Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) or leucocyte- and platelet-rich fibrin (L-PRF) is a second-generation PRP where autologous platelets and leucocytes are present in a complex fibrin matrix to accelerate the healing of soft and hard tissue and is used as a tissue-engineering scaffold for endodontics. To obtain PRF, required quantity of blood is drawn quickly into test tubes without an anticoagulant and centrifuged immediately. Blood can be centrifuged using a tabletop centrifuge for at least 10 min at 3000 revolution per minute. The resultant product consists of the following three layers; topmost layer consisting of platelet poor plasma, PRF clot in the middle, and red blood cells at the bottom. PRF is available as a fibrin clot. PRF clot can be removed from the test tube using a sterile twizer like instrument. After lifting, the RBC layer attached to the PRF clot can be carefully removed using a sterilized scissor. Platelet activation in response to tissue damage occurs during the process of making PRF release several biologically active proteins including; platelet alpha granules, platelet‑derived growth factor (PGDF), transforming growth factors‑β (TGF‑β), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and epidermal growth factor. Actually the platelets and leukocyte cytokines are important part in role play of this biomaterial, but the fibrin matrix supporting them is very helpful in constituting the determining elements responsible for real therapeutic potential of PRF. Cytokines are immediately used and destroyed in a healing wound. The harmony between cytokines and their supporting fibrin matrix has much more unique importance than any other platelet derivatives.
Socket preservation, a procedure to reduce bone loss after tooth extraction to preserve the dental alveolus (tooth socket) in the alveolar bone. A platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) membrane containing bone growth enhancing elements can be stitched over the wound or a graft material or scaffold is placed in the socket of an extracted tooth at the time of extraction. The socket is then directly closed with stitches or covered with a non-resorbable or resorbable membrane and sutured.
Reproduction or reconstitution of a lost or injured part to restore the architecture and function of the periodontium becomes the integral part of comprehensive periodontal therapy. Conventional open flap debridement falls short of regenerating tissues destroyed by the disease. Platelet derived growth factor along with bone morphogenetic proteins are among the most researched growth factors in periodontal regeneration. Platelet rich fibrin showed significant improvement in clinical periodontal parameter as well as in radiograph when compared with open flap debridement alone in a meta analysis. Several bone graft materials have been used in the treatment of infrabony defects. Demineralized freeze dried bone allograft (DFDBA) has been histologically proven to be the material of choice for regeneration. Platelet-rich fibrin has shown significant results comparable to DFDBA for periodontal regeneration. One of the most common aesthetic problem encountered in the field of periodontology is gingival recession, which is, perceived by the patients as increase in length of teeth. Though connective tissue graft is a gold standard procedure, PRF can be used as an alternative procedure by keeping patient's comfort in mind.
Guided bone and tissue regeneration
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