Ganges river dolphin

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Platanista gangetica)
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Ganges river dolphin
Temporal range: 0.012–0 Ma
Early Holocene - present[1]
Platanista gangetica noaa.jpg
Ganges and Indus river dolphin size.svg
CITES Appendix I (CITES)[3]
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Artiodactyla
Infraorder: Cetacea
Family: Platanistidae
Genus: Platanista
Species:
P. gangetica
Binomial name
Platanista gangetica
(Lebeck, 1801)
Cetacea range map Indus and Ganges River Dolphin 2.png
Ranges of the Ganges River dolphin and of the Indus River dolphin
Synonyms

Platanista gangetica gangetica

The Ganges river dolphin (Platanista gangetica) is a species of toothed whale classified in the family Platanistidae. It lives in the Ganges and related rivers of South Asia, namely in the countries of India, Nepal, and Bangladesh.[4] It is related to the much smaller Indus river dolphin which lives in the Indus River in Pakistan and the Beas River of northwestern India.[5]

It is also known by the name susu (popular name) or "Sisu" (Assamese language) and shushuk (Bengali).[6] The Ganges river dolphin has been recognized by the government of India as its National Aquatic Animal[7] and is the official animal of the Indian city of Guwahati.[8] Its first occurrence, within the Hooghly River, was documented by William Roxburgh.[9]

Ganges river dolphin skeleton specimen exhibited in Museo di storia naturale e del territorio dell'Università di Pisa

Taxonomy[edit]

The Ganges river dolphin split from the Indus river dolphin during the Pleistocene, around 550,000 years ago.[1] This species and the Indus river dolphin, were initially classified as a single species, Platanista gangetica, but in the 1970s both were split into distinct species. However, in the 1990s, both species were again grouped as a single species. However, more recent studies of genes, divergence time, and skull structure support both being distinct species.[10][11] The earliest fossil identified as belonging to the species is only 12,000 years old.[12]

Etymology[edit]

The species has multiple common names throughout its range. It is known as susu as a popular name; soons, soans, or soos in Hindi; shushuk in Bengali; hiho or hihu in Assamese; bhagirath (as a reference to the character of the same name from Hindu mythology); and shus or suongsu in Nepali. Its Sanskrit name in medieval times was likely shishumar, and during the Mughal era, it was known as pani suar.[11]

In Sundarbans, Bangladesh

Distribution[edit]

It lives along the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna and Karnaphuli-Sangu river systems of Bangladesh and India, and the Sapta Koshi and Karnali Rivers in Nepal.[13][14] The Ganges river dolphin favours deep pools, eddy countercurrents located downstream of the convergence of rivers and of sharp meanders, and upstream and downstream of midchannel islands.[14][15]

Description[edit]

The Ganges river dolphin has a rectangular, ridgelike dorsal fin and females tend to be larger than males.[16] Ganges river dolphins usually are tan, chocolate brown or light blue. They have an elongated, slender snout with sharp and very pointed teeth, similar to most river dolphins. The river dolphin has a rounded belly which, combined with their rectangular dorsal fin, makes them look particularly stocky in build compared to other dolphins. Their flippers and tail flukes are large and broad.[17] They have a large melon head used for echolocation, because they cannot see well. Their eyes are usually small due to the cloudy water.[16] Ganges river dolphins are usually 2.2-2.6 meters long (7–8 ft). The oldest recorded animal was a 28-year-old male, 199 cm in length, although they are estimated to live up to 30 years old.[17][18]

Behavior[edit]

The Ganges river dolphins usually come in pairs or they're just single and are not known to do acrobatic maneuvers near boats or when they're distressed. Little is known about their behavior because they are usually shy around boats and are hard to observe. They are known to breach; however this is rare.[16]

Vocalization[edit]

This species shows object-avoidance behavior in both the consistently heavily murky waters of its habitat and in clear water in captivity, suggesting it is capable of using echolocation effectively to navigate and forage for prey.[19] Information is limited on how extensively vocalization is used between individuals. It is capable of performing whistles, but rarely does so, suggesting that the whistle is a spontaneous sound and not a form of communication. The Ganges river dolphin most typically makes echolocation sounds such as clicks, bursts, and twitters.[20] Produced pulse trains are similar in wave form and frequency to the echolocation patterns of the Amazon river dolphin. Both species regularly produce frequencies lower than 15 kHz and the maximum frequency is thought to fall between 15 and 60 kHz.[19]

Echolocation is also used for population counts by using acoustic surveying. This method is still being developed and is not heavily used due to cost and technical skill requirement.[21] Given the dolphin's blindness, it produces an ultrasonic sound that is echoed off other fish and water species, allowing it to identify prey.[22]

Reproduction[edit]

The dolphin does not have a specific mating season. When a calf is born, 8–12 months after conception, it will stay with its mother for one year.[23]

Diet[edit]

Ganges river dolphins use echolocation to find food. They eat crustaceans such as prawns and fish including carp, mahseer, and even sharks such as the Ganges shark (Glyphis gangeticus). They may also take birds and turtles.[23]

Gangetic dolphin, 1894 book illustration

Conservation[edit]

A 2017 population assessment estimated that less than 3,500 individuals of Platanista gangetica exist throughout the species' range. The underlying surveys are temporally patchy and believed to contain uncertainty.

The Ministry of Environment and Forest declared the Gangetic dolphin the national aquatic animal of India. A stretch of the Ganges River between Sultanganj and Kahlgaon in Bihar has been declared a dolphin sanctuary and named Vikramshila Gangetic Dolphin Sanctuary, the first such protected area.

The Uttar Pradesh government in India is propagating ancient Hindu texts in hopes of raising the community support to save the dolphins from disappearing. One of the lines being versed from Valimiki's Ramayan, highlighted the force by which the Ganges emerged from Lord Shivji's locks and along with this force came many species such as animals, fish, and the Shishumaar—the dolphin.[24]

On 31 December 2020, a dead adult dolphin was found at the Sharda canal in the Pratapgarh district in India. A video circulated on social media showing a dozen men beating the dolphin with sticks and an ax. On 7 January 2021, three people were arrested.[25]

The species is protected from international trade by its listing in Appendix I of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora. This makes commercial international trade prohibited.[3]

Human interaction[edit]

Ganga on a makara by Kalighat (1875)

The Ganges River dolphin has been listed as endangered under the IUCN Red List since 1996. Human activity has played a large role in the reduction of both their native range and population size. The Ganges river dolphin and other freshwater dolphin species have faced declines in population from stressors such as noise pollution, ship traffic, and fishery bycatch. Anthropogenic activity like dam construction and hydroelectric power plants also contribute to their endangered status.[26] They are also endangered due to pollution and overfishing for oil.[4][2] Entanglement in fishing nets as bycatch can cause significant damage to local populations, and individuals are taken each year by hunters; their oil and meat are used as a liniment, as an aphrodisiac, and as bait for catfish. Poisoning of the water supply from industrial and agricultural chemicals may also have been a contributing factor towards population decline, as these chemicals are biomagnified in the bodies of the dolphins.[27] An immediate danger for the species in National Chambal Sanctuary is the decrease in river depth and appearance of sand bars dividing the river course into smaller segments, as irrigation has lowered water levels throughout their range.[28]

Nonhuman personhood[edit]

On 20 May 2013, India's Ministry of Environment and Forests declared dolphins ‘nonhuman persons’ and as such has forbidden their captivity for entertainment purposes; keeping dolphins in captivity must satisfy certain legal prerequisites.[29]

Project Dolphin[edit]

On the occasion of the 74th Independence Day, 15 August 2020, the Indian Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change announced 'Project Dolphin' to boost conservation of both river and oceanic dolphins.[30]

Mythology and folklore[edit]

The Ganges dolphin is associated with Ganga and is occasionally the depiction of her vahana, the makara.[31]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Fossilworks: Platanista gangetica".
  2. ^ a b Braulik, G.T.; Smith, B.D. (2019). "Platanista gangetica". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2019: e.T41758A151913336. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2017-3.RLTS.T41758A151913336.en. Retrieved 19 November 2021.
  3. ^ a b "Appendices | CITES". cites.org. Retrieved 2022-01-14.
  4. ^ a b WWF. "WFF Ganges river Dolphin". WFF Conservation.
  5. ^ "Signs of hope as population of endangered Indus River dolphin jumps in Pakistan". WWF. Retrieved 2017-12-17.
  6. ^ "Susu, the blind purpoise ... in the Ganges River, blind porpoise of Asia". The New Book of Knowledge, Grolier Incorporated. 1977., page 451 [letter A] and page 568 [letter S].
  7. ^ "Declaration of Gangetic Dolphin as National Aquatic Animal" (PDF). Government of India – Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change. 10 May 2010. Retrieved 23 October 2016.
  8. ^ "Gangetic river dolphin to be city animal of Guwahati". The Times of India. 6 June 2016.
  9. ^ Sinha K., Ravindra (2014). "Ganges River Dolphin: An Overview of Biology, Ecology, and Conservation Status in India". Journal of Biology. PMID 24924188.
  10. ^ "Explore the Database". www.mammaldiversity.org. Retrieved 2021-08-27.
  11. ^ a b Braulik, G. T.; Archer, F. I.; Khan, U.; Imran, M.; Sinha, R. K.; Jefferson, T. A.; Donovan, C.; Graves, J. A. (2021). "Taxonomic revision of the South Asian River dolphins (Platanista): Indus and Ganges River dolphins are separate species". Marine Mammal Science. 37 (3): 1022–1059. doi:10.1111/mms.12801.
  12. ^ "Fossilworks: Platanista gangetica". fossilworks.org. Retrieved 2021-08-27.
  13. ^ "South Asian river dolphin (Platanista gangetica)". EDGE. Retrieved 26 July 2011.
  14. ^ a b Paudel, S.; Pal, P.; Cove, M.V.; Jnawali, S.R.; Abel, G.; Koprowski, J.L.; Ranabhat, R. (2015). "The Endangered Ganges River dolphin Platanista gangetica gangetica in Nepal: abundance, habitat and conservation threats". Endangered Species Research. 29 (1): 59–68. doi:10.3354/esr00702.
  15. ^ "Ganges River dolphin". WWF. Retrieved 25 August 2019.
  16. ^ a b c "South Asian river dolphin". Whale and Dolphin Conservation Society. Retrieved 18 April 2018.
  17. ^ a b "South Asian River Dolphin". Whale and Dolphin Conservation. Retrieved March 6, 2022.
  18. ^ Kasuya, T. (1972). "Some information on the growth of the Ganges dolphin with a comment on the Indus dolphin" (PDF). Sci. Rep. Whales Res. Inst. 24: 87–108.
  19. ^ a b Herald, Earl S.; Brownell, Robert L.; Frye, Fredric L.; Morris, Elkan J.; Evans, William E.; Scott, Alan B. (1969). "Blind River Dolphin: First Side-Swimming Cetacean". Science. 166 (3911): 1408–1410. Bibcode:1969Sci...166.1408H. doi:10.1126/science.166.3911.1408. JSTOR 1727285. PMID 5350341. S2CID 5670792.
  20. ^ Mizue, Kazuhiro; Takemura, Akira; Nishiwaki, Masaharu (1971). "The Underwater Sound of Ganges River Dolphins (Platanista gangetica)" (PDF). The Scientific Reports of the Whales Research Institute. 23: 123–128 – via ICR.
  21. ^ Richman, Nadia I.; Gibbons, James M.; Turvey, Samuel T.; Akamatsu, Tomonari; Ahmed, Benazir; Mahabub, Emile; Smith, Brian D.; Jones, Julia P. G. (7 May 2014). "To See or Not to See: Investigating Detectability of Ganges River Dolphins Using a Combined Visual-Acoustic Survey". PLOS ONE. 9 (5): e96811. Bibcode:2014PLoSO...996811R. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0096811. PMC 4013050. PMID 24805782.
  22. ^ Koshy, Jacob (2016-09-01). "It is pollution that made Gangetic dolphins 'blind', says Uma Bharti". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 2021-01-10.
  23. ^ a b "Ganges River Dolphin (Platanista gangetica gangetica)". Dolphins-World. Retrieved 29 May 2018.
  24. ^ "How Hinduism Continues to Save Dolphins in India". The Chakra News. 29 November 2010.
  25. ^ Pratap, Rishabh Madhavendra; Fox, Kara (9 January 2021). "Three arrested after endangered Ganges River dolphin beaten to death in India". CNN. Retrieved 9 January 2021.
  26. ^ Sinha, Ravindra K. (2014). "Ganges River Dolphin: An Overview of Biology, Ecology, and Conservation Status in India". AMBIO. 43 (8): 1029–1046. doi:10.1007/s13280-014-0534-7. PMC 4235892. PMID 24924188.
  27. ^ Kannan, Kurunthachalam (1997). "Sources and Accumulation of Butyltin Compounds in Ganges River Dolphin, Platanista gangetica". Applied Organometallic Chemistry. 11 (3): 223–230. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1099-0739(199703)11:3<223::AID-AOC543>3.0.CO;2-U. S2CID 59579188.
  28. ^ Singh, L.A.K. & R.K. Sharma (1985). "Gangetic dolphin, Platanista gangetica: Observations on habits and distribution pattern in National Chambal Sanctuary" (PDF). Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society. Bombay Natural History Society. 82: 648–653. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 October 2009.
  29. ^ Gautama, Madhulika (16 June 2014). "Dolphins get their due". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 27 November 2016.
  30. ^ Prime Minister's Office (2020). "The Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi addressed the Nation from the ramparts of the Red Fort on the 74th Independence Day". Press Information Bureau. Retrieved 16 September 2020.
  31. ^ Singh, Vijay (1994). The River Goddess. London. ISBN 978-1-85103-195-5.