Plate glass university
The term plate glass university or plateglass university refers to a group of universities in the United Kingdom established or promoted to university status in the 1960s. The original plate glass universities were established following decisions by the University Grants Committee (UGC) in the late 1950s and early 1960s, prior to the Robbins Report in 1963. However, the term has since expanded to encompass the institutions that became universities as a result of Robbins' recommendations.
Origin of terminology
The term "plateglass" was coined by Michael Beloff for a book he wrote about these universities, to reflect their modern architectural design which often contains wide expanses of plate glass in steel or concrete frames. This contrasted with the (largely Victorian) red brick universities and the very much older ancient universities.
I had at the start to decide upon a generic term for the new universities – they will not be new for ever. None of the various caps so far tried have fitted. "Greenfields" describes only a transient phase. "Whitebrick", "Whitestone", and "Pinktile" hardly conjure up the grey or biscuit concrete massiveness of most of their buildings, and certainly not the black towers of Essex. "Newbridge" is fine as far as the novelty goes, but where on earth are the bridges? Sir Edward Boyle more felicitously suggested "Shakespeare". But I have chosen to call them the Plateglass Universities. It is architecturally evocative; but more important, it is metaphorically accurate.
Beloff applied the term specifically to the new creations of the 1960s, not including the institutions promoted from university colleges or colleges of advanced technology, or created by division of existing universities "as Durham shed Newcastle". All of the original plateglass universities were created de novo as universities.
Beloff's plateglass universities
- University of East Anglia (1963)
- University of Essex (1964/5)
- University of Kent (1965)
- University of Lancaster[note 1] (1964)
- University of Sussex (1961)
- University of Warwick (1965)
- University of York (1963)
Unlike previous universities in the United Kingdom which were usually named after the city they were located in (for example the University of Cambridge in Cambridge), the new universities instead were typically named after the county or wider area they served. The universities founded in Colchester, Canterbury and Brighton were named after the counties they are located in (Essex, Kent and Sussex respectively) and the university in Coventry, Warwickshire was named after the county town of Warwick. The university in Norwich, which is in the county of Norfolk, was instead named for the wider area of East Anglia which also includes Suffolk and Essex. The universities built in Lancaster and York were located in the county towns of Lancashire and Yorkshire respectively, furthermore unlike the other areas there were already several established universities within those counties (Manchester and Liverpool in Lancashire; Leeds, Sheffield and Hull in Yorkshire).
Since the passage of the Further and Higher Education Act 1992 several new universities have been created within the same city as a plate-glass university and have been named after the city: Brighton, Canterbury Christ Church, Coventry, Norwich University of the Arts and York St John.
Certain aspects of the design of these universities acknowledges the formation of the group; for example, at Sussex the first batches of student residences to be built were named after some of the other new universities, i.e. "Essex House", "Kent House", "Lancaster House", "Norwich House" (for UEA), and "York House".
Other universities sometimes referred to as plate glass universities
The institutions that gained university status in this period are listed below. Almost all of these were promoted to university status, rather than created as universities like the institutions in Beloff's original list; ten were previously colleges of advanced technology (CATs).
(Dates refer to the granting of university status by Royal Charter, not to founding of the institution.)
- Aston University (1966) – formerly Birmingham CAT
- University of Bath (1966) – formerly Bristol College of Science and Technology
- University of Bradford (1966) – formerly Bradford Institute of Technology
- Brunel University (1966) – formerly Brunel CAT; renamed "Brunel University London" in 2014
- University of Buckingham (1983) – formerly University College at Buckingham (from 1973)
- City University, London (1966) – formerly Northampton CAT; became a college of the University of London and renamed "City, University of London" in 2016
- Heriot-Watt University (1966) – formerly School of Arts of Edinburgh
- Keele University (1962) – formerly North Staffordshire University College
- Loughborough University (1966) – formerly Loughborough CAT
- Newcastle University (1963) – formerly King's College, University of Durham
- Open University (1969) – de novo creation as a distance-learning university
- University of Salford (1967) – formerly Salford CAT
- University of Dundee (1969) – formerly Queen's College Dundee, part of the University of St Andrews
- University of Stirling (1967) – de novo creation as a university
- University of Strathclyde (1964) – formerly the Royal College of Science and Technology
- University of Surrey (1966) – formerly Battersea CAT
- New University of Ulster (1968) – de novo creation as a university; merged with the older Magee University College in 1969; merged with Ulster Polytechnic and renamed "University of Ulster" in 1984
The DfE study classified higher education institutions (HEIs) according to "the length of time an HEI had been established", without a detailed definition of how this was determined Keele might thus be considered "Red Brick" under this classification as it entered the university sector (as a university college) prior to 1960), as might Newcastle and Dundee, which were colleges of the universities of Durham and St Andrews respectively. The definition might also include institutions and colleges of the University of London that became part of the university sector in that period but did not receive university status:
- Cranfield Institute of Technology (1969) – formerly the College of Aeronautics; granted university status and renamed "Cranfield University" in 1993
- London Business School (1965) – established 1964, joined University of London 1965
- Royal College of Art (1967)
The Scottish universities from the 1960s (Heriot-Watt, Stirling, Strathclyde, Dundee and the Open University in Scotland) are also known as "chartered universities" as they were established, and are governed, by their royal charters.
- Now known as Lancaster University
- Stewart Clark, Graham Pointon (20 May 2016). The Routledge Student Guide to English Usage: A Guide to Academic Writing for Students. Routledge. pp. 234–235.
- Higher Education – Report of the Committee appointed by the Prime Minister under the Chairmanship of Lord Robbins. 1963. p. 24. Retrieved 29 December 2015.
Despite the expansion that had been achieved in the existing universities it became evident by 1958 that more universities were going to be needed. In that year the government, on the advice of the University Grants Committee, approved the establishment of the University of Sussex and, in the following years, of six more universities at Norwich, York, Canterbury, Colchester, Coventry and Lancaster.
- The Plateglass Universities. Secker & Warburg. 31 December 1968. p. 11. Retrieved 30 June 2017.
- The Plateglass Universities. Secker & Warburg. 31 December 1968. p. 25. Retrieved 30 June 2017.
- The Plateglass Universities. Secker & Warburg. 31 December 1968. p. 7. Retrieved 30 June 2017.
- Sandals, Katy (7 November 2016). "Made in the 1960s: What does it mean to be a plate glass university?". YU Magazine. University of York. Retrieved 30 June 2017.
- Peter Blyth and Arran Cleminson (September 2016). "Teaching Excellence Framework: analysis of highly skilled employment outcomes" (PDF). Department for Education. p. 18. Retrieved 30 June 2017.
- "History and Traditions". Aston University. Retrieved 30 June 2017.
- "The story of the University". University of Bath. Retrieved 30 June 2017.
- "Heritage". University of Bradford. Retrieved 30 June 2017.
- "University College, Dundee and Queen's College". University of St Andrews. Retrieved 1 July 2017.
- "University". Ulster University. Retrieved 30 June 2017.
- "A History of Magee College". Ulster University. 10 August 1999. Archived from the original on 26 June 2017. Retrieved 30 June 2017.
- W.A.C. Stewart (8 December 2011). John Lawlor (ed.). Rediscovering identity in higher education. Higher Education: Patterns of Change in the 1970s. 15. Routledge. p. 108.
- "Cranfield University guide". Daily Telegraph. 29 July 2016. Retrieved 1 July 2017.
- "London Business School". University of London. Retrieved 29 September 2018.
- "Higher Education in Scotland: In Context". Consultation Paper on a Higher Education Governance Bill. The Scottish Government. Retrieved 30 June 2017.
- Dinah Birch (24 September 2009). The Oxford Companion to English Literature. Oxford University Press. p. 150.
- Tim Woods (13 May 2013). Who's Who of Twentieth Century Novelists. Routledge. p. 49.