Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) or leukocyte- and platelet-rich fibrin (L-PRF) is a second-generation PRP where autologous platelets and leukocytes are present in a complex fibrin matrix to accelerate the healing of soft and hard tissue and is used as a tissue-engineering scaffold for endodontics. To obtain PRF, required quantity of blood is drawn quickly into test tubes without an anticoagulant and centrifuged immediately. Blood can be centrifuged using a tabletop centrifuge for at least 10 min at 3000 revolution per minute. The resultant product consists of the following three layers; topmost layer consisting of platelet poor plasma, PRF clot in the middle, and red blood cells (RBC) at the bottom. PRF is available as a fibrin clot. PRF clot can be removed from the test tube using a sterile tweezer-like instrument. After lifting, the RBC layer attached to the PRF clot can be carefully removed using a sterilized scissor. Platelet activation in response to tissue damage occurs during the process of making PRF release several biologically active proteins including; platelet alpha granules, platelet‑derived growth factor (PGDF), transforming growth factors‑β (TGF‑β), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and epidermal growth factor. Actually, the platelets and leukocyte cytokines play important parts in role of this biomaterial, but the fibrin matrix supporting them is the most helpful in constituting the determining elements responsible for real therapeutic potential of PRF. Cytokines are immediately used and destroyed in a healing wound. The harmony between cytokines and their supporting fibrin matrix has much more importance than any other platelet derivatives.
Ridge preservation (Colloquially Socket preservation), a procedure to reduce bone loss after tooth extraction to preserve the dental alveolus (containing the tooth socket) in the alveolar bone. A platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) membrane containing bone growth enhancing elements can be stitched over the wound or a graft material or scaffold is placed in the socket of an extracted tooth at the time of extraction. The socket is then directly closed with stitches or covered with a non-resorbable or resorbable membrane and sutured.
Reproduction or reconstitution of a lost or injured part to restore the architecture and function of the periodontium becomes the integral part of comprehensive periodontal therapy. Conventional open flap debridement falls short of regenerating tissues destroyed by the disease. Platelet derived growth factor along with bone morphogenetic proteins are among the most researched growth factors in periodontal regeneration. Platelet rich fibrin showed significant improvement in clinical periodontal parameter as well as in radiograph when compared with open flap debridement alone in a meta analysis. Several bone graft materials have been used in the treatment of infrabony defects. Demineralized freeze dried bone allograft (DFDBA) has been histologically proven to be the material of choice for regeneration. Platelet-rich fibrin has shown significant results comparable to DFDBA for periodontal regeneration. One of the most common aesthetic problem encountered in the field of periodontology is gingival recession, which is, perceived by the patients as increase in length of teeth. Though connective tissue graft is a gold standard procedure, PRF can be used as an alternative procedure by keeping patient's comfort in mind.
Guided bone and tissue regeneration
- Naik B, Karunakar P, Jayadev M, Marshal VR (2013). "Role of Platelet rich fibrin in wound healing: A critical review". J Conserv Dent. 16 (4): 284–93. doi:10.4103/0972-0707.114344. PMC 3740636. PMID 23956527.
- Dohan Ehrenfest, David M.; Rasmusson, Lars; Albrektsson, Tomas (2009). "Classification of platelet concentrates: from pure platelet-rich plasma (P-PRP) to leucocyte- and platelet-rich fibrin (L-PRF)". Trends in Biotechnology. 27 (3): 158–167. doi:10.1016/j.tibtech.2008.11.009. ISSN 0167-7799. PMID 19187989.
- Dohan, David M.; Choukroun, Joseph; Diss, Antoine; Dohan, Steve L.; Dohan, Anthony J.J.; Mouhyi, Jaafar; Gogly, Bruno (2006). "Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF): A second-generation platelet concentrate. Part I: Technological concepts and evolution". Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology, and Endodontology. 101 (3): e37–e44. doi:10.1016/j.tripleo.2005.07.008. ISSN 1079-2104. PMID 16504849.
- Hotwani, Kavita; Sharma, Krishna (2014). "Platelet rich fibrin - a novel acumen into regenerative endodontic therapy". Restorative Dentistry & Endodontics. 39 (1): 1–6. doi:10.5395/rde.2014.39.1.1. ISSN 2234-7658. PMC 3916499. PMID 24516822.
- Mufti, Sonam (2017). "Comparative Evaluation of Platelet-Rich Fibrin with Connective Tissue Grafts in the Treatment of Miller's Class I Gingival Recessions". Contemporary Clinical Dentistry. 8 (4): 531–537. doi:10.4103/ccd.ccd_325_17. PMC 5754972. PMID 29326502.
- Dohan, DM; Choukroun, J (2006). "Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF): a second-generation platelet concentrate. Part II: platelet-related biologic features". Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology, and Endodontics. 101 (3): e45–e50. doi:10.1016/j.tripleo.2005.07.009. PMID 16504850.
- Dohan, DM (March 2006). "Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF): a second-generation platelet concentrate. Part I: technological concepts and evolution". Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology and Endodontics. 101 (3): 37–44. doi:10.1016/j.tripleo.2005.07.008. PMID 16504849.
- Tajima, Nobutaka; Ohba, Seigo; Sawase, Takashi; Asahina, Izumi (2013). "Evaluation of Sinus Floor Augmentation with Simultaneous Implant Placement Using Platelet-Rich Fibrin as Sole Grafting Material". The International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants. 28 (1): 77–83. doi:10.11607/jomi.2613. ISSN 0882-2786. PMID 23377050.
- Simonpieri, Alain; Choukroun, Joseph; Corso, Marco Del; Sammartino, Gilberto; Ehrenfest, David M. Dohan (2011). "Simultaneous Sinus-Lift and Implantation Using Microthreaded Implants and Leukocyte- and Platelet-Rich Fibrin as Sole Grafting Material: A Six-Year Experience". Implant Dentistry. 20 (1): 2–12. doi:10.1097/ID.0b013e3181faa8af. ISSN 1056-6163. PMID 21278521.
- Darby, IB (2013). "A systematic review of the use of growth factors in human periodontal regeneration". J Periodontol. 84 (4): 465–476. doi:10.1902/jop.2012.120145. PMID 22612370.
- Kumar, RV (2013). "Platelet rich fibrin: A new paradigm in periodontal regeneration". Cell Tissue Bank. 14 (3): 453–463. doi:10.1007/s10561-012-9349-6. PMID 23143637.
- Shah, Monali (2014). "Effectiveness of autologous platelet-rich fibrin in the treatment of intra-bony defects: A systematic review and meta-analysis". J Indian Soc Periodontol. 18 (6): 698–704. doi:10.4103/0972-124X.147400. PMC 4296452. PMID 25624624.
- Shah, Monali (2015). "Comparative evaluation of platelet-rich fibrin with demineralized freeze-dried bone allograft in periodontal infrabony defects: A randomized controlled clinical study". J Indian Soc Periodontol. 19 (1): 56–60. doi:10.4103/0972-124X.145803. PMC 4365159. PMID 25810594.
- Mufti, Sonam; Shah, Monali (2017). "Comparative Evaluation of Platelet-Rich Fibrin with Connective Tissue Grafts in the Treatment of Miller's Class I Gingival Recessions". Contemp Clin Dent. 8 (4): 531–537. doi:10.4103/ccd.ccd_325_17. PMC 5754972. PMID 29326502.
- Khiste, Sujeet Vinayak; Naik Tari, Ritam (2013). "Platelet-Rich Fibrin as a Biofuel for Tissue Regeneration". ISRN Biomaterials. 2013: 1–6. doi:10.5402/2013/627367. ISSN 2314-4025.
- Li, Qi; Pan, Shuang; Dangaria, Smit J.; Gopinathan, Gokul; Kolokythas, Antonia; Chu, Shunli; Geng, Yajun; Zhou, Yanmin; Luan, Xianghong (2013). "Platelet-Rich Fibrin Promotes Periodontal Regeneration and Enhances Alveolar Bone Augmentation". BioMed Research International. 2013: 1–13. doi:10.1155/2013/638043. ISSN 2314-6133. PMC 3622372. PMID 23586051.
- Johns, DextonAntony; Vidyanath, S; Kumar, MRamesh; Shivashankar, VasundaraYayathi (2012). "Platelet Rich Fibrin in the revitalization of tooth with necrotic pulp and open apex". Journal of Conservative Dentistry. 15 (4): 395–8. doi:10.4103/0972-0707.101926. ISSN 0972-0707. PMC 3482758. PMID 23112492.