Polymer banknote

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Plastic money)
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Australian banknotes in wallet

Polymer banknotes are banknotes made from a synthetic polymer such as biaxially oriented polypropylene (BOPP). Such notes incorporate many security features not available in paper banknotes, including the use of metameric inks.[1] Polymer banknotes last significantly longer than paper notes, causing a decrease in environmental impact and a reduced cost of production and replacement.[2] Modern polymer banknotes were first developed by the Reserve Bank of Australia (RBA), Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) and The University of Melbourne. They were first issued as currency in Australia during 1988 (coinciding with Australia's bicentennial year). In 1996 Australia switched completely to polymer banknotes. Romania was the first country in Europe to issue a plastic note in 1999 and became the third country after Australia and New Zealand to fully convert to polymer by 2003.

Other countries that have switched completely to polymer banknotes include: Vietnam (2006), Brunei (2006), Papua New Guinea (2008), Canada (2013), Maldives (2017), Mauritania (2017), Nicaragua (2017), Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS) (2019) and Vanuatu (2017).

The latest countries to introduce polymer banknotes into General Circulation, Commemorative or Tyvek include: the United Kingdom, Nigeria, Cape Verde, Chile, The Gambia, Trinidad and Tobago, Vietnam, Mexico, Egypt, Singapore, Malaysia, Botswana, São Tomé and Príncipe, North Macedonia, the Russian Federation, Solomon Islands, Samoa, Morocco, Albania, Sri Lanka, Hong Kong, Israel, China, Kuwait, Mozambique, Saudi Arabia, Isle of Man, Guatemala, Haiti, Libya, Mauritius, Costa Rica, Honduras, Angola, Namibia and Lebanon.


In 1966, Australia switched to decimal currency. Counterfeiting of banknotes became a problem within a year of the new notes' introduction.[3] In response, the Reserve Bank of Australia engaged CSIRO to develop a secure and durable replacement. Prof. David Solomon and Dr. Sefton Hayman led the research teams. The researchers focused on preventing photographic forgeries, studying holographic techniques and later incorporating optical transparency. They ultimately developed polymer banknote technology that is now used around the world under the brand name Guardian. The new polymer also reduced production costs as the notes last longer than those made with older technology.

In the 1980s, Canadian engineering company AGRA Vadeko and US chemical company US Mobil Chemical Company developed a polymer substrate trademarked as DuraNote. It had been tested by the Bank of Canada in the 1980s and 1990s; test C$20 and C$50 banknotes were auctioned in October 2012.[4][5] It was also tested by the Bureau of Engraving and Printing of the United States Department of the Treasury in 1997 and 1998, when 40,000 test banknotes were printed and evaluated; and was evaluated by the central banks of 28 countries.[4]

Security features[edit]

Polymer banknotes usually have three levels of security devices. Primary security devices are easily recognisable by consumers and can include transparent windows, diffraction grating and raised printing.[6] Polymer banknotes can also include many of the same security features as paper banknotes, such as intaglio, metal strips, and microprinting. Secondary security devices are detectable by a machine. Tertiary security devices may only be detectable by the issuing authority when a banknote is returned.[7]


Modern polymer banknotes were first developed by the Reserve Bank of Australia (RBA) and the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation or CSIRO and first issued as currency in Australia during 1988, to coincide with Australia's bicentennial year.[8]

In August 2012, Nigeria's Central Bank attempted the switch back from polymer to paper banknotes,[9] saying there were "significant difficulties associated with the processing and destruction of the polymer banknotes" which had "constrained the realisation of the benefits expected from polymer banknotes over paper notes".[10] However, President Goodluck Jonathan halted the process in September 2012.[11]

The polymer notes in the Republic of Mauritius are available in values of Rs 25, Rs 50, Rs 500 and Rs 2,000 rupees . The Fiji $5 was issued[12] in April 2013.

In the United Kingdom, the first polymer banknotes were issued by the Northern Bank in Northern Ireland in 2000; these were a special commemorative issue bearing an image of the space shuttle.[Note 1] In March 2015, the Clydesdale Bank in Scotland began to issue polymer Sterling £5 notes marking the 125th anniversary of the building of the Forth Bridge.[13] These were the first polymer notes to enter general circulation in the UK.[14] The Royal Bank of Scotland followed in 2016 with a new issue of plastic £5 notes illustrated with a picture of author Nan Shepherd.[15] In September 2016, the Bank of England began to issue £5 polymer notes with a picture of Winston Churchill; and in 2017 a polymer £10 began replacing its paper equivalent, featuring a picture of the author Jane Austen. A polymer £20 was issued in 2020 with a picture of J.M.W. Turner. The Bank of England has said it plans to change the final note, £50, to a polymer note. Although the new Bank of England notes will be 15% smaller than the older, paper issue, they will bear a similar design.[16][17] Some businesses operating in the UK cash industry have opposed the switch to polymer, citing a lack of research into the cost impact of its introduction.[18]

Timeline of adoptions and withdrawals[edit]

Romania was the first country in mainland Europe to issue a plastic note in 1999 and became the third country after Australia and New Zealand to fully convert to polymer by 2003.


An alternative polymer of polyethylene fibres marketed as Tyvek by DuPont was developed for use as currency by the American Bank Note Company in the early 1980s:

Tyvek did not perform well in trials; smudging of ink and fragility were reported as problems, so production of Tyvek banknotes was discontinued.[20]

  • In 1988, Australia introduced the 10 dollars world's first non-Tyvek polymer banknote to celebrate the bicentennial years of Australia.[21]



  • In April, Brazil introduced R$10 polymer banknote were released as a special edition commemorating the country's 500th anniversary.[33]


  • In January, Bangladesh introduced the 10 taka polymer banknote, originally they were due to be issued in Victory day, a day big for Bangladeshis, but were delayed.[34]



  • By 2003, Romania converted all of its banknotes into polymer banknotes.[38] being the first European country in doing it.


  • In October, Bank Negara Malaysia introduces a 5 ringgit polymer banknote into circulation, with the same design as the paper version. This was the first non-commemorative polymer banknote to be issued. Both polymer and paper versions were in circulation concurrently.[39]
  • In November, Bank Indonesia switched IDR 100000 polymer banknote into paper banknote with different design than polymer version.[40]


  • In July, Romania did redenomination of previous series. And again issued Polymer Banknotes.[41]


  • From December 2003 to August 2006, Vietnam adopted polymer banknote in 10,000, 20,000, 50,000, 100,000, 200,000 and 500,000 đồng for general circulation.[42]
  • By 2006, Brunei had adopted polymer banknotes for all its banknote denominations.
  • The Australian Government agency CSIRO issued a non-legal tender polymer note to celebrate the 80th year of the formation of CSIRO. These notes were issued and distributed to staff members and at selected public events.[43]




  • On 15 May, Nicaragua released new polymer ten and twenty Nicaragua córdoba banknotes to replace their paper counterparts.[47] After an announcement from the Central Bank of Nicaragua in 2008 stated that a new 200 Córdoba banknote would be in circulation, it took the country an additional year to prepare its new set of banknotes. A new polymer two hundred and a hundred córdoba banknote was first issued on the first of June 2009. In December 2009, a new 50 banknote was released, later followed by a new 500 banknote that was issued on 12 January 2010.[48][49]
  • In September, the Reserve Bank of India announced that it will introduce 1  billion 10-rupee notes.[50]
  • In September, the Central Bank of Chile introduced the new series of the Chilean Peso, starting with the redesigned 5000 Pesos banknote.[51]



  • In November, the Bank of Canada introduced the Frontier Series $100 polymer banknote to modernise its currency and reduce counterfeiting.[54] $50 banknotes were put into circulation in March 2012; the $20 note was put into circulation on 7 November 2012[55] with the $10 and $5 denominations released on 7 November 2013.[56][57]
  • In November, Guatemala introduced new polymer banknote in denomination of 5 quetzal.[58]



  • In April, the Reserve Bank of India introduce plastic/polymer currency note of 10 on a field trial basis in five cities in India.[60]
  • On 22 August, the Bank of Mauritius issued new 25-, 50-, and 500-rupee polymer banknotes which will circulate in parallel with the existing paper notes of the same denominations. The new polymer notes have almost the same design as the preceding paper banknotes, but contain numerous new security features such as transparent windows showing the image of the dodo, numbers printed with magnetic ink which become fluorescent under ultra violet light, and swing features printed in iridescent ink, which change to a different colour when observed in transparency or when tilted. The 25-, and 50-rupee notes are printed by Oberthur Technologies on Innovia Security's Guardian substrate and the 500-rupee note is printed by De La Rue on its Safeguard (formerly Flexycoin) substrate.[61]
  • On 22 November, Banque de Liban issued a 50,000 pounds banknote in polymer to commemorate the country's 70th anniversary of independence.[62]
  • In 2013 ,the Bank of England announced that it would adopt polymer notes.[63]







  • The Central Bank of Libya has issued a 1 Dinar banknote on 17 February 2019, in commemoration of the 8th Anniversary of the Libyan Revolution of 2011.[97]
  • Bank of Ireland, Danske Bank and Ulster Bank, commercial banks in Northern Ireland, each issued a new series of pound banknotes on polymer substrate for general use in Northern Ireland on 27 February 2019.[98]
  • The Central Bank of Samoa announced the release of a new 10 Tala polymer banknote in June 2019, to commemorate the XVI Pacific Games 2019 which were held in Samoa from 7 July 2019. The 10 Tala banknote will be the second polymer banknote issued in Samoa and the first carbon offset banknote created from the polymer substrate. The new banknote is one of a kind for Samoa as it will have a horizontal front and a vertical back. The Banknote will feature a see through window depicting the Pacific Games logo, and a tactile embossed feature to assist the visually impaired, both are unique features of polymer banknotes. The standard banknote prefix has been replaced with the special PG/XVI prefix denoting “XVI Pacific Game”. Issuance of the new 10 Tala note will commence the last week of June 2019, and will co-circulate together with the existing 10 tala banknotes which will remain legal tender.[99]
  • Central bank of Morocco introduced 20 dirham polymer banknote to mark years of enthronement of Mohammed VI's.[100]
  • Bank of Albania introduced a new 200 Lek polymer banknote on 30 September 2019.[101]
  • The Central Bank of Trinidad and Tobago issued a TT$100 polymer banknote for circulation on 9 December 2019, while announcing that all versions of the paper TT$100 banknotes will be demonetized and withdrawn from circulation on 31 December 2019.[102]




100 Chinese Yuan Polymer Banknote to Commemorate Year 2000

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Although the £5 Northern Bank polymer banknote was a one-off commemorative issued, unconventionally, in portrait orientation to mark the year 2000, it was in general circulation, with normal serial numbers (the commemorative version has serial numbers beginning with "Y2K", normal versions with "MM").[citation needed] It is the only Northern Bank note currently in circulation which was not affected by the recall of all the bank's notes as a result of the 26.5 million pound raid on its Belfast headquarters on 20 December 2004.[citation needed]


  1. ^ "Australia, inventor of safe plastic money". Best Migration Services. Retrieved 18 March 2020.
  2. ^ "About polymer". Reserve Bank of New Zealand. Retrieved 18 March 2020.
  3. ^ "The Reinvention of Banknotes". RBA Museum. Retrieved 25 March 2021.
  4. ^ a b Orzano, Michele (2 October 2012). "BEP confirms 1998 DuraNote polymer testing". Coin World. Archived from the original on 9 March 2014. Retrieved 9 March 2014.
  5. ^ "DuraNote polymer film banknotes to be revealed at UK auction". Bank Note Reporter. Paul Fraser Collectibles. 12 August 2012. Retrieved 18 March 2020.
  6. ^ Singh, Netra (2008). "Polymer Banknotes–A Viable Alternative to Paper Banknotes" (PDF). Asia Pacific Business Review – via Researchgate.
  7. ^ Solomon, David; Spurling, Tom (2014). The Plastic Banknote. CSIRO Publishing. ISBN 9780643094277.
  8. ^ "Polymer banknotes". CSIRO. Retrieved 30 July 2018.
  9. ^ "FAQs on Currency Restructuring". Central Bank of Nigeria. Retrieved 14 November 2013.
  11. ^ "CENTRAL BANK OF NIGERIA - Press Release - Update on the Proposed Currency Restructuring Exercise 'Project CURE'" (PDF). Central Bank of Nigeria. Retrieved 14 November 2013.
  12. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 13 November 2013. Retrieved 13 November 2013.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  13. ^ "First plastic banknotes to feature Forth Bridge".
  14. ^ "Clydesdale notes could win 'banknote of the year' award". BBC News. BBC News. 14 March 2016. Retrieved 22 September 2016.
  15. ^ "New £5 and £10 polymer notes unveiled". Royal Bank of Scotland. Retrieved 22 September 2016.
  16. ^ "News Release - New Bank of England banknotes to be printed on polymer".
  17. ^ "New polymer £5 note is out today - here's where you're likely to see it first". BBC News. 13 September 2016. Retrieved 22 September 2016.
  18. ^ "Payments Intelligence Extract: Who pays for polymer?". Archived from the original on 25 September 2015. Retrieved 25 September 2015.
  19. ^ The Tyvek banknotes of Haiti Dennis Hengeveld, Coin Update, April 10, 2017
  20. ^ Polymer Bank Note Australian Invention - 1988 HolidayHunter.com.au
  21. ^ "Introducing polymer banknote in Australia". RBA.Australia.
  22. ^ Currency - General Information - Development regarding issue of Commemorative NOTES/COINS to date Bank of Papua New Guinea
  23. ^ "1993 - Indonesia - 50000 Polymer note". notes.kompasiana.com. Retrieved 6 October 2020.
  24. ^ "Brunei introduced its first polymer banknote in 1996". AMBD.
  25. ^ "1998 - Sri Lanka 50th Independence - 200 rupee Polymer note". notes.lakdiva.org. Retrieved 4 February 2020.
  26. ^ "CSIRO's story of converting all Banknotes into Polymer Banknotes". CSIRO.
  27. ^ History and Series of Banknotes - Series 15 Bank of Thailand
  28. ^ "Kuala Lumpur 98 - XVI Commonwealth Games RM50 Commemorative Polymer Banknote". Bank Negara Malaysia. Bank Negara Malaysia. Retrieved 5 September 2018.
  29. ^ "RBNZ's story of converting into Polymer Banknotes". RBNZ.
  30. ^ "1993 - Indonesia - 100000 Polymer note". notes.kompasiana.com. Retrieved 6 October 2020.
  31. ^ "2000 Polymer Lei to commemorate Last Eclipse of 20 th Century". Polymer Notes.
  32. ^ "Taiwan issued a 50 dollar to commemorate 50 years of New Taiwan dollar". Polymer note.
  33. ^ "10 Brazilian Reals Polymer Banknote". Polymer Banknote.
  34. ^ "10 Bangladeshi Taka Polymer Banknote". Polymer Banknotes.
  35. ^ "The Himalayan kingdom introduces polymer banknote". Himalayan times.
  36. ^ "Pagina404". Bancodemexico.com.mx. 11 July 2001. Retrieved 23 February 2012.
  37. ^ "Mexico issues new vertical polymer banknote". Stevenbron.nl.
  38. ^ "Romania's story of converting into Polymer Banknotes". Polymer Banknotes.
  39. ^ "Bank issues RM5 Polymer Banknotes". Bank Negara Malaysia. Bank Negara Malaysia. Retrieved 5 September 2018.
  40. ^ "Bank Indonesia Switched IDR 100000 Into Paper Banknotes". Bank Indonesia. Bank Indonesia. Retrieved 6 October 2020.
  41. ^ "Romania does Redenomination". BNR.
  42. ^ McGuire, Nancy (31 January 2005). "Paying With Plastic". American Chemical Society. Archived from the original on 27 September 2006. Retrieved 21 January 2013.
  43. ^ "Promotional prints (Y) / CSIRO". polymernotes.org. Archived from the original on 6 March 2008. Retrieved 11 May 2008.
  44. ^ "Ten-Dollar Polymer Note". Hong Kong Monetary Authority. 26 August 2019. Retrieved 11 December 2019.
  45. ^ "Guatemala introduces Polymer Banknote in Denomination of 1". Banknote News.
  46. ^ "New NIS 20 banknotes printed on polymer will be put into general circulation from 13 April 2008". Office of the Spokesperson and Economic Information. 4 November 2008. Retrieved 6 June 2012.
  47. ^ "IPCA The New Paradigm In Currency" (PDF). ipca.au.com. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2011.
  48. ^ Franklin G. (17 December 2008). "Numismatic News: New Banknote of 500 Cordobas at Nicaragua". Numismaticworldnews. blogspot.com. Retrieved 23 February 2012.
  49. ^ "Nicaragua new 50-cordoba commemorative confirmed". Banknote News. Retrieved 6 June 2012.
  50. ^ "RBI to introduce 100 crore Rs 10 plastic notes – The Times of India". Timesofindia. The Times of India. 8 September 2009. Retrieved 23 February 2012.
  51. ^ "Nuevos Billetes". Nuevosbilletes.cl. Archived from the original on 11 March 2012. Retrieved 23 February 2012.
  52. ^ "Nuevo billete de RD$20.00 en polímero". Bancentral.gov.do. Archived from the original on 17 September 2011. Retrieved 23 February 2012.
  53. ^ "Nuevos Billetes". Nuevosbilletes.cl. Archived from the original on 26 March 2012. Retrieved 23 February 2012.
  54. ^ Yuen, Jenny (14 November 2011). "Pay with a new kind of 'plastic' | Canada". Toronto Sun. Retrieved 23 February 2012.
  55. ^ "Polymer $20 bill goes into circulation - CTV News". CTVNews.
  56. ^ "New plastic $50 bills go into circulation". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 11 April 2012.
  57. ^ Bank of Canada (20 June 2011). "Canada's New Polymer Bank Notes – Celebrating Canada's Achievements at the Frontiers of Innovation – Bank of Canada". Bankofcanada.ca. Retrieved 23 February 2012.
  58. ^ "Guatemala introduces 5 quetzal Polymer Banknote". Banknote News.
  59. ^ "New Banknotes Series Issued Into Circulation from 16 July 2012". Bank Negara Malaysia. Bank Negara Malaysia. Retrieved 5 September 2018.
  60. ^ "RBI to introduce Rs 10 polymer notes on trial basis". The Times of India. Retrieved 9 February 2014.
  61. ^ "Mauritius - Banknote News".
  62. ^ Lebanon new 50,000-livre commemorative note confirmed BanknoteNews.com. 24 November 2013. Retrieved on 2013-11-25.
  63. ^ "Britain to Join Ranks of Nations Using Plastic Currency". New York Times. 18 December 2013. Retrieved 18 December 2013.
  64. ^ De La Rue's announcement on the issuance of the 50,000 livre commemorative polymer note Archived 13 April 2014 at the Wayback Machine De La Rue (www.delarue.com). Retrieved on 2014-04-09.
  65. ^ Polymer notes launched include new Vt2000 Daily Post (www.dailypost.vu). 10 June 2014. Retrieved on 2014-06-12.
  66. ^ The Centenary of the Formation of the Polish Legions National Bank of Poland (www.nbp.pl). Retrieved on 2014-07-26.
  67. ^ Central Bank of The Gambia launches new commemorative 20 Dalasi banknote on De La Rue's Safeguard® polymer Archived 29 November 2014 at the Wayback Machine De La Rue (www.delarue.com). Retrieved on 2014-11-19.
  68. ^ Gambia unveils new note family including 20- and 200-dalasi denominations BanknoteNews.com. 26 February 2015. Retrieved on 2015-02-28.
  69. ^ Mauritania launches 1000 Ouguiya note on Guardian® Archived 9 December 2014 at the Wayback Machine Innovia Security (www.innoviasecurity.com). Retrieved on 2014-12-06.
  70. ^ Trinidad & Tobago new 50-dollar polymer note reported BanknoteNews.com. 15 December 2014. Retrieved on 2014-12-16.
  71. ^ Cape Verde new 200-, 1,000- and 2,000-escudo notes confirmed BanknoteNews.com. 10 January 2015. Retrieved on 2015-02-28.
  72. ^ Brighter Money / Banknote upgrade project Archived 27 January 2014 at the Wayback Machine Reserve Bank of New Zealand (www.rbnz.govt.nz). Retrieved on 2014-11-20.
  73. ^ https://www.nzherald.co.nz/business/news/article.cfm?c_id=3&objectid=12223530
  74. ^ "Plastic £5 note first for Great Britain". BBC. 22 May 2014. Retrieved 28 May 2014.
  75. ^ "RBI planning to introduce plastic currency notes next year". timesofindia-economictimes.
  76. ^ Lebanon new 50,000-livre polymer commemorative note reported for July 2015 BanknoteNews.com. 21 May 2015. Retrieved on 2015-05-23.
  77. ^ Papua New Guinea new 10- and 20-kina polymer commemorative notes reported issued 21.05.2015 BanknoteNews.com. 22 May 2015. Retrieved on 2015-05-23.
  78. ^ Notice of Issuance of Commemorative currencies 2015[permanent dead link] Bank of Papua New Guinea (www.bankpng.gov.pg). Retrieved on 2015-05-23.
  79. ^ The Maldives Monetary Authority announces new banknote family on De La Rue's Safeguard® polymer substrate Archived 20 June 2015 at the Wayback Machine De La Rue (www.delarue.com). 12 May 2015. Retrieved on 2015-06-19.
  80. ^ Maldives new 5,000-rufiyaa commemorative polymer note (B222) confirmed BanknoteNews.com. 26 July 2015. Retrieved on 2015-07-27.
  81. ^ Maldives new note family unveiled BanknoteNews.com 1 November 2015. Retrieved on 2015-11-01.
  82. ^ Singapore new 10- and one 50-dollar commemorative notes (B212 - B217) confirmed BanknoteNews.com. 26 August 2015. Retrieved on 2015-08-27.
  83. ^ Bank Note Design Bank of Canada (Banque du Canada) (www.bankofcanada.ca). Retrieved on 2015-09-12.
  84. ^ BCN anuncia Emisión de Nuevos Billetes 2015 Archived 30 January 2016 at the Wayback Machine Banco Central de Nicaragua (www.bcn.gob.ni). Retrieved on 2015-10-13.
  85. ^ Nicaragua new note family (B506 - B511) confirmed BanknoteNews.com. 28 October 2015. Retrieved on 2015-10-30.
  86. ^ Gibraltar new 100-pound polymer commemorative note to be issued in 2016 BanknoteNews.com. 21 August 2015. Retrieved on 2015-09-07.
  87. ^ Royal Bank of Scotland announces its new £5 and £10 banknotes will be issued on De La Rue's Safeguard® polymer substrate Archived 6 October 2015 at the Wayback Machine De La Rue (www.delarue.com). 7 September 2015. Retrieved on 2015-09-15.
  88. ^ Australia new 5-dollar note (B230) confirmed BanknoteNews.com. 2 September 2016. Retrieved on 2016-09-21.
  89. ^ [1] Archived 5 July 2018 at the Wayback Machine The New Fiver - Bank of England.
  90. ^ "Approval given to RBI to print Rs 10 plastic notes: Government". The Economic Times. Retrieved 18 March 2017.
  91. ^ Celebrating Canada's 150th 1867 - 2017 Bank of Canada (Banque du Canada) (www.bankofcanada.ca). Retrieved on 2017-04-15.
  92. ^ "The new £10 polymer banknote". Bank of England.
  93. ^ "Sao Tome introduces new banknote family". Stevenbron.nl.
  94. ^ Macedonia introduces 1st polymer banknotes Xinhua. April 23, 2018. Retrieved on 2019-08-16.
  95. ^ Bank of Mauritius launch a new 2000 rupee polymer banknote De La Rue (www.delarue.com). December 6, 2018. Retrieved on 2019-01-20.
  96. ^ https://m.subrayado.com.uy/presentaron-el-nuevo-billete-50-pesos-que-parece-plastico-o-nailon-n514059]]. September 18, 2018. Retrieved on February 10,2020.
  97. ^ "Central Bank of Libya announces new 'plastic banknote' in Tripoli". Libyan Express - Libya News, Opinion, Analysis and Latest Updates from Libya. Retrieved 20 February 2019.
  98. ^ "New Polymer Note To Enter Circulation This Month". Danske Bank. Retrieved 14 March 2019.
  99. ^ "Samoa new 10-tala". Retrieved 16 February 2020.
  100. ^ "Morocco introduces new polymer banknote to mark 20 years of enthronement". Stevenbron.nl.
  101. ^ "Seria e Re e Kartëmonedhave". Bank of Albania (in Albanian). Retrieved 3 October 2019.
  102. ^ "Trinidad and Tobago unveiled 100 dollar polymer banknote". News.Gov.TT.
  103. ^ "Bank of England issues new 20 pounds polymer banknote". Bank of England.
  104. ^ "New polymer banknote to commemorate 30 years of independence in Namibia". coinupdate.
  105. ^ "New series of banknote to introduced in Angola". coinupdate.
  106. ^ "Costa Rica announces new polymer banknotes". Stevenbron.nl.
  107. ^ "Costa Rica announces last polymer banknotes for 2021". Stevenbron.nl.
  108. ^ "Trinidad and Tobago unveiled a new polymer banknotes series". Stevenbron.nl.
  109. ^ "Sama Introduces The Five Riyal Denomination Made Of Polymer ... And It Will Start Circulating On October 5th". Retrieved 4 October 2020.
  110. ^ "Mexico released a new Vertical Polymer Banknote". Coin World.
  111. ^ "New 100000 banknote released to commemorate establishment of Lebanon". Platform.Keesing Technologies.
  112. ^ Cape Verde new paper 200-escudo note (B222a) reportedly introduced on 08.01.2021 Banknotenews.com, February 5, 2021
  113. ^ "New 5 Libyan Dinar Polymer Banknote". The Libyan Observer.
  114. ^ "New Alan Turing £50 note design is revealed". BBC News. 25 March 2021. Retrieved 27 March 2021.

External links[edit]