015.
- Rachana Pradhan (August 10, 2015). "Bush role in Bloomberg charity gets attention". Archived from the original on March 2, 2016. Retrieved February 8, 2016.
- Miller, Patricia (August 18, 2015). "The secret Republican love affair with Planned Parenthood: A history". Salon. Archived from the original on October 22, 2015. Retrieved November 4, 2015.
- Halloran, Liz (March 21, 2011). "Abortion Foes Target Family Planning Program". NPR. Archived from the original on May 28, 2020. Retrieved April 2, 2018.
- "The Art of Giving—When Your Resources Are Vast". Businessweek. October 25, 1999. Archived from the original on April 13, 2011. Retrieved February 10, 2011.
- Mostel, Raphael (November 12, 2004). "Pushing Foundations To Give Everything They Have". The Daily Jewish Forward. Archived from the original on July 11, 2011. Retrieved February 10, 2011.
- Critchlow, Donald T.; Parker, Charles H. (April 2, 1998). With Us Always: A History of Private Charity and Public Welfare. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. p. 227. ISBN 978-1-4616-2221-5.
- Leavitt, Paul; Drinkard, Jim (September 14, 2000). "Bush debate material may have landed in Gore camp". USA Today. Archived from the original on June 28, 2011. Retrieved February 12, 2011.
- Levin, Tamar (August 8, 1990). "Anti-Abortion Group Urges Boycott of Planned Parenthood Donors". The New York Times. Archived from the original on May 20, 2013. Retrieved February 7, 2011.
- Hamburg Coplan, Jill (July 31, 2015). "Planned Parenthood: Undercover videos not deterring corporate donors". Fortune. Archived from the original on November 5, 2015. Retrieved November 4, 2015.
- "PPFA Annual Report 2013–2014" (PDF). www.plannedparenthood.org. Archived (PDF) from the original on September 10, 2015. Retrieved October 8, 2015.
- Rovner, Julie (April 13, 2011). "Planned Parenthood: A Thorn In Abortion Foes' Sides". Morning Edition. NPR. Archived from the original on April 16, 2011. Retrieved April 13, 2011.
- "Groups unite vs. Planned Parenthood". Politico. February 2, 2011. Archived from the original on February 5, 2011. Retrieved February 11, 2011.
- Somashekhar, Sandhya; Rucker, Philip (April 8, 2011). "GOP's latest proposal for Planned Parenthood funding". Washington Post. Archived from the original on January 7, 2012. Retrieved September 19, 2011.
- Groppe, Maureen (February 1, 2011). "House votes to block funds to Planned Parenthood". The Arizona Republic. Archived from the original on July 15, 2016. Retrieved February 24, 2011.
- "Judge Allows Indiana to Cut Planned Parenthood Funding". Fox News Channel. May 11, 2011. Archived from the original on May 14, 2011. Retrieved May 11, 2011.
- Landrigan, Kevin (September 14, 2011). "Family planning contracts OK'd". Nashua Telegraph. Archived from the original on July 25, 2015. Retrieved September 20, 2011.
- Hegeman, Roxana (August 31, 2011). "Kansas to comply with Planned Parenthood order". Businessweek. Associated Press. Archived from the original on November 2, 2012. Retrieved September 20, 2011.
- "Bill defunding Planned Parenthood clears Ohio House, heads to Gov. John Kasich". cleveland.com. Archived from the original on February 11, 2016. Retrieved February 12, 2016.
- "Robert J. Bentley, Governor of Alabama, Says He Is Cutting Off Medicaid Payment to Planned Parenthood – US News". US News & World Report. Archived from the original on March 5, 2016. Retrieved February 12, 2016.
- "Kansas loses thousands in federal funding after voting to defund Planned Parenthood". KSHB. Associated Press. Archived from the original on February 16, 2016. Retrieved February 12, 2016.
- William C. Duncan (December 24, 2015). "Utah Wins Planned Parenthood Defunding Fight". National Review Online. Archived from the original on December 28, 2015. Retrieved February 12, 2016.
- Pear, Robert (June 24, 2011). "Indiana Law to Cut Planned Parenthood Funding Is Blocked". The New York Times. Archived from the original on August 29, 2011. Retrieved September 19, 2011.
- Sheppard, Kate (September 5, 2012). "A Tennessee Case Study in Defunding Planned Parenthood". Mother Jones. Archived from the original on November 10, 2015. Retrieved November 5, 2015.
- Roberts, Christine (June 22, 2011). "Wisconsin to defund Planned Parenthood, joins Indiana, Kansas and North Carolina". New York Daily News. Archived from the original on July 18, 2011. Retrieved September 20, 2011.
- DeSlatte, Melinda (September 1, 2015). "Justice Department sides with Planned Parenthood in lawsuit". Associated Press. Archived from the original on November 10, 2015. Retrieved November 4, 2015.
- "House vote to override President's veto of H.R. 3762". Lakeville, Minnesota: healthreformvotes.org. February 2, 2016. Archived from the original on March 3, 2016. Retrieved February 26, 2016.
- "Obama Bars States From Denying Federal Money to Planned Parenthood". December 14, 2016. Archived from the original on April 11, 2019. Retrieved May 27, 2018 – via NYTimes.com.
- Gorman, Steve (December 31, 2016). "U.S. judge blocks transgender, abortion-related Obamacare protections". Reuters. Archived from the original on February 8, 2019. Retrieved January 2, 2017.
- "Trump Moves Against Planned Parenthood by Signing GOP Bill". Bloomberg. 2017. Archived from the original on April 14, 2017. Retrieved April 13, 2017.
- Golstein, Amy; DeBonis, Mike; Snell, Kelsey. "House Republicans release long-awaited plan to repeal and replace Obamacare". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on April 11, 2019. Retrieved March 7, 2017.
- Belluck, Pam (August 19, 2019). "Planned Parenthood Refuses Federal Funds Over Abortion Restrictions". The New York Times. Archived from the original on August 21, 2019. Retrieved August 21, 2019.
- Lawrence, Jason (February 9, 2011). "Legislators, Planned Parenthood debate abortion". The Galveston County Daily News. Archived from the original on May 12, 2011. Retrieved February 14, 2011.
- Planned Parenthood was one of the co-sponsors of the March for Women's Lives held April 25, 2004. "Abortion activists on the march". BBC News. BBC. April 26, 2004. Archived from the original on July 18, 2018. Retrieved July 4, 2009.
- Planned Parenthood Advocates of New York, Issues & Positions Archived March 14, 2017, at the Wayback Machine. Access date June 24, 2016. Quote: "While Planned Parenthood supports and promotes communication between parents and their teens, requiring parental notification or consent would reduce the numbers of teens seeking care and put them in danger. We believe it is important for teens to have access to safe health care, even if they can't come to their parents for whatever reason. PPANY opposes government-mandated parental consent and parental notification requirements."
- Including in court, e.g., Doe v. Planned Parenthood Association of Utah and Planned Parenthood Ass’n of Utah v. Matheson.
- "Parental consent opposed". Madison Courier. January 23, 1990. Retrieved February 14, 2011.
- Relin, David Oliver. "Old enough to choose?" Scholastic Update April 20, 1990: 13+. General OneFile. Web. February 14, 2011.
- Demer, Lisa (November 24, 2010). "Suit challenges law requiring parent abortion notification". Anchorage Daily News. Archived from the original on December 23, 2010. Retrieved April 9, 2011.
- "The Rachel Maddow Show for April 28, 2010, MSNBC." The Rachel Maddow Show April 29, 2010. General OneFile. Web. February 14, 2011.
- Gordon, Rachel (October 9, 2006). "CAMPAIGN 2006; PROPOSITION 85; Parental notification for abortion back on ballot; Voters rejected a similar measure in election last fall.(NEWS)". San Francisco Chronicle. p. A11.
- "Planned Parenthood Federation of America Opposes Abortion Ban Legislation". Planned Parenthood New Jersey. Archived from the original on June 13, 2010. Retrieved April 9, 2011.
- Nilsson, Siri (December 6, 2006). "Emergency Pill Free on 'Free EC Day'". ABC News. Archived from the original on December 8, 2015. Retrieved November 5, 2015.
- Strauss, Sharon (January 12, 2011), "Planned Parenthood files complaint against Nampa pharmacist", The Idaho Press-Tribune, archived from the original on January 16, 2011, retrieved February 6, 2011
- "New law may require N.Y. hospitals to offer contraception to rape victims". Sun Journal. Associated Press. September 27, 2003. p. A10.
- Dejka, Joe (January 30, 2011), "Bill would require sex ed", Omaha World-Herald, archived from the original on January 30, 2013, retrieved February 6, 2011
- Young, Lindsay. "Outside spenders' return on investment". Sunlight Foundation. Archived from the original on April 29, 2014. Retrieved April 29, 2014.
- "Planned Parenthood Action Fund". www.plannedparenthoodaction.org. Archived from the original on March 16, 2015. Retrieved October 13, 2015.
- Richards, Cecile (September 29, 2015). "Statement of Cecile Richards Before the House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform" (PDF). U.S. House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 8, 2015. Retrieved October 13, 2015.
- Shear, Michael (September 29, 2015). "Planned Parenthood's Leader Pushes Back Against G.O.P. Critics". The New York Times. Archived from the original on October 17, 2015. Retrieved October 13, 2015.
- "Get Involved Locally: Planned Parenthood Action Fund". www.plannedparenthoodaction.org. Archived from the original on September 28, 2013. Retrieved October 13, 2015.
- "Contact: Planned Parenthood Action Fund". www.plannedparenthoodaction.org. Archived from the original on September 26, 2015. Retrieved October 13, 2015.
- Ferris, Sarah (September 2, 2015). "Planned Parenthood gets $1M in ObamaCare grants". The Hill. Archived from the original on October 21, 2015. Retrieved November 5, 2015.
- Jacobson, Louis (October 5, 2015). "Carly Fiorina says Planned Parenthood gives 'millions' to candidates". PolitiFact. Archived from the original on October 24, 2015. Retrieved November 4, 2015.
- Zenilman, Avi (July 8, 2008). "Planned Parenthood endorses Obama". Politico. Archived from the original on November 17, 2015. Retrieved November 4, 2015.
- Joseph, Cameron (May 30, 2012). "Planned Parenthood endorses Obama with $1.4 million ad buy". The Hill. Archived from the original on November 17, 2015. Retrieved November 4, 2015.
- "Planned Parenthood". Open Secrets. Center for Responsive Politics. Archived from the original on April 3, 2019. Retrieved March 29, 2016.
- "Planned Parenthood of Southeastern Pennsylvania v. Casey". cornell.edu. Archived from the original on May 21, 2006. Retrieved August 12, 2005.
- Harry Blackmun (June 29, 1992). "Planned Parenthood of Southeastern Pa. v. Casey 505 U.S. 833". Supreme Court of the United States. pp. 923–926. Archived from the original on March 2, 2016. Retrieved February 26, 2016.
- "Planned Parenthood of Central Missouri v. Danforth". cornell.edu. Archived from the original on September 18, 2005. Retrieved August 12, 2005.
- u.s. Supreme, C. (1983). "Planned Parenthood Association of Kansas City v. Ashcroft". United States Reports : Cases Adjudged in the Supreme Court At ... And Rules Announced At ... United States. Supreme Court. 462: 476–505. PMID 12041276.
- "Planned Parenthood v. American Coalition of Life Activists". Cyber.law.harvard.edu. Archived from the original on April 29, 2011. Retrieved April 9, 2011.
- "Gonzales v. Planned Parenthood | The Oyez Project at IIT Chicago-Kent College of Law". Oyez.org. Archived from the original on October 21, 2013. Retrieved April 9, 2011.
- "Gonzales v. Planned Parenthood Federation of America, Inc". Duke Law, Supreme Court Online. Archived from the original on March 5, 2011. Retrieved February 9, 2011.
- Biskupic, Joan (April 18, 2007). "Court takes harder stance on abortion". USA Today. Archived from the original on June 28, 2011. Retrieved September 8, 2017.
- Questions before the Court
- Belluck, Pam (June 8, 2007). "New Hampshire to Repeal Parental Notification Law". The New York Times. Archived from the original on April 2, 2012. Retrieved February 9, 2011.
- Rudoren, Jori (February 4, 2006). "Kansas' Top Court Limits Abortion Record Search". The New York Times. Archived from the original on May 20, 2013. Retrieved September 19, 2011.
- "Planned Parenthood Clinic Is Cleared in Kansas Probe". The Washington Post. June 28, 2007. Archived from the original on November 11, 2012. Retrieved December 22, 2010.
- "Kansas DA drops all criminal charges against Planned Parenthood clinic". CBS News. Associated Press. August 17, 2012. Archived from the original on December 8, 2015. Retrieved November 5, 2015.
- "Planned Parenthood of Indiana v. Carter, 854 N.E.2d 853 (Ind. Ct. App. 2006)". Archived from the original on March 13, 2017. Retrieved February 23, 2016.
- Prather (October 13, 2005). "Judge Faults St. Paul Clinic in Abortion Lawsuit". St. Paul Pioneer Press. p. A1.
- Claire Z. Cardona, Judge allows Texas to ban state funding to Planned Parenthood Archived April 25, 2016, at the Wayback Machine, Dallas Morning News (December 31, 2012).
- Stevenson, Amanda J.; Flores-Vazquez, Imelda M.; Allgeyer, Richard L.; Schenkkan, Pete; Potter, Joseph E. (March 3, 2016). "Effect of Removal of Planned Parenthood from the Texas Women's Health Program". New England Journal of Medicine. 374 (9): 853–860. doi:10.1056/NEJMsa1511902. ISSN 0028-4793. PMC 5129844. PMID 26836435.
- Davis, Tom (2005). Sacred work: Planned Parenthood and its clergy alliances. Rutgers University Press. p. 35.
- Chesler, Ellen (2007). Woman of Valor: Margaret Sanger and the Birth Control Movement in America. Simon and Schuster. pp. 195, 216–217, 343, 490.
- Esther Katz; et al., eds. (2003). The selected papers of Margaret Sanger, Volume 1. University of Illinois Press. p. 274.
- Daiwan, Shaila (February 27, 2010). "To Court Blacks, Foes of Abortion Make Racial Case". The New York Times. Archived from the original on July 1, 2017. Retrieved August 6, 2011.
- McCann, Carole R. (1999). Birth Control, Politics in the United States, 1916–1945. Cornell University Press. p. 10. ISBN 978-0-8014-8612-8. Archived from the original on October 4, 2015. Retrieved October 25, 2015.
- McCann, Carole R. (2010). "Women as Leaders in the Contraceptive Movement". In Karen O'Connor (ed.). Gender and Women's Leadership: A Reference Handbook. 1. SAGE. p. 751. ISBN 978-1-4129-6083-0. Archived from the original on May 18, 2015. Retrieved December 31, 2014.
- Peter Engelman – A History of Birth Control in America, Prager, New York, 2010.
- Valenza, Charles (January–February 1985). "Was Margaret Sanger a Racist?" (PDF). Family Planning Perspectives. 17 (1): 44–46. doi:10.2307/2135230. JSTOR 2135230. PMID 3884362. Archived (PDF) from the original on December 14, 2011. Retrieved August 6, 2011.
- Chamlee, Virginia (July 27, 2011). "Bomberger again lashes out at NPR, Veazey". The Florida Independent. Archived from the original on September 11, 2011. Retrieved August 6, 2011.
- "Opposition Claims About Margaret Sanger" (PDF). Planned Parenthood. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 8, 2017. Retrieved November 5, 2015.
- Dwyer, Devin (April 8, 2011). "Planned Parenthood at Center of Budget Shutdown Threat". ABC News. Archived from the original on March 6, 2015. Retrieved March 5, 2015.
- "Planned Parenthood, abortion and the budget fight". Seattle Times. April 8, 2011. Archived from the original on September 24, 2015. Retrieved November 3, 2012.
- Crepeau, Megan (April 4, 2011). "The great Republican bait-and-switch". Chicago Tribune. Archived from the original on May 14, 2011. Retrieved February 24, 2021.
- * Finn, Robin, "Anti-Abortion Advocates? Bring 'Em On, Texan Says", The New York Times, March 10, 2006. Quote: "PLANNED PARENTHOOD serves five million Americans and concentrates 90 percent of its efforts on preventing unwanted pregnancies, Ms. Richards, says, not terminating them. 'No one does more to reduce the need for abortions in this country than Planned Parenthood.'" Archived May 20, 2013, at the Wayback Machine
- Also, Emily Stewart, director of public policy for Planned Parenthood said: "Without a doubt, when women have access to birth control, it reduces unintended pregnancies" 
- Rovner, Julie (September 7, 2011). "Conservatives Step Up Attacks On Public Funding For Birth Control". NPR. Archived from the original on September 19, 2015. Retrieved July 21, 2015.
- "Pro-Life Group Launches Undercover Sting". Fox News Channel. May 31, 2002. Archived from the original on August 30, 2006. Retrieved March 12, 2007.
- Mieszkowski, Katharine (November 4, 2006). "Abortion foes' dirty tactics: Advocates of a California "parental notification" bill accuse Planned Parenthood of protecting sexual predators instead of teen girls. But who is really breaking the law?". Salon.com. Archived from the original on February 15, 2011. Retrieved January 14, 2011.
- Forester, Sandra (February 28, 2008). "Response to caller 'a serious mistake', says Planned Parenthood of Idaho". Idaho Statesman. The McClatchy Company.
- Crary, David (February 2, 2011). "Clinic manager fired after anti-abortion sting". Associated Press. Retrieved February 5, 2011.
- Grim, Ryan (February 25, 2011). "Behind the Assault on Planned Parenthood". Huffington Post. AOL News. Archived from the original on March 14, 2011. Retrieved April 19, 2011.
- Bassett, Laura (May 29, 2012). "Planned Parenthood Sting Caught On Video, Released By Anti-Abortion Activists (VIDEO)". Huffington Post. Archived from the original on July 23, 2015. Retrieved August 3, 2015.
- Stuart, Hunter (April 29, 2013). "Live Action, Anti-Abortion Group, Releases Undercover Videos From Abortion Clinics". Huffington Post. Archived from the original on September 24, 2015. Retrieved August 3, 2015.
- "Holder: No Prosecution in Connection With Planned Parenthood Video Sting". Fox News Channel. March 1, 2011. Archived from the original on March 4, 2011. Retrieved April 1, 2011.
- Eckholm, Erik (February 7, 2011). "Planned Parenthood to Retrain Public Staff". The New York Times. Archived from the original on June 30, 2012. Retrieved March 15, 2011.
- Hunter, Desiree (February 10, 2010). "AP: Birmingham abortion clinic put on probation". The San Diego Union-Tribune. Associated Press. Archived from the original on June 28, 2011. Retrieved August 3, 2015.
- Planned Parenthood 2015 undercover videos controversy#References
- "I thought I saw all the Planned Parenthood sting footage. Turns out the tapes were edited". www.vox.com. August 28, 2015. Retrieved February 10, 2019.
- "House GOP, Democrats spar on Planned Parenthood". www.detroitnews.com. September 29, 2015. Retrieved February 11, 2019.
- Booth, William (March 11, 1993). "Doctor Killed During Abortion Protest". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on July 20, 2017. Retrieved September 8, 2015.
- "Small Bomb Explodes Outside Planned Parenthood Clinic In Wisconsin". The Huffington Post. Archived from the original on July 23, 2015. Retrieved August 5, 2015.
- "Planned Parenthood deserves to be supported not attacked". Washington Post. Archived from the original on August 11, 2015. Retrieved August 6, 2015.
- Blanchard, Dallas A.; Prewitt, Terry James (1993). Religious violence and abortion: the Gideon Project. University Press of Florida. ISBN 978-0-8130-1193-6. Retrieved October 25, 2015.
- Hewitt, Christopher (2005). Political violence and terrorism in modern America: a chronology. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-313-33418-4. Archived from the original on April 30, 2016. Retrieved October 25, 2015.
- Man charged with driving into Planned Parenthood facility Archived February 15, 2009, at the Wayback Machine." (January 23, 2009). "Minneapolis Star-Tribune." Retrieved January 27, 2009.
- "Threats Prompt More Security: Fresno Planned Parenthood Office is Walling Up Windows". The Fresno Bee. August 3, 1995. Archived from the original on October 24, 2012. Retrieved February 24, 2011.
- "Wattleton Assails Rash of Planned Parenthood Center Bombings, Arson". Jet. Johnson Publishing Company. March 18, 1985. p. 11. Archived from the original on April 30, 2016. Retrieved October 27, 2015.
- Purdum, Todd S. (February 25, 1987). "A day after cardinal's appeal, bombing suspect surrenders". The New York Times.
- Zimmerman, Patricia R. (1996). "Fetal Tissue: Reproductive Rights and Activist Video". In Renov, Michael; Suderburg, Erika (eds.). Resolutions: contemporary video practices. p. 305. ISBN 978-0-8166-2330-3. Archived from the original on May 6, 2016. Retrieved October 25, 2015.
- Pareene, Alex (July 30, 2011). "Planned Parenthood firebombed, right wing silent". Salon. Archived from the original on August 11, 2011. Retrieved August 10, 2011.
- "Planned Parenthood Bombed In Wisconsin". The Huffington Post. April 2, 2012. Archived from the original on April 3, 2012. Retrieved April 2, 2012.
- Victoria Cavaliere and Ryan Woo (September 5, 2015). Fire at Washington state Planned Parenthood ruled arson Archived November 27, 2015, at the Wayback Machine. Reuters. Retrieved September 7, 2015.
- "Shooting victim understood risks, but loved her job". The Item. Associated Press. January 1, 1995.
- "Arson was cause of Planned Parenthood fire in Washington". montereyherald.com. Retrieved September 20, 2015.
- Turkewitz, Julie; Healy, Jack (November 27, 2015). "3 Are Dead in Colorado Springs Shootout at Planned Parenthood Center". The New York Times. Archived from the original on November 28, 2015. Retrieved November 27, 2015.
- "Death of UCCS police officer in Colorado Springs Planned Parenthood shooting confirmed". Colorado Springs Gazette. November 28, 2015. Archived from the original on November 29, 2015. Retrieved November 28, 2015.
- Shoichet, Catherine E.; Stapleton, AnneClaire; Botelho, Greg (November 27, 2015). "Colorado Planned Parenthood shooting: 3 dead, suspect captured (updated)". CNN. Archived from the original on November 29, 2015. Retrieved November 27, 2015.
- Paul, Jesse; Steffen, Jordan; Ingold, John (November 27, 2015). "Planned Parenthood shooting: 3 killed, including 1 police officer in Colorado Springs". The Denver Post. Archived from the original on November 27, 2015. Retrieved November 28, 2015.
- "Robert Dear, Suspect in Colorado Killings, 'Preferred to Be Left Alone'". The New York Times. November 29, 2015. Archived from the original on December 10, 2015. Retrieved December 10, 2015.
- "Colorado shooting suspect said 'no more baby parts': reports". Reuters. Archived from the original on December 2, 2015. Retrieved July 1, 2017.
- "Planned Parenthood shooting: Suspect said 'no more baby parts'". BBC News. Archived from the original on July 20, 2018. Retrieved December 10, 2015.
- Wesley Lowery (November 28, 2015). "'No more baby parts', suspect in attack at Colo. Planned Parenthood clinic told official". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on November 29, 2015. Retrieved November 29, 2015.
- Hughes, Trevor (May 11, 2016). "Planned Parenthood shooting suspect found incompetent to stand trial". USA Today. Archived from the original on May 11, 2016. Retrieved May 11, 2016.
- Manon Perry, Broadcasting Birth Control: Mass Media and Family Planning. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2013.
- Official website
- Planned Parenthood Action Fund
- "Planned Parenthood Federation of America collected news and commentary". The New York Times.
- Planned Parenthood Federation of America Records, 1918–1974 at the Sophia Smith Collection, Smith College Special Collections
- Planned Parenthood Federation of America Records, 1928–2009 at the Sophia Smith Collection, Smith College Special Collections
- Planned Parenthood at OpenSecrets.org
- United Nations: Every Woman Every Child