Planned Parenthood

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Planned Parenthood
Planned Parenthood logo.svg
Abbreviation PPFA
Motto Care. No matter what.
Formation 1916 to 1942[note 1]
Legal status Federation
Purpose Reproductive health
Headquarters New York City & Washington, D.C.
Location
  • c. 820 locations[1]
Region served
United States
Membership
85 independent affiliates[1]
President
Cecile Richards
Affiliations International Planned Parenthood Federation
Budget
$1.04 billion (as of 2008–09)[2]
Website PlannedParenthood.org

Planned Parenthood Federation of America (PPFA) or often just Planned Parenthood is a non-profit organization which provides reproductive health and maternal and child health services. It is the U.S. affiliate of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) and one of its larger members. The Planned Parenthood Action Fund is the nonpartisan advocacy and political arm of PPFA. The Action Fund engages in educational and electoral activity, including legislative advocacy, voter education, and grassroots organizing to promote the PPFA mission. PPFA has its roots in Brooklyn, New York, where Margaret Sanger opened the first birth-control clinic in the U.S. She founded the American Birth Control League in 1921, which in 1942 became part of PPFA. Since then it has grown to approximately 85 affiliates and 820 clinics in the U.S.,[3] with a total budget of US $1 billion. PPFA provides services to over three million people in the United States, and supports services for over one million people outside the United States.

PPFA is the largest U.S. provider of reproductive health services, with 97% of its clinical interactions focused on breast and cervical cancer screening, HIV screening and counseling, contraception, and 3% on abortion,[4][5][6] though these numbers have been challenged.[7] PPFA conducts roughly 300,000 abortions annually, among the 3 million people the organization serves;[8][9][10] federal money is not used to fund abortion services.[11] In recent years, PPFA has begun to move away from the pro-choice label to words and phrases that more accurately reflect the entire range of women's health and economic issues.[12] Over its history, PPFA has experienced support, controversy, and protests.[24]

History[edit]

Early history[edit]

Margaret Sanger (1922), the first president and founder of Planned Parenthood

The origins of Planned Parenthood date to October 16, 1916, when Margaret Sanger, her sister Ethel Byrne, and Fania Mindell opened the first birth control clinic in the U.S. in the Brownsville section of Brooklyn, New York.[25] All three women were arrested and jailed for violating provisions of the Comstock Act, accused of distributing "obscene materials" at the clinic. The "Brownsville trials" brought national attention and support to their cause, and although Sanger and her co-defendants were convicted, their convictions were eventually overturned. Their campaign led to major changes in the laws governing birth control and sex education in the United States.[26]

In 1938, the clinic was organized into the American Birth Control League, which became part of the only national birth control organization in the US until the 1960s, but the title was found too offensive and "against families" so the League began discussions for a new name.[27] By 1941, the organization was operating 222 centers and had served 49,000 clients.[28] By 1942 the League had become part of what became the Planned Parenthood Federation of America.[27]

By 1960, the Federation's grassroots volunteers had provided family planning counseling in hundreds of communities across the country.[28] Planned Parenthood was one of the founding members of the International Planned Parenthood Federation when it was launched at a conference in Bombay, India in 1952.[28][29]

After Sanger[edit]

Following Margaret Sanger, Alan Frank Guttmacher became president of Planned Parenthood, and served from 1962 until 1974.[30] During his tenure, the Food and Drug Administration approved the sale of the original birth control pill, giving rise to new attitudes towards women's reproductive freedom.[28] Also during his presidency, Planned Parenthood lobbied the federal government to support reproductive health, culminating with President Richard Nixon's signing of Title X to provide governmental subsidies for low-income women to access family planning services.[31] The Center for Family Planning Program Development was also founded as a semi-autonomous division during this time.[32] The center became an independent organization and was renamed the Guttmacher Institute in 1977.[32]

Faye Wattleton was the first woman named president of the Planned Parenthood Federation of America in 1978, and served until 1992.[33] She was the first African-American to serve as president, and the youngest president in Planned Parenthood's history.[34] During her term, Planned Parenthood grew to become the seventh largest charity in the country, providing services to four million clients each year through its 170 affiliates, whose activities were spread across 50 states.[35]

A Planned Parenthood supporter participates in a demonstration in support of the organization.

From 1996 to 2006, Planned Parenthood was led by Gloria Feldt.[36][37] Feldt activated the Planned Parenthood Action Fund, the organization's political action committee, launching what was the most far reaching electoral advocacy effort in its history.[38] She also launched the Responsible Choices Action Agenda, a nationwide campaign to increase services to prevent unwanted pregnancies, improve quality of reproductive care and ensure access to safe and legal abortions.[28] Another initiative was the commencement of a "Global Partnership Program", with the aim of building a vibrant activist constituency in support of family planning.[28]

On February 15, 2006, Cecile Richards became president of the organization.[39]

Margaret Sanger Awards[edit]

In 1966, PPFA began awarding the Margaret Sanger Award annually to honor, in their words: "individuals of distinction in recognition of excellence and leadership in furthering reproductive health and reproductive rights." In the first year, it was awarded to four men, Carl G. Hartman, William H. Draper, Lyndon Baines Johnson, and Martin Luther King.[40][41][42][43] Later recipients have included John D. Rockefeller III, Katharine Hepburn, Jane Fonda, Hillary Rodham Clinton, and Ted Turner.[44][45][46]

Services and facilities[edit]

Location in Houston, Texas

PPFA is a federation of nearly 85 independent Planned Parenthood affiliates around the U.S.[1] These affiliates together operate more than 820 health centers in all 50 states and the District of Columbia.[1][47] The largest of these facilities, a $26 million, 78,000-square-foot (7,200 m2) structure, was completed in Houston, Texas in May 2010.[48] This serves as a headquarters for 12 clinics in Texas and Louisiana.[48] Together, they are the largest family planning services provider in the U.S. with over four million activists, supporters and donors.[49][50][51] Planned Parenthood is staffed by 27,000 staff members and volunteers.[52]

They serve over five million clients a year, 26% of which are teenagers under the age of 19.[53] According to PPFA, 75% of their clients have incomes at or below 150 percent of the federal poverty level.[52]

Services provided at locations include contraceptives (birth control); Long-acting reversible contraception;[54] emergency contraception; screening for breast, cervical and testicular cancers; pregnancy testing and pregnancy options counseling; testing and treatment for sexually transmitted diseases; comprehensive sexuality education, menopause treatments; vasectomies, tubal ligations, and abortion.[citation needed]

In 2009, PPFA provided 4,009,549 contraceptive services, 3,955,926 sexually transmitted disease services, 1,830,811 cancer related services, 1,178,369 pregnancy/prenatal/midlife services, 332,278 abortion services, and 76,977 other services, for a total of 11,383,900 services.[10][52][55][56][57][58] Given that a single patient may receive multiple services, such as a pap smear and contraceptives, it is impossible given publicly available data to accurately determine what percentage each service comprises in the organization's total services.[7] The organization also said its doctors and nurses annually conduct 1 million screenings for cervical cancer, and 830,000 breast exams,[59][60] which makes PPFA the largest U.S. provider of reproductive health services. 97% of services focus on breast and cervical cancer screening, HIV screening and counseling, contraception, and 3% on abortion,[4][61][62][63] although these numbers have been challenged.[7] PPFA conducts roughly 300,000 abortions annually, among the 3 million people the organization serves.[8][9][10] Federal money is not used to fund abortion services.[11]

Funding[edit]

Planned Parenthood headquarters on Massachusetts Avenue in Washington, D.C.

Planned Parenthood has received federal funding since 1970, when President Richard Nixon signed into law the Family Planning Services and Population Research Act, amending the Public Health Service Act. Title X of that law provides funding for family planning services, including contraception and family planning information. The law had bipartisan support from liberals, who saw contraception access as increasing families' control over their lives,[citation needed] and conservatives who saw it as a way to keep people off welfare.[citation needed] Nixon described Title X funding as based on the premise that "no American woman should be denied access to family planning assistance because of her economic condition."[64]

In the fiscal year ending June 30, 2011, total (consolidated) revenue was $201 million: clinic revenue totaling $2 million, grants and donations of $190 million, investment income of $2 million, and $7 million other income.[65] Approximately two-thirds of the revenue is put towards the provision of health services, while non-medical services such as sex education and public policy work make up another 16%; management expenses, fundraising, and international family planning programs account for most of the rest.[citation needed]

Planned Parenthood receives about a third of its money in government grants and contracts (about $360 million in 2009).[11] By law, federal funding cannot be allocated for abortions,[66] but some opponents of abortion have argued that allocating money to Planned Parenthood for the provision of other medical services "frees up" funds to be re-allocated for abortion.[62][67]

A coalition of national and local pro-life groups have lobbied federal and state governments to stop funding Planned Parenthood. As a result, federal and state legislators have proposed legislation to reduce funding levels.[66][68] Six states have gone ahead with such proposals.[62][69][70][71] In some cases, the courts have overturned such actions, citing conflict with federal or other state laws, and in others, the federal executive branch has provided funding in lieu of the states.[70][71][72] In other cases, complete or partial defunding of Planned Parenthood has gone through successfully.[73][74] Louisiana Governor Bobby Jindal has attempted to sever the contract with Planned Parenthood in his state (where no abortions are provided), at a time when there is an epidemic of syphilis in New Orleans, and where Louisiana ranks first among the states in cases of gonorrhea, second in chlamydia, and third in syphilis and H.I.V., according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.[75] Planned Parenthood clinics in Louisiana last year administered approximately 20,000 tests for these infections, and provided gynecological examinations, contraceptives, screening for cancer, and other services for nearly 10,000 mostly low-income patients, and there is insufficient access to medical care for the people who now can't be seen at Planned Parenthood clinics.[75] Planned Parenthood and three patients are suing Louisiana, with the US Justice Department siding with Planned Parenthood.[76]

Planned Parenthood is also funded by private donors, with a membership base of over 700,000 active donors whose contributions account for approximately one quarter of the organization's revenue.[77] Large donors also contribute a substantial portion of the organization's budget. Past donors have included the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, the Buffett Foundation, the Ford Foundation, the Turner Foundation, the Cullmans, and others.[78][79][80][81] The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation's contributions to the organization have been specifically marked to avoid funding abortions.[78] Some, such as the Buffett Foundation, have supported reproductive health that can include abortion services.[78] Pro-life groups have advocated the boycott of donors to Planned Parenthood.[82]

Political positions[edit]

Planned Parenthood and its predecessor organizations have provided and advocated for access to birth control. The modern organization of Planned Parenthood America is also an advocate for reproductive rights.[83] This advocacy includes contributing to sponsorship of abortion rights, and to women's rights events.[84] The Federation opposes restrictions on women's reproductive health services, including parental consent laws. To justify their opposition, Planned Parenthood has cited the case of Becky Bell, who died following an illegal abortion, rather than seek parental consent for a legal one.[85][86] Planned Parenthood also takes the position that laws requiring parental notification before an abortion is performed on a minor are unconstitutional on privacy grounds.[87]

The organization also opposes laws requiring ultrasounds before abortions, stating that their only purpose is to make abortions more difficult to obtain.[88] Planned Parenthood has also opposed initiatives that require waiting periods before abortions,[89] and bans on late-term abortions including intact dilation and extraction, which has been illegal in the U.S. since 2003.[90]

Planned Parenthood argues for the wide availability of emergency contraception (EC) measures.[91] It opposes conscience clauses, which allow pharmacists to refuse to dispense drugs against their beliefs. In support of their position, they have cited cases where pharmacists have refused to fill life saving drugs under the laws.[92] Planned Parenthood has also been critical of hospitals that do not provide access to EC for rape victims.[93]

Citing the need for medically accurate information in sex education, Planned Parenthood opposes abstinence-only education in public schools. Instead, Planned Parenthood is a provider of, and endorses, comprehensive sex education, which includes discussion of both abstinence and birth control.[94]

Political Action Committee[edit]

Planned Parenthood also has a political action committee called Planned Parenthood Action Fund. The committee was founded in 1996 by then new president Gloria Feldt for the purpose of maintaining reproductive health rights and supporting political candidates of the same mindset. In 2012 election cycle the committee gained prominence based on its effectiveness of spending on candidates.[95]

Before the U.S. Supreme Court[edit]

Former Planned Parenthood President Gloria Feldt with Congressman Albert Wynn in front of the U.S. Supreme Court

Planned Parenthood regional chapters have been active in the American courts. A number of cases in which Planned Parenthood has been a party have reached the U.S. Supreme Court. Notable among these cases is the 1992 case Planned Parenthood v. Casey, the case that sets forth the current constitutional abortion standard. In this case, "Planned Parenthood" was the Southeast Pennsylvania Chapter, and "Casey" was Robert Casey, the governor of Pennsylvania. The ultimate ruling was split, and Roe v. Wade was narrowed but upheld in an opinion written by Sandra Day O'Connor, Anthony Kennedy, and David Souter. Harry Blackmun and John Paul Stevens concurred with the main decision in separately written opinions. The Supreme Court struck down spousal consent requirements for married women to obtain abortions, but found no "undue burden"—an alternative to strict scrutiny which tests the allowable limitations on rights protected under the Constitution—from the other statutory requirements. Dissenting were William Rehnquist, Antonin Scalia, Clarence Thomas, and Byron White. Blackmun, Rehnquist, and White were the only justices who voted on the original Roe v. Wade decision in 1973 who were still on the Supreme Court to rule on this case, and their votes on this case were consistent with their votes on the original decision that legalized abortion.[96] Only Blackmun voted to maintain Roe v. Wade in its entirety.

Other related cases include:

  • Planned Parenthood of Central Missouri v. Danforth (1976). Planned Parenthood challenged the constitutionality of a Missouri law encompassing parental consent, spousal consent, clinic bookkeeping and allowed abortion methods. Portions of the challenged law were held to be constitutional, others not.[97]
  • Planned Parenthood Association of Kansas City v. Ashcroft (1983). Planned Parenthood challenged the constitutionality of a Missouri law encompassing parental consent, clinic record keeping, and hospitalization requirements. Most of the challenged law was held to be constitutional.[98]
  • Planned Parenthood v. ACLA (2001). The American Coalition of Life Activists (ACLA) released a flier and "Wanted" posters with complete personal information about doctors who performed abortions. A civil jury and the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals both found that the material was indeed "true threats" and not protected speech.[99]
  • Gonzales v. Planned Parenthood (2003). Planned Parenthood sued Attorney General Gonzales for an injunction against the enforcement of the Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act of 2003. Planned Parenthood argued the act was unconstitutional because it violated the Fifth Amendment, namely in that it was overly vague, violated women's constitutional right to have access to abortion, and did not include language for exceptions for the health of the mother. Both the district court and the US Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit agreed,[100][101] but that decision was overturned in a 5–4 ruling by the Supreme Court.[102]
  • Ayotte v. Planned Parenthood of Northern New England (2006). Planned Parenthood et al. challenged the constitutionality of a New Hampshire parental notification law related to access to abortion.[103][104] In Sandra Day O'Connor's final decision before retirement, the Supreme Court sent the case back to lower courts with instructions to seek a remedy short of wholesale invalidation of the statute. New Hampshire ended up repealing the statute via the legislative process.[105]

State and local court cases against Planned Parenthood[edit]

In some states, Attorneys General have subpoenaed medical records of patients treated by Planned Parenthood. Planned Parenthood has gone to court to keep from turning over these records, citing medical privacy and concerns about the motivation for seeking the records.[106]

In 2006, Kansas Attorney General Phill Kline, a strongly anti-abortion advocate, released some sealed patient records obtained from Planned Parenthood to the public. His actions were described as "troubling" by the state Supreme Court, but Planned Parenthood was compelled to turn over the medical records, albeit with more stringent court-mandated privacy safeguards for the patients involved.[106] In 2007, Kline's successor, Paul J. Morrison, notified the clinic that no criminal charges would be filed after a three-year investigation, as "an objective, unbiased and thorough examination" showed no wrongdoing. Morrison stated that he believed Kline had politicized the attorney general's office.[107] In 2012, a Kansas district attorney dropped all of the remaining criminal charges against the Kansas City-area Planned Parenthood clinic accused of performing illegal abortions, citing a lack of evidence of wrongdoing.[108] In all, the Planned Parenthood clinic had faced 107 criminal charges from Kline and other Kansas prosecutors, all of which were ultimately dropped for lack of evidence.[108]

In Indiana, Planned Parenthood was not required to turn over its medical records in an investigation of possible child abuse.[109] In 2005, Planned Parenthood Minnesota/North Dakota/South Dakota was fined $50,000 for violating a Minnesota state parental consent law.[110] In 2012, Judge Gary Harger ruled that the state of Texas may exclude otherwise qualified doctors and clinics from receiving state funding, if the doctors or clinics advocate for abortion rights.[111]

Controversy and criticism[edit]

Abortion[edit]

Planned Parenthood has occupied a central position in the abortion debate in the U.S., and has been among the most prominent targets of U.S. pro-life activists for decades. Some members of Congress, overwhelmingly Republicans, have attempted since the 1980s to defund the organization,[11] nearly leading to a government shutdown over the issue in 2011.[112] Planned Parenthood has consistently maintained that federal money received by Planned Parenthood is not used to fund abortion services, but pro-life activists have argued that the federal funding frees up other resources which are, in turn, used to provide abortions.[11]

Planned Parenthood is the largest single provider of abortions in the U.S.[8] According to PPFA's own estimates, its contraceptive services prevent approximately 612,000 unintended pregnancies and 291,000 abortions annually.[52][113] Planned Parenthood president Cecile Richards has argued that the organization's family planning services reduce the need for abortions.[114] Megan Crepeau of the Chicago Tribune said that, because of its birth control and family planning services, PPFA could be "characterized as America's largest abortion preventer."[115] Anti-abortion activists dispute the evidence that greater access to contraceptives reduces abortion frequency.[116]

Margaret Sanger and eugenics[edit]

Further information: Margaret Sanger § Eugenics

In the 1920s various theories of eugenics were popular among intellectuals in the United States. (For example, 75% of colleges offered courses on eugenics.)[117] Sanger, in her campaign to promote birth control, teamed with eugenics organizations such as the American Eugenics Society, although she argued against many of their positions.[118][119][120] Scholars describe Sanger as believing that birth control and sterilization should be voluntary, and not based on race.[121] Sanger advocated for "voluntary motherhood"—the right to choose when to be pregnant—for all women, as an important element of women's rights.[122][123]

As part of her efforts to promote birth control, however, Sanger found common cause with proponents of eugenics, believing that she and they both sought to "assist the race toward the elimination of the unfit."[124]

Critics of Planned Parenthood often refer to Sanger's connection with supporters of eugenics to discredit the organization by associating it, and birth control, with the more negative modern view of eugenics.[125][126] Planned Parenthood has responded to this effort directly in a leaflet acknowledging that Sanger agreed with some of her contemporaries who advocated the voluntary hospitalization or sterilization of people with untreatable, disabling, hereditary conditions, and limits on the immigration of the diseased. The leaflet also states that Planned Parenthood "finds these views objectionable and outmoded" but says that it was compelled to discuss the topic because "anti-family planning activists continue to attack Sanger . . . because she is an easier target" than Planned Parenthood.[127]

Undercover recordings by pro-life activists[edit]

Periodically pro-life advocates and activists have tried to demonstrate that Planned Parenthood does not follow applicable state or federal laws, but a 2005 review by the Bush administration's Department of Health and Human Services "yielded no evidence of clinics around the nation failing to comply with laws on reporting child abuse, child molestation, sexual abuse, rape or incest."[128] The groups called or visited Planned Parenthood health centers posing as victims of statutory rape,[129] minors who by law need parental notification before abortion,[128][130] racist donors seeking to earmark donations to reduce the African-American population,[61][131] or pimps seeking abortions for underage prostitutes.[132]

Live Action undercover videos[edit]

Beginning in 2010, Live Action has released several series of undercover videos filmed in Planned Parenthood centers. Live Action said one series showed Planned Parenthood employees at multiple affiliates actively assisting or being complicit in aiding a prostitution ring,[133] advising patients on how to procure sex-selective abortions,[134] and one who said they would immerse a child born alive after a botched abortion in a chemical solution to make it stop moving and breathing.[135]

No criminal convictions resulted,[136] but some employees and volunteers were fired for not following procedure, and the organization committed to retraining its staff.[137] Additionally, one center was placed on probation.[138]

Center for Medical Progress undercover videos[edit]

In July and August 2015 the anti-abortion organization Center for Medical Progress (CMP) released a number of edited videos.[139][140][141] They were secretly recorded by hired actors who discussed acquiring tissue samples from aborted fetuses with Planned Parenthood officials.[142][143][144]

CMP founder David Daleiden alleged the videos provide evidence of "criminal conspiracy to make money off of aborted baby parts reach[ing] to the very highest levels of [the] organization."[142] Planned Parenthood condemned these as false accusations, stating that all donations are made "with full, appropriate consent from patients and under the highest ethical and legal standards," and "there is no financial benefit for tissue donation for either the patient or for Planned Parenthood."[142][143]

The CMP videos and allegations attracted widespread media coverage, and re-invigorated the long-term American political abortion debate.[145] US Congressional investigations followed,[146][147][148] and a bill to defund Planned Parenthood was proposed but failed to pass in the Senate on August 3, 2015.[149] Several states cut contracts and funding for Planned Parenthood following the videos.[150][151][152]

Violence by anti-abortion activists[edit]

Planned Parenthood clinics have been the target of many instances of violence by anti-abortion activists, including bombing, arson, and attacks with chemical weaponry.[165] In 1994, John Salvi entered a Brookline, Massachusetts Planned Parenthood clinic and opened fire, murdering receptionist Shannon Elizabeth Lowney and wounding three others. He fled to another Planned Parenthood clinic where he murdered Leane Nichols and wounded two others.[166] In 2012 a Chut, Wisconsin, Planned Parenthood clinic was subject to a bombing perpetrated by an unknown individual.[167] In 2011 there were 114 violent attacks against abortion providers in the United States.[167]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Planned Parenthood "dates its beginnings to 1916" but a predecessor, the American Birth Control League, was not founded until 1921 and the organization did not adopt its name until 1942.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Livio, Susan (January 16, 2011). "Planned Parenthood may double the number of N.J. abortion clinics while expanding nationwide". NJ.com. Retrieved February 14, 2011. 
  2. ^ "Planned Parenthood 2008–09 Annual Report" (PDF). Planned Parenthood. p. 29. Retrieved February 21, 2011. (For 2008–09, Planned Parenthood's total revenue was $1,100.8 million and their total expenses were $1,037.4 million.) 
  3. ^ "Planned Parenthood at a Glance". plannedparenthood.org. 
  4. ^ a b Largest provider of reproductive health services:
    • The Planned Parenthood women's health encyclopedia, p vii
    • Jewish Choices, Jewish Voices: Sex and Intimacy, p 149
    • Maternal and child health: programs, problems, and policy in public health, p 104–105
    • Playing it safe: how the Supreme Court sidesteps hard cases, p 226
    • American journal of public health, Volume 83, Issues 7–12, p 1093
  5. ^ Number of abortions:
  6. ^ Ross, Janell. August 4, 2015. How Planned Parenthood actually uses its federal funding. The Washington Post. Retrieved: 22 August 2015.
  7. ^ a b c Lee, Michelle Ye Hee (August 12, 2015). "For Planned Parenthood abortion stats, ‘3 percent’ and ’94 percent’ are both misleading". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 12, 2015. 
  8. ^ a b c "Planned Parenthood, abortion and the budget fight". Seattle Times. April 8, 2011. Retrieved November 3, 2012. 
  9. ^ a b Conan, Neal (March 8, 2011). "Manning Up and Planned Parenthood". NPR. Retrieved July 12, 2011. 
  10. ^ a b c "Planned Parenthood Federation of America 2008–2009 Annual Report" (PDF). Planned Parenthood. 2011. Retrieved April 14, 2011. 
  11. ^ a b c d e Rovner, Julie (April 13, 2011). "Planned Parenthood: A Thorn In Abortion Foes' Sides". Morning Edition (NPR). Retrieved April 13, 2011. 
  12. ^ Calmes, Jackie (July 28, 2014). "Advocates Shun ‘Pro-Choice’ to Expand Message". New York Times. Retrieved August 4, 2014. 
  13. ^ Alice Park. "Planned Parenthood Protesters Rally Around the Country". TIME.com. Retrieved August 31, 2015. 
  14. ^ Peter Holley (August 22, 2015). "Thousands protest outside Planned Parenthood clinics around the country". Washington Post. Retrieved August 31, 2015. 
  15. ^ Tyler Pager, USA TODAY (August 21, 2015). "Nationwide Planned Parenthood protests set for Saturday". USA TODAY. Retrieved August 31, 2015. 
  16. ^ "Anti-abortion protesters rally at Planned Parenthood sites". Reuters. Retrieved August 31, 2015. 
  17. ^ "Anti-abortion supporters protest outside Planned Parenthoods nationwide". The Washingtion Times. Retrieved August 31, 2015. 
  18. ^ http://www.nytimes.com/reuters/2015/08/22/us/22reuters-usa-abortion-protests.html
  19. ^ Lauren Gambino. "Anti-abortion activists rally across US as third video targets Planned Parenthood". the Guardian. Retrieved August 31, 2015. 
  20. ^ "Protest Against Planned Parenthood Calls For Criminal Investigation". NBC Bay Area. Retrieved August 31, 2015. 
  21. ^ "Protesters Gather Nationally, Locally To Oppose Planned Parenthood Clinics". cbslocal.com. Retrieved August 31, 2015. 
  22. ^ Mark Wiggins, KVUE (July 28, 2015). "Abortion protesters target Planned Parenthood funding". KVUE. Retrieved August 31, 2015. 
  23. ^ Wendy Leonard (August 22, 2015). "Utahns join nationwide protests against Planned Parenthood". DeseretNews.com. Retrieved August 31, 2015. 
  24. ^ [13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23]
  25. ^ The Sanger Years Planned Parenthood. Accessed August 27, 2011.
  26. ^ McVeigh, Frank; Loreen, Wolfer (2004), Brief history of social problems: a critical thinking approach (Illustrated ed.), University Press of America, ISBN 0-7618-2831-1 
  27. ^ a b Gordon, Linda (2002), The moral property of women: a history of birth control politics in America (3rd ed.), University of Illinois Press, ISBN 0-252-02764-7 
  28. ^ a b c d e f Balter, Lawrence (2000), Parenthood in America: an encyclopedia 1st (Illustrated ed.), ABC-CLIO, ISBN 1-57607-213-4 
  29. ^ "Birth Control Organizations: International Planned Parenthood Federation". Margaret Sanger Papers. New York University. Retrieved February 11, 2011. 
  30. ^ "Alan Guttmacher", Toledo Blade, March 19, 1974: 28, retrieved February 9, 2011 
  31. ^ Lepore, Jill (November 14, 2011). "Birthright: What's next for Planned Parenthood?". The New Yorker. Retrieved April 22, 2012. 
  32. ^ a b "The History of the Guttmacher Institute". Official Website. The Guttmacher Institute. Retrieved February 9, 2011. 
  33. ^ "The Trustees of Columbia University". Office of the Secretary of the University. Columbia University. Retrieved February 10, 2011. 
  34. ^ "About Faye". Faye Wattleton. 
  35. ^ Marshall, Lauren (April 4, 2002), "Women's Rights Advocate Faye Wattleton Elected Newest Columbia Trustee", Columbia News, retrieved February 10, 2011 
  36. ^ "Planned Parenthood Chooses New President", Ms. Magazine, January 12, 2006, retrieved February 10, 2011 
  37. ^ "New President: Battle over abortion must be refought", Gadsden Times, April 10, 1996: A5, retrieved February 10, 2011 
  38. ^ Lewin, Tamar (April 28, 1996), "Shifting gears as the world turns, Planned Parenthood will too under helm of new president", The Chicago Tribune: 9 
  39. ^ Johnson, Darragh (March 25, 2006). "Cecile Richards, Planned Parenthood's Choice Leader". Washington Post. pp. C01. 
  40. ^ "Author Wins Sanger Prize". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. April 27, 1966. 
  41. ^ "Population Planner Honored". Los Angeles Times. November 28, 1971. 
  42. ^ "LBJ Birth Policy Cited". Associated Press via the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. October 11, 1966. 
  43. ^ "Mrs. King receives award for husband". The Afro American. May 21, 1966. 
  44. ^ "Rockefeller 3d Wins Sanger Award". New York Times. October 9, 1967. Retrieved February 14, 2011. 
  45. ^ "REMINDER/Planned Parenthood Salutes Visionary Leaders in the Fight for Reproductive Freedom." Business Wire March 29, 2003: 5006. General OneFile. Web. February 11, 2011.
  46. ^ Lozano, Juan (March 27, 2009). "Clinton champions women's rights worldwide". Houston Chronicle. Retrieved February 14, 2011. 
  47. ^ Davis, Tom (2005). Sacred work: Planned Parenthood and its clergy alliances. Rutgers University Press. ISBN 0-8135-3493-3. 
  48. ^ a b Planned Parenthood debuts new building Houston Chronicle May 20, 2010, 10:27PM retrieved June 28, 2010
  49. ^ Lerner, Sharon (January 18, 2011), "Does Contraception Count as Prevention?", The Nation, retrieved February 11, 2011 
  50. ^ Grady, Denise (July 9, 2009), "Abortion Pill Study Suggests Way to Limit Infection", New York Times, retrieved February 11, 2011 
  51. ^ "Planned Parenthood ® by the Number" (PDF). Planned Parenthood. Retrieved February 19, 2011. 
  52. ^ a b c d Planned Parenthood Services Fact Sheet, Sept 2011
  53. ^ Richards, Thomas (2007). "Spotlight on: Planned Parenthood". Children's Legal Rights Journal 27 (3): 57. Retrieved February 14, 2011. 
  54. ^ "Planned Parenthood's Springfield clinic sees growing demand for long acting contraception". MassLive. July 9, 2015. 
  55. ^ Planned Parenthood Services as of March 2011, Planned Parenthood,
  56. ^ Jon Kyl says abortion services are "well over 90 percent of what Planned Parenthood does", PolitiFact.com at St. Petersburg Times, April 8, 2011
  57. ^ Colliver, Victoria (January 19, 2011). "Planned Parenthood reopens in S.F.". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved February 1, 2011. 
  58. ^ "Planned Parenthood Services" (PDF). Planned Parenthood. 2011. Retrieved April 14, 2011. 
  59. ^ Sen. John Kerry/Guest columnist. "Kerry: Money, lives and Planned Parenthood". MetroWest Daily News, Framingham, MA. Retrieved September 1, 2015. 
  60. ^ "Planned Parenthood, abortion and the budget fight". Daily Republic. Retrieved September 1, 2015. 
  61. ^ a b Beaucar Vlahos, Kelley (April 24, 2008). "Pastors Accuse Planned Parenthood for 'Genocide' on Blacks". Fox News. Retrieved July 30, 2015. 
  62. ^ a b c Eckholm, Erik (February 17, 2011). "Planned Parenthood Financing Is Caught in Budget Feud". New York Times. 
  63. ^ Number of abortions:
    PPFA affiliates: "Only 50 of its 178 affiliates perform abortions"; and PPFA affiliates performed "104,000 of the 1.6 million abortions in the United States."
  64. ^ Halloran, Liz (March 21, 2011). "Abortion Foes Target Family Planning Program". NPR. 
  65. ^ "Planned Parenthood – Annual Report 2010-2011". Planned Parenthood. Retrieved March 20, 2012. 
  66. ^ a b "Groups unite vs. Planned Parenthood". Politico. February 2, 2011. 
  67. ^ Groppe, Maureen (February 1, 2011). "House votes to block funds to Planned Parenthood". The Arizona Republic. 
  68. ^ Somashekhar, Sandhya; Rucker, Philip (April 8, 2011). "GOP’s latest proposal for Planned Parenthood funding". Washington Post. Retrieved September 19, 2011. 
  69. ^ "Judge Allows Indiana to Cut Planned Parenthood Funding". Fox News. May 11, 2011. 
  70. ^ a b Landrigan, Kevin (September 14, 2011). "Family planning contracts OK’d". Nashua Telegraph. Retrieved September 20, 2011. 
  71. ^ a b Hegeman, Roxana (August 31, 2011). "Kansas to comply with Planned Parenthood order". Businessweek. Associated Press. Retrieved September 20, 2011. 
  72. ^ Pear, Robert (June 24, 2011). "Indiana Law to Cut Planned Parenthood Funding Is Blocked". New York Times. Retrieved September 19, 2011. 
  73. ^ "Planned Parenthood Defunded in Tennessee". News Channel 5. Associated Press. June 10, 2011. Retrieved September 20, 2011. 
  74. ^ Roberts, Christine (June 22, 2011). "Wisconsin to defund Planned Parenthood, joins Indiana, Kansas and North Carolina". New York Daily News. Retrieved September 20, 2011. 
  75. ^ a b http://www.nytimes.com/2015/09/02/us/politics/louisiana-lays-bare-difficulty-in-push-to-cut-planned-parenthood-funding.html
  76. ^ http://abcnews.go.com/US/wireStory/justice-department-sides-planned-parenthood-lawsuit-33457223
  77. ^ "Planned Parenthood Federation of America 2006–2007 Annual Report" (PDF). Planned Parenthood. 2008. Retrieved November 15, 2010. 
  78. ^ a b c "The Art of Giving—When Your Resources Are Vast". Businessweek. October 25, 1999. Retrieved February 10, 2011. 
  79. ^ Mostel, Raphael (November 12, 2004). "Pushing Foundations To Give Everything They Have". The Daily Jewish Forward. Retrieved February 10, 2011. 
  80. ^ "Planned Parenthood grant". Grant database. Ford Foundation. Retrieved February 15, 2011. 
  81. ^ Leavitt, Paul; Drinkard, Jim (September 14, 2000). "Bush debate material may have landed in Gore camp". USA Today. Retrieved February 12, 2011. 
  82. ^ Levin, Tamar (August 8, 1990). "Anti-Abortion Group Urges Boycott of Planned Parenthood Donors". The New York Times. Retrieved February 7, 2011. 
  83. ^ Lawrence, Jason (February 9, 2011). "Legislators, Planned Parenthood debate abortion". The Galveston County Daily News. Retrieved February 14, 2011. 
  84. ^ Planned Parenthood was one of the co-sponsors of the March for Women's Lives held April 25, 2004. "Abortion activists on the march". BBC News. BBC. April 26, 2004. Retrieved July 4, 2009. 
  85. ^ "Parental consent opposed". Madison Courier. January 23, 1990. Retrieved February 14, 2011. 
  86. ^ Relin, David Oliver. "Old enough to choose?" Scholastic Update April 20, 1990: 13+. General OneFile. Web. February 14, 2011.
  87. ^ Demer, Lisa (November 24, 2010). "Suit challenges law requiring parent abortion notification". Anchorage Daily News. Retrieved April 9, 2011. 
  88. ^ "RACHEL MADDOW SHOW for April 28, 2010, MSNBC." Rachel Maddow Show April 29, 2010. General OneFile. Web. February 14, 2011.
  89. ^ Gordon, Rachel (October 9, 2006). "CAMPAIGN 2006; PROPOSITION 85; Parental notification for abortion back on ballot; Voters rejected a similar measure in election last fall.(NEWS).". San Francisco Chronicle. p. A11. 
  90. ^ "Planned Parenthood Federation of America Opposes Abortion Ban Legislation". Planned Parenthood New Jersey. Retrieved April 9, 2011. 
  91. ^ Emergency Contraception – Planned Parenthood
  92. ^ Strauss, Sharon (January 12, 2011), "Planned Parenthood files complaint against Nampa pharmacist", Idaho Press-Tribune, retrieved February 6, 2011 
  93. ^ "New law may require N.Y. hospitals to offer contraception to rape victims". Associated Press via the Sun Journal. September 27, 2003. p. A10. 
  94. ^ Dejka, Joe (January 30, 2011), "Bill would require sex ed", Omaha World-Herald, retrieved February 6, 2011 
  95. ^ Young, Lindsay. "Outside spenders' return on investment". Sunlight Foundation. Retrieved April 29, 2014. 
  96. ^ "Planned Parenthood of Southeastern Pennsylvania v. Casey". cornell.edu. 
  97. ^ "Planned Parenthood of Central Missouri v. Danforth". cornell.edu. 
  98. ^ u.s. Supreme, C. (1983). "Planned Parenthood Association of Kansas City v. Ashcroft". United States reports : cases adjudged in the Supreme Court at ... and rules announced at ... United States. Supreme Court 462: 476–505. PMID 12041276. 
  99. ^ "Planned Parenthood v. American Coalition of Life Activists". Cyber.law.harvard.edu. Retrieved April 9, 2011. 
  100. ^ "Gonzales v. Planned Parenthood | The Oyez Project at IIT Chicago-Kent College of Law". Oyez.org. Retrieved April 9, 2011. 
  101. ^ "Gonzales v. Planned Parenthood Federation of America, Inc.". Duke Law, Supreme Court Online. Retrieved February 9, 2011. 
  102. ^ Biskupic, Joan (April 18, 2007). "Court takes harder stance on abortion". USA Today. 
  103. ^ Questions before the Court
  104. ^ "Opinion of the US First Circuit Court of Appeals leading to the Questions before the Court" (PDF). Retrieved April 9, 2011. 
  105. ^ Belluck, Pam (June 8, 2007). "New Hampshire to Repeal Parental Notification Law". New York Times. Retrieved February 9, 2011. 
  106. ^ a b Rudoren, Jori (February 4, 2006). "Kansas' Top Court Limits Abortion Record Search". New York Times. Retrieved September 19, 2011. 
  107. ^ "Planned Parenthood Clinic Is Cleared in Kansas Probe". The Washington Post. June 28, 2007. Retrieved December 22, 2010. 
  108. ^ a b Hanna, John (August 17, 2012). "Kansas district attorney drops remaining 32 criminal charges against Planned Parenthood clinic". Washington Post. Associated Press. Retrieved August 17, 2012. 
  109. ^ "Planned Parenthood of Indiana v. Carter, 854 N.E.2d 853 (Ind. Ct. App. 2006).". 
  110. ^ Prather (October 13, 2005). "Judge Faults St. Paul Clinic in Abortion Lawsuit". St. Paul Pioneer Press. p. A1. 
  111. ^ "Judge Says Texas Can Cut Off Funding for Planned Parenthood". The Blaze. Retrieved January 1, 2013. 
  112. ^ Dwyer, Devin (April 8, 2011). "Planned Parenthood at Center of Budget Shutdown Threat". ABC News. Retrieved March 5, 2015. 
  113. ^ Planned Parenthood "Planned Parenthood by the Numbers" fact sheet, Sept 2011
  114. ^
    • Finn, Robin, "Anti-Abortion Advocates? Bring 'Em On, Texan Says", New York Times, March 10, 2006. Quote: "PLANNED PARENTHOOD serves five million Americans and concentrates 90 percent of its efforts on preventing unwanted pregnancies, Ms. Richards, says, not terminating them. 'No one does more to reduce the need for abortions in this country than Planned Parenthood. ' "[1]
    • Also, Emily Stewart, director of public policy for Planned Parenthood said: "Without a doubt, when women have access to birth control, it reduces unintended pregnancies" [2]
  115. ^ Crepeau, Megan (April 4, 2011). "The great Republican bait-and-switch". Chicago Tribune. 
  116. ^ Rovner, Julie (September 7, 2011). "Conservatives Step Up Attacks On Public Funding For Birth Control". NPR. Retrieved July 21, 2015. 
  117. ^ Davis, Tom (2005). Sacred work: Planned Parenthood and its clergy alliances. Rutgers University Press. p. 35. 
  118. ^ Chesler, Ellen (2007). Woman of Valor: Margaret Sanger and the Birth Control Movement in America. Simon and Schuster. pp. 195, 216–217, 343, 490. 
  119. ^ "The Sanger–Hitler Equation", Margaret Sanger Papers Project Newsletter, #32, Winter 2002/3. New York University Department of History
  120. ^ Esther Katz et al., eds. (2003). The selected papers of Margaret Sanger , Volume 1. University of Illinois Press. p. 274. 
  121. ^ Daiwan, Shaila (February 27, 2010). "To Court Blacks, Foes of Abortion Make Racial Case". New York Times. Retrieved August 6, 2011. 
  122. ^ McCann, Carole R. (1999). Birth Control, Politics in the United States, 1916–1945. Cornell University Press. p. 10. ISBN 9780801486128. 
  123. ^ McCann, Carole R. (2010). "Women as Leaders in the Contraceptive Movement". In Karen O'Connor. Gender and Women's Leadership: A Reference Handbook 1. SAGE. p. 751. ISBN 9781412960830. 
  124. ^ Peter Engelman - A History of Birth Control in America, Prager, New York, 2010.
  125. ^ Valenza, Charles (January–February 1985). "Was Margaret Sanger a Racist?" (PDF). Family Planning Perspectives 17 (1): 44–46. doi:10.2307/2135230. PMID 3884362. Retrieved August 6, 2011. 
  126. ^ Chamlee, Virginia (July 27, 2011). "Bomberger again lashes out at NPR, Veazey". The Florida Independent. Retrieved August 6, 2011. 
  127. ^ Factsheet, Planned Parenthood, October 2004
  128. ^ a b Mieszkowski, Katharine (November 4, 2006). "Abortion foes' dirty tactics: Advocates of a California "parental notification" bill accuse Planned Parenthood of protecting sexual predators instead of teen girls. But who is really breaking the law?". Salon.com. Retrieved January 14, 2011. 
  129. ^ "Pro-Life Group Launches Undercover Sting". Fox News. May 31, 2002. Retrieved March 12, 2007. 
  130. ^ Mieszkowski, Katharine (September 26, 2002). "Jailbait: How antiabortion zealots posing as underage girls tried to entrap Planned Parenthood workers.". Salon.com. Retrieved January 14, 2011. 
  131. ^ Forester, Sandra (2008-02-28). "Response to caller 'a serious mistake,' says Planned Parenthood of Idaho". Idaho Statesman (The McClatchy Company). 
  132. ^ Crary, David (February 2, 2011). "Clinic manager fired after anti-abortion sting". Associated Press. Retrieved February 5, 2011. 
  133. ^ Grim, Ryan (February 25, 2011). "Behind the Assault on Planned Parenthood". Huffington Post; AOL News. Retrieved April 19, 2011. 
  134. ^ Bassett, Laura (May 29, 2012). "Planned Parenthood Sting Caught On Video, Released By Anti-Abortion Activists (VIDEO)". Huffington Post. 
  135. ^ Stuart, Hunter (April 29, 2013). "Live Action, Anti-Abortion Group, Releases Undercover Videos From Abortion Clinics". Huffington Post. Retrieved August 3, 2015. 
  136. ^ "Holder: No Prosecution in Connection With Planned Parenthood Video Sting". Fox News. March 1, 2011. Retrieved April 1, 2011. 
  137. ^ Eckholm, Erik (February 7, 2011). "Planned Parenthood to Retrain Public Staff". New York Times. Retrieved March 15, 2011. 
  138. ^ Hunter, Desiree (February 10, 2010). "AP: Birmingham abortion clinic put on probation". Associated Press via The San Diego Union-Tribune. 
  139. ^ "State Probes Find Zero Planned Parenthood Violations As Antiabortion Group Is Sued Over Undercover Videos". Yahoo News. Retrieved August 4, 2015. 
  140. ^ "Antiabortion group posts another video attacking Planned Parenthood", Washington Post, August 4, 2015.
  141. ^ Glenza, Jessica (August 4, 2015). "Fifth Planned Parenthood undercover video released by anti-abortion group". The Guardian. Retrieved August 13, 2015. 
  142. ^ a b c "Covert Video Targets Planned Parenthood Fetal-Parts Policy", New York Times, July 14, 2015.
  143. ^ a b "Video Accuses Planned Parenthood of Crime", New York Times, July 15, 2015.
  144. ^ Calmes, Jackie (August 27, 2015), Planned Parenthood Videos Were Altered, Analysis Finds, The New York Times, retrieved August 28, 2015 
  145. ^ "Planned Parenthood Says Video Part of Decadelong Harassment". New York Times. The Associated Press. July 20, 2015. Retrieved August 7, 2015. 
  146. ^ Fram, Alan. "John Boehner calls for investigation into whether Planned Parenthood is selling organs". Business Insider UK. Associated Press. Retrieved July 24, 2015. 
  147. ^ Pulliam Bailey, Sarah (July 28, 2015). "How the Planned Parenthood videos set off a renewed wave of activism on abortion". The Washington Post. Retrieved July 30, 2015. 
  148. ^ Bassett, Laura (July 29, 2015). "Mitch McConnell Says 'Women's Health' Five Times In Attempt To Defund Planned Parenthood". The Huffington Post. Retrieved July 30, 2015. 
  149. ^ "Senate blocks Planned Parenthood defunding measure". Reuters. August 3, 2015. 
  150. ^ New Orleans and Baton Rouge clinics, Accessdate August 12, 2015
  151. ^ Solomon, Dave (August 6, 2015). "New Hampshire Cuts Planned Parenthood Funding". Governing. Retrieved August 7, 2015. 
  152. ^ The Associated Press (August 7, 2015). "Alabama Gov. Defunds Planned Parenthood". US News and World Report. Retrieved August 10, 2015. 
  153. ^ "Planned Parenthood deserves to be supported not attacked". Washington Post. Retrieved August 6, 2015. 
  154. ^ Blanchard, Dallas A.; Prewitt, Terry James (1993). Religious violence and abortion: the Gideon Project. University Press of Florida. ISBN 9780813011936. 
  155. ^ Hewitt, Christopher (2005). Political violence and terrorism in modern America: a chronology. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 9780313334184. 
  156. ^ "History of Violence/Extreme Violence". National Abortion Federation (no date). 
  157. ^ Brittney, Hopper (September 2, 2010). "Vandalism at a Madera Planned Parenthood". CBS47. Retrieved February 24, 2011. 
  158. ^ Man charged with driving into Planned Parenthood facility." (January 23, 2009). "Minneapolis Star-Tribune." Retrieved January 27, 2009.
  159. ^ "Threats Prompt More Security: Fresno Planned Parenthood Office is Walling Up Windows". Fresno Bee. August 3, 1995. Retrieved February 24, 2011. 
  160. ^ "Wattleton Assails Rash of Planned Parenthood Center Bombings, Arson". Jet. March 18, 1985. p. 11. 
  161. ^ Purdum, Todd S. (February 25, 1987). "A day after cardinal's appeal, bombing suspect surrenders". The New York Times. 
  162. ^ Zimmerman, Patricia R. (1996). "Fetal Tissue: Reproductive Rights and Activist Video". In Renov, Michael; Suderburg, Erika. Resolutions: contemporary video practices. p. 305. ISBN 9780816623303. 
  163. ^ Pareene, Alex (July 30, 2011). "Planned Parenthood firebombed, right wing silent". Salon. 
  164. ^ "Planned Parenthood Bombed In Wisconsin". The Huffington Post. April 2, 2012. 
  165. ^ [153][154][155][156][157][158][159][160][161][162][163][164]
  166. ^ "Shooting victim understood risks, but loved her job". The Item. Associated Press. January 1, 1995. 
  167. ^ a b "Small Bomb Explodes Outside Planned Parenthood Clinic In Wisconsin". The Huffington Post. Retrieved August 5, 2015. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Manon Perry, Broadcasting Birth Control: Mass Media and Family Planning. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2013.

External links[edit]