Planulozoa

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Planulozoa is a proposed clade including the Cnidaria (sea anemones and jellyfish) and the Bilateria (all the more complex animals including flatworms, insects and vertebrates). The clade excludes the Ctenophora (comb jellies)[1][2][3] and Porifera (sponges).[4]

Metazoa

Porifera


Eumetazoa

Ctenophora (comb jellies)




Placozoa


Planulozoa
Cnidaria

Anthozoa
(sea anemones and corals)


Medusozoa

Hydrozoa
(Hydra, siphonophores, etc.)





Cubozoa
(box jellies)



Staurozoa




"Scyphozoa"
(jellyfish, excluding
Staurozoa)





Bilateria

Myxozoa



Other Bilateria
(more complex)







Family tree of Cnidaria and the origins of animals[3][5][4][6]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Andreas Hejnol & Mark Q. Martindale (2008). "Acoel development supports a simple planula-like urbilaterian". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. 363 (1496): 1493–1501. doi:10.1098/rstb.2007.2239. PMC 2614228Freely accessible. PMID 18192185. 
  2. ^ Jaume Baguñà; Pere Martinez; Jordi Paps; Marta Riutort (2008). "Back in time: a new systematic proposal for the Bilateria". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. 363 (1496): 1481–1491. doi:10.1098/rstb.2007.2238. PMC 2615819Freely accessible. PMID 18192186. 
  3. ^ a b Andreas Wallberg; Mikael Thollesson; James S. Farris; Ulf Jondelius (2004). "The phylogenetic position of the comb jellies (Ctenophora) and the importance of taxonomic sampling". Cladistics. 20 (6): 558–578. doi:10.1111/j.1096-0031.2004.00041.x. 
  4. ^ a b C. Borchiellini; M. Manuel; E. Alivon; N. Boury-Esnault; J. Vacelet; Y. Le Parco (2001). "Sponge paraphyly and the origin of Metazoa". Journal of Evolutionary Biology. 14 (1): 171–179. doi:10.1046/j.1420-9101.2001.00244.x. 
  5. ^ A. G. Collins (2002). "Phylogeny of Medusozoa and the evolution of Cnidarian life cycles" (PDF). Journal of Evolutionary Biology. 15 (3): 418–432. doi:10.1046/j.1420-9101.2002.00403.x. 
  6. ^ Pisani, Davide; Pett, Walker; Dohrmann, Martin; Feuda, Roberto; Rota-Stabelli, Omar; Philippe, Hervé; Lartillot, Nicolas; Wörheide, Gert (2015-12-15). "Genomic data do not support comb jellies as the sister group to all other animals". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 112 (50): 15402–15407. doi:10.1073/pnas.1518127112. PMC 4687580Freely accessible. PMID 26621703.