Plantago asiatica

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Plantago asiatica
Plantago asiatica.jpg
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Asterids
Order: Lamiales
Family: Plantaginaceae
Genus: Plantago
Species:
P. asiatica
Binomial name
Plantago asiatica

Plantago asiatica, is a self-fertile, perennial flowering plant of genus Plantago.[1][2] The plant is native to East Asia (China, Japan, Korea, etc.). It grows really well in disturbed areas like roadsides or even dirt roads.[3] It is valued for its use in folk medicine[4] and it also can be used in cooking.[5]

Common names include Chinese plantain, obako, arnoglossa,[citation needed] and Asiatic plantain.[6]

Description[edit]

The plant is a perennial herb that up to 20–60 cm (8–24 in) and has short and thick rootstock with numerous fibrous and fasciculate roots. It has short stems with a rosette of broadly ovate to broadly elliptic leaves. Thin or very thin papery leaf blades are 4–12 cm (2–5 in) long, 2.5–6.5 cm (1–3 in) wide, sparsely pubescent, three to seven veins, obtuse to acute apex, broadly cuneate to surrounded base and decurrent to petiole, margins are entire, repand, serrate or dentate. Petioles 3–10 cm (1–4 in) long, sparsely pubescent.[7] The plant has erect spikes of 20–45 cm (8–18 in) high, with many small, white, hairless flowers, and oval sepals that are 1.8–2 cm (0.7–0.8 in) long, tube corolla with five oval lobes, and four stamens. The fruits are oval-shaped pyxis of 3.5 mm (0.1 in) high and 2 mm (0.08 in)m wide, which have four black seeds inside that are up to 1.8 mm (0.07 in) long.[8]

The plant can be a weed in uplands, fields and gardens and it can host aphid and red spider.[6]   

Blooming period: April – August, fruiting period: June- September.[7]

Habitat[edit]

The plant can grow in many regions, such as mountain slopes, ravines, riverbanks, fields, roadsides, wastelands, lawns.[7]

Cultivation[edit]

The plant is hardy, and it can grow in all USDA zones.[9] It like the place where is full sun or part shade, and it can adapt to sandy, loamy, and clay soils with good drainage. Acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils are suitable for this plant.[5]  

Medicinal use[edit]

Traditionally, the plant was used to treat liver disease, stomach problems and urinary system inflammation.[10]

According to traditional Chinese medicine, all parts of the plant are medicine to cool heat and promote urination, cause diuresis, clear damp-heat, brighten the eyes and dislodge phlegm.[11] The leaves and the seeds[5] have anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, antitussive, cardiac, diuretic, expectorant, haemostatic efficacy. The roots can be made into a decoction to treat coughs.

Scientific studies have shown that Plantago asiatica petroleum extract has a significant antidepressant effect,[12] and the hot water extracts of P. major and P. asiatica have anti-leukaemia, anti-cancer and anti-viral activities, as well as the activity of regulating cell-mediated immunity.[13] The seed gel extract can work as a lubricant to promote laxation of humans,[12] and the PSE (Plantago asiatica L. seed extract) can contribute to the treatment or prevention of obesity and relative symptoms as a potential dietary supplement.[10] The Plantaginis Semen inhibits the activities of XOD (Xanthine oxidase) significantly, and it can be used in the reduction of hyperuricemia and the treatment of gout.[14] Plantamajoside can be isolated from Plantago asiatica, and it has antioxidant and anti-glycation effects. Thus it can be used to study the effects of natural herbal supplements to prevent diabetic complications.[15]

Pregnant women need to avoid using this medicine, which may cause uterine activity and laxation.[medical citation needed] Patients cannot take lithium or carbamazepine with plantain at the same time.[16]

Plantago asiatica can cause side effects, such as anaphylaxis, chest congestion, sneezing, watery eyes, occupational asthma, and gastric concretion.[16]

Toxicology[edit]

The pollen has allergenic glycoproteins and components that can bind IgE which can mediated sensitization, contributing to seasonal allergy.[16]

Culinary use[edit]

The plant is suitable for cooking with grains and stews, and it can also be added to herbal wines.[17][unreliable source?]

The leaves of the plant are used in many Japanese dishes, especially soups.[18] In Vietnam, the young leaves are boiled, fried, or made into soup with meat or prawns.[8] It also can be fried with salt, or boiled with Yin Chen (Artemisia capillaris herba) to make Yin Chen Tea.[19]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Plantago subg. Plantago". Retrieved November 23, 2006.
  2. ^ "Taxonomic subtree rooted by TaxID 197796 (Plantago asiatica)". Retrieved November 23, 2006.[dead link]
  3. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2014-06-12. Retrieved 2014-06-09.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  4. ^ Nasrollahzadeh, Mahmoud; Momeni, Seyedeh Samaneh; Sajadi, S. Mohammad (November 2017). "Green synthesis of copper nanoparticles using Plantago asiatica leaf extract and their application for the cyanation of aldehydes using K4Fe(CN)6". Journal of Colloid and Interface Science. 506: 471–477. Bibcode:2017JCIS..506..471N. doi:10.1016/j.jcis.2017.07.072. ISSN 0021-9797. PMID 28755642.
  5. ^ a b c "Plantago asiatica Che Qian Zi PFAF Plant Database". pfaf.org. Retrieved 2018-11-19.
  6. ^ a b Xu, Zhenghao; Chang, Le (2017-11-10). Identification and Control of Common Weeds. Springer. pp. 346–348. ISBN 9789811054037.
  7. ^ a b c "Plantago asiatica in Chinese Plant Names @ efloras.org". www.efloras.org. Retrieved 2018-11-19.
  8. ^ a b Tanaka, Yoshitaka; Van Ke, Nguyen (2007). Edible Wild Plants of Vietnam: The Bountiful Garden. Thailand: Orchid Press. p. 114. ISBN 978-9745240896.
  9. ^ Schafer, Peg. The Chinese medicinal herb farm: A cultivator's guide to small-scale Organic Herb Production. Chelsea Green Publishing. pp. 237–240.
  10. ^ a b Yang, Qiming; Qi, Meng; Tong, Renchao; Wang, Dandan; Ding, Lili; Li, Zeyun; Huang, Cheng; Wang, Zhengtao; Yang, Li (2017-06-30). "Plantago asiatica L. Seed Extract Improves Lipid Accumulation and Hyperglycemia in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice". International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 18 (7): 1393. doi:10.3390/ijms18071393. ISSN 1422-0067. PMC 5535886. PMID 28665305.
  11. ^ Zhang, Shou-wen; Zhong, Wei-guang; Li, Feng-gin; Cao, Lan (2012). "Study on Optimal Fertilizer Techniques for Standardized Cultivation of Plantago asiatica L. in Jiangxi Province". Medicinal Plant. 3 (11): 67.
  12. ^ a b Yin, Jun-Yi; Nie, Shao-Ping; Zhou, Chao; Wan, Yin; Xie, Ming-Yong (2010-01-30). "Chemical characteristics and antioxidant activities of polysaccharide purified from the seeds ofPlantago asiaticaL". Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. 90 (2): 210–217. doi:10.1002/jsfa.3793. ISSN 0022-5142. PMID 20355033.
  13. ^ Chiang, Lien-Chai; Chiang, Wen; Chang, Mei-Yin; Lin, Chun-Ching (January 2003). "In Vitro Cytotoxic, Antiviral and Immunomodulatory Effects of Plantago major and Plantago asiatica". The American Journal of Chinese Medicine. 31 (2): 225–234. doi:10.1142/s0192415x03000874. ISSN 0192-415X. PMID 12856861.
  14. ^ Zeng, Jin-Xiang; Wang, Juan; Zhang, Shou-Wen; Zhu, Ji-Xiao; Li, Min; Huang, Wei-Hua; Wan, Jin-Yi; Yao, Hai-Qiang; Wang, Chong-Zhi (2018). "Antigout Effects of Plantago asiatica: Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitory Activities Assessed by Electrochemical Biosensing Method". Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2018: 1364617. doi:10.1155/2018/1364617. ISSN 1741-427X. PMC 5842727. PMID 29681967.
  15. ^ Choi, Soo-Youn; Jung, Sung-Hoon; Lee, Hyun-Sun; Park, Kwen-Woo; Yun, Bong-Sik; Lee, Kwang-Won (2008). "Glycation inhibitory activity and the identification of an active compound inPlantago asiatica extract". Phytotherapy Research. 22 (3): 323–329. doi:10.1002/ptr.2316. ISSN 0951-418X. PMID 18167045.
  16. ^ a b c "Plantain Uses, Benefits & Side Effects - Drugs.com Herbal Database". Drugs.com. Retrieved 2018-11-19.
  17. ^ "Plantain (Che Qian Zi) - Chinese Herbs in New York, NY". Chinese Herbs in New York, NY. Retrieved 2018-11-19.
  18. ^ Willcox, Bradley and Willcox, Graig. The Okinawa Diet Plan
  19. ^ Chinese Food Therapy Rx for Self Healing (Volume I): Helen H. Hu. OMD, L.Ac, Medical Degree. Hu House Publishing International. 2015-08-07. p. 172. ISBN 9781427655110.

External links[edit]