Plans in Mexican history
In Mexican history, a plan was a declaration of principles announced in conjunction with a rebellion, usually armed, against the central government of the country (or, in the case of a regional rebellion, against the state government). Mexican plans were often more formal than the pronunciamientos that were their equivalent elsewhere in Spanish America and Spain. Some were as detailed as the United States Declaration of Independence (which in Mexican terms would no doubt have been called the “Plan of Philadelphia”), though some plans merely announced that the current government was null and void and that the signer of the plan was the new president.
Over one hundred plans were declared over all. One compendium, Planes políticos, proclamas, manifiestos y otros documentos de la Independencia al México moderno, 1812-1940, compiled by Román Iglesias González (Mexico City: UNAM, 1998), contains the full texts of 105 plans. About a dozen of these are widely considered to be of great importance in discussions of Mexican history.
Chronological list of Plans
- Plan of Iguala (24 February 1821, Iguala, Guerrero): the proposal by Agustín de Iturbide and Vicente Guerrero for the post-Independence War settlement based on the "Three Guarantees" of Religion, Independence and Unity.
- Plan of Veracruz (2 December 1822): Antonio López de Santa Anna calls for the creation of a republic.
- Plan of Casa Mata (1 February 1823): Antonio López de Santa Anna and Guadalupe Victoria called for the removal of Emperor Agustín de Iturbide.
- Plan of Lobato (23 January 1824)
- Plan of Perote (16 September 1828), Antonio López de Santa Anna: demanding nullification of the 1828 election results.
- Plan of Jalapa (4 December 1829, Xalapa, Veracruz): demanding the removal of President Vicente Guerrero.
- Plan of Veracruz (2 January 1832): Ciriaco Vázquez, later supported by Antonio López de Santa Anna,denounced Anastasio Bustamante.
- Plan of Huejotzingo (8 June 1833, Huejotzingo, Puebla): in which Mariano Arista denounced the liberal reforms of Valentín Gómez Farías and expressed support of Antonio López de Santa Anna.
- Plan of Cuernavaca 25 May 1834. Denouncing the liberal reforms of Valentín Gómez Farías.
- Plan of La Ciudadela (4 September 1841): rebellion against Anastasio Bustamante.
- Plan of Ayutla (24 February 1854, Ayutla, Guerrero): calling for the removal of President Antonio López de Santa Anna.
- Plan of Tacubaya (17 December 1857, Tacubaya, Federal District): suspension of the 1857 Constitution, convocation of a constituent assembly under President Ignacio Comonfort.
- Plan de la Noria (8 November 1871) Porfirio Díaz's failed attempt at overthrowing Benito Juarez.
- Plan of Tuxtepec (10 January 1876, Tuxtepec, Oaxaca): Díaz plan demanding removal of President Sebastián Lerdo de Tejada.
- Plan of San Luis Potosí (5 October 1910, San Luis Potosí, San Luis Potosí): Francisco I. Madero's call for Revolution and the overthrow of Porfirio Díaz.
- Plan of Ayala (25 November 1911, Ciudad Ayala, Morelos): Emiliano Zapata's vision of post-Revolution Mexico.
- Plan of Guadalupe (23 March 1913, Hacienda de Guadalupe in Ramos Arizpe, Coahuila): Venustiano Carranza's response to the assassination of Francisco I. Madero during the Ten Tragic Days, and denunciation of the usurper Victoriano Huerta.
- Plan of San Diego (6 January 1915, San Diego, Texas): ambiguous in origin, it was either a Carrancista or Huertista plan to overthrow the governments of the American border states.
- Plan of Agua Prieta (23 April 1920, Agua Prieta, Sonora): Álvaro Obregón, Adolfo de la Huerta, Benjamín Hill, et al. take up arms against the government of Venustiano Carranza.
- Geographical references are to modern-day federal entities, some of which did not exist, or existed in another form, at the time of the plans' enactment.