|Siphanta acuta (Flatidae)|
A planthopper is any insect in the infraorder Fulgoromorpha, exceeding 12,500 described species worldwide. The name comes from their remarkable resemblance to leaves and other plants of their environment and from the fact that they often "hop" for quick transportation in a similar way to that of grasshoppers. However, planthoppers generally walk very slowly so as not to attract attention. Distributed worldwide, all members of this group are plant-feeders, though surprisingly few are considered pests. The infraorder contains only a single superfamily, Fulgoroidea. Fulgoroids are most reliably distinguished from the other Auchenorrhyncha by two features; the bifurcate ("Y"-shaped) anal vein in the forewing, and the thickened, three-segmented antennae, with a generally round or egg-shaped second segment (pedicel) that bears a fine filamentous arista.
Nymphs of many fulgoroids produce wax from special glands on the abdominal terga and other parts of the body. These are hydrophobic and help conceal the insects. Adult females of many families also produce wax which may be used to protect eggs.
Fulgoroid nymphs also possess a biological gear mechanism at the base of the hind legs, which keeps the legs in synchrony when the insects jump. The gears, not present in the adults, were known for decades before the recent description of their function.
As mentioned under Auchenorrhyncha, some authors use the name Archaeorrhyncha as a replacement for the Fulgoromorpha.
The extant families of Fulgoroidea are:
- Eurybrachidae (= Eurybrachyidae)
- Issidae (sometimes includes Caliscelidae)
- Song, N.; Liang, A.-P.; Bu, C.-P. (2012). "A Molecular Phylogeny of Hemiptera Inferred from Mitochondrial Genome Sequences". PLoS ONE. 7 (11): e48778. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0048778.
- C. H. Dietrich in Resh, V. H. & Carde, R. T. (Eds.) 2003 Encyclopedia of Insects. Academic Press.
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- M. Burrows, G. Sutton. 2013. Interacting Gears Synchronize Propulsive Leg Movements in a Jumping Insect. Science 13 September 2013: Vol. 341 no. 6151 pp. 1254-1256 DOI: 10.1126/science.1240284
- Lee et al. (2000) Phytoplasmas: phytopathogenic mollicutes. Annual Review of Microbiology 54 221-255
- Shcherbakov, D. (2006). "The earliest find of Tropiduchidae (Homoptera: Auchenorrhyncha), representing a new tribe, from the Eocene of Green River, USA, with notes on the fossil record of higher Fulgoroidea" (PDF). Russian Entomological Journal. 15 (3): 315–322. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-04-02.
- Stephen W. Wilson (2005) Keys To The Families Of Fulgoromorpha with emphasis on planthoppers of potential economic importance in the southeastern United States (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha). Florida Entomologist 88(4) PDF
- Bourgoin T. 1996-2015. FLOW (Fulgoromorpha Lists on The Web): a world knowledge base dedicated to Fulgoromorpha. http://www.hemiptera-databases.org/flow/
- Larivière, M.-C.; Fletcher, M.J.; Larochelle, A. 2010: Auchenorrhyncha (Insecta: Hemiptera): catalogue.Fauna of New Zealand, (63)
- Swzedo J.; Bourgoin T.; Lefèbvre, F. 2004: An annotated catalogue of Fulgoromorpha, :37-137. In: Fossil Planthoppers (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha) of the world. An annotated catalogue with notes on Hemiptera classification. Swzedo, J., Th. Bourgoin & F. Lefèbvre. J. Swzedo edt., Warsaw 2004, 199 pp + 8 pl.
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