The Playboy logo
|Year founded||October 1, 1953|
|First issue||December 1953|
|Based in||Chicago, Illinois|
|Language||English, many others|
Playboy is an American men's lifestyle and entertainment magazine. It was founded in Chicago in 1953, by Hugh Hefner and his associates, and funded in part by a $1,000 loan from Hefner's mother. Notable for its centerfolds of nude and semi-nude models (Playmates), Playboy played an important role in the sexual revolution and remains one of the world's best-known brands, having grown into Playboy Enterprises, Inc. (PEI), with a presence in nearly every medium. In addition to the flagship magazine in the United States, special nation-specific versions of Playboy are published worldwide.
The magazine has a long history of publishing short stories by novelists such as Arthur C. Clarke, Ian Fleming, Vladimir Nabokov, Saul Bellow, Chuck Palahniuk, P. G. Wodehouse, Roald Dahl, Haruki Murakami, and Margaret Atwood. With a regular display of full-page color cartoons, it became a showcase for notable cartoonists, including Harvey Kurtzman, Jack Cole, Eldon Dedini, Jules Feiffer, Shel Silverstein, Erich Sokol, Roy Raymonde, Gahan Wilson, and Rowland B. Wilson. Playboy features monthly interviews of notable public figures, such as artists, architects, economists, composers, conductors, film directors, journalists, novelists, playwrights, religious figures, politicians, athletes, and race car drivers. The magazine generally reflects a liberal editorial stance, although it often interviews conservative celebrities.
After a year-long removal of most nude photos in Playboy magazine, the March–April 2017 issue brought back nudity.
- 1 Publication history
- 2 Features and format
- 3 Other editions
- 4 Litigation and legal issues
- 5 Books
- 6 See also
- 7 References
- 8 External links
By spring 1953, Hugh Hefner—a 1949 University of Illinois psychology graduate who had worked in Chicago for Esquire magazine writing promotional copy; Publisher's Development Corporation in sales and marketing; and Children's Activities magazine as circulation promotions manager—had planned out the elements of his own magazine, that he would call Stag Party. He formed HMH Publishing Corporation, and recruited his friend Eldon Sellers to find investors. Hefner eventually raised just over $8,000, including from his brother and mother. However, the publisher of an unrelated men's adventure magazine, Stag, contacted Hefner and informed him it would file suit to protect their trademark if he were to launch his magazine with that name. Hefner, his wife Millie, and Sellers met to seek a new name, considering "Top Hat", "Gentleman", "Sir'", "Satyr", "Pan" and "Bachelor" before Sellers suggested "Playboy".
The first issue, in December 1953, was undated, as Hefner was unsure there would be a second. He produced it in his Hyde Park kitchen. The first centerfold was Marilyn Monroe, although the picture used originally was taken for a calendar rather than for Playboy. Hefner chose what he deemed the "sexiest" image, a previously unused nude study of Marilyn stretched with an upraised arm on a red velvet background with closed eyes and mouth open. The heavy promotion centered around Marilyn's nudity on the already-famous calendar, together with the teasers in marketing, made the new Playboy magazine a success. The first issue sold out in weeks. Known circulation was 53,991. The cover price was 50¢. Copies of the first issue in mint to near-mint condition sold for over $5,000 in 2002.
An urban legend started about Hefner and the Playmate of the Month because of markings on the front covers of the magazine. From 1955 to 1979 (except for a six-month gap in 1976), the "P" in Playboy had stars printed in or around the letter. The legend stated that this was either a rating that Hefner gave to the Playmate according to how attractive she was, the number of times that Hefner had slept with her, or how good she was in bed. The stars, between zero and 12, actually indicated the domestic or international advertising region for that printing.
From 1966 to 1976, Robie Macauley was the Fiction Editor at Playboy. During this period the magazine published fiction by Saul Bellow, Seán Ó Faoláin, John Updike, James Dickey, John Cheever, Doris Lessing, Joyce Carol Oates, Vladimir Nabokov, Michael Crichton, John le Carré, Irwin Shaw, Jean Shepherd, Arthur Koestler, Isaac Bashevis Singer, Bernard Malamud, John Irving, Anne Sexton, Nadine Gordimer, Kurt Vonnegut and J. P. Donleavy, as well as poetry by Yevgeny Yevtushenko.
In 1968 at the feminist Miss America protest, protestors symbolically threw a number of feminine products into a "Freedom Trash Can". These included copies of Playboy and Cosmopolitan magazines. One of the key pamphlets produced by the protesters was "No More Miss America!", by Robin Morgan, which listed 10 characteristics of the Miss America pageant that the authors believed degraded women; it compared the pageant to Playboy's centerfold as sisters under the skin, describing this as "The Unbeatable Madonna-Whore Combination".
Macauley contributed all of the popular Ribald Classics series published between January 1978 and March 1984.
Since reaching its peak in the 1970s, Playboy saw a decline in circulation and cultural relevance due to competition in the field it founded—first from Penthouse, then from Oui (which was published as a spin-off of Playboy) and Gallery in the 1970s; later from pornographic videos; and more recently from lad mags such as Maxim, FHM, and Stuff. In response, Playboy has attempted to re-assert its hold on the 18–35 year old male demographic through slight changes to content and focusing on issues and personalities more appropriate to its audience—such as hip-hop artists being featured in the "Playboy Interview".
Christie Hefner, daughter of founder Hugh Hefner, joined Playboy in 1975 and became head of the company in 1988. She announced in December 2008 that she would be stepping down from leading the company, effective in January 2009, and said that the election of Barack Obama as the next President had inspired her to give more time to charitable work, and that the decision to step down was her own. "Just as this country is embracing change in the form of new leadership, I have decided that now is the time to make changes in my own life as well", she said.
The magazine celebrated its 50th anniversary with the January 2004 issue. Celebrations were held at Las Vegas, Los Angeles, New York, and Moscow during the year to commemorate this event. Playboy also launched limited-edition products designed by a number of notable fashion houses such as Versace, Vivienne Westwood and Sean John. As a homage to the magazine's 50th anniversary, MAC Cosmetics released two limited-edition products, namely a lipstick and a glitter cream.
The magazine runs several annual features and ratings. One of the most popular is its annual ranking of the top "party schools" among all U.S. universities and colleges. In 2009, the magazine used five criteria: bikini, brains, campus, sex and sports in the development of its list. The top-ranked party school by Playboy for 2009 was the University of Miami.
In June 2009, the magazine reduced its publication schedule to 11 issues per year, with a combined July/August issue. On August 11, 2009, London's Daily Telegraph newspaper reported that Hugh Hefner had sold his English manor house (next door to the famous Playboy Mansion) for $18 m ($10 m less than the reported asking price) to another American, Daren Metropoulos, the President and co-owner of Pabst Blue Ribbon, and that due to significant losses in the company's value (down from $1 billion in 2000 to $84 million in 2009), the Playboy publishing empire is up for sale for $300 million. In December 2009, they further reduced the publication schedule to 10 issues per year, with a combined January/February issue.
On July 12, 2010, Playboy Enterprises Inc. announced Hefner's $5.50 per share offer ($122.5 million based on shares outstanding on April 30 and the closing price on July 9) to buy the portion of the company he did not already own and take the company private with the help of Rizvi Traverse Management LLC. The company derives much of its income from licensing, rather than from the magazine. On July 15, Penthouse owner FriendFinder Networks Inc. offered $210 million (the company is valued at $185 million), though Hefner, who already owned 70 percent of voting stock, did not want to sell. In January 2011, the publisher of Playboy magazine agreed to an offer by Hefner to take the company private for $6.15 per share, an 18 percent premium over the price of the last previous day of trading. The buyout was completed in March 2011.
2016–2018 changes and brief ending of full frontal nudity
In October 2015, Playboy announced that, starting with their March 2016 issue, the magazine would no longer feature full frontal nudity. Playboy CEO Scott Flanders acknowledged the magazine's inability to compete with freely available Internet pornography and nudity; according to him, "You're now one click away from every sex act imaginable for free. And so it's just passé at this juncture". Hefner agreed with the decision. The redesigned Playboy, however, would still feature a Playmate of the Month and pictures of women, but they would be rated as not appropriate for children under 13. The move would not affect PlayboyPlus.com (which features nudity at a paid subscription). Josh Horwitz of Quartz argued that the motivation for the decision to remove nudity from the magazine was to give Playboy Licensing a less inappropriate image in India and China, where the brand is a popular item on apparel and thus generates significant revenue.
Among other changes to the magazine included ending the popular jokes section and the various cartoons that appeared throughout the magazine. The redesign eliminated the use of jump copy (articles continuing on non-consecutive pages), which in turn eliminated most of the space for cartoons. Hefner, himself a former cartoonist, reportedly resisted dropping the cartoons more than the nudity, but ultimately obliged. Playboy's plans were to market itself as a competitor to Vanity Fair, as opposed to more traditional competitors GQ and Maxim.
Playboy announced in February 2017, however, that the dropping of nudity had been a mistake and furthermore, for its March/April issue, reestablished some of its franchises, including the Playboy Philosophy and Party Jokes, but dropped the subtitle "Entertainment for Men", inasmuch as gender roles have evolved. The announcement was made by the company's chief creative officer on Twitter with the hashtag #NakedIsNormal.
In 2017, the magazine announced that it would become a bi-monthly publication.
In early 2018, and according to Jim Puzzanghera of the Los Angeles Times, Playboy was reportedly "considering killing the print magazine", as the publication "has lost as much as $7 million annually in recent years". However, in the July/August 2018 issue a reader asked if the print magazine would discontinue, and Playboy responded that it was not going anywhere.
In September 2018, the magazine announced that it would move to publishing quarterly, beginning in 2019.
Circulation history and statistics
The best-selling Playboy edition was the November 1972 edition, which sold 7,161,561 copies. One-quarter of all American college men were buying or subscribing to the magazine every month. On the cover was model Pam Rawlings, photographed by Rowland Scherman.
Perhaps coincidentally, a cropped image of the issue's centerfold (which featured Lena Söderberg) became a de facto standard image for testing image processing algorithms. It is known simply as the "Lenna" (also "Lena") image in that field.
Features and format
Playboy's iconic and enduring mascot, a stylized silhouette of a rabbit wearing a tuxedo bow tie, was created by Playboy art director Art Paul for the second issue as an endnote, but was adopted as the official logo and has appeared ever since. A running joke in the magazine involves hiding the logo somewhere in the cover art or photograph. Hefner said he chose the rabbit for its "humorous sexual connotation", and because the image was "frisky and playful". In an interview Hefner explained his choice of a rabbit as Playboy's logo to the Italian journalist Oriana Fallaci:
The rabbit, the bunny, in America has a sexual meaning; and I chose it because it's a fresh animal, shy, vivacious, jumping - sexy. First it smells you then it escapes, then it comes back, and you feel like caressing it, playing with it. A girl resembles a bunny. Joyful, joking. Consider the girl we made popular: the Playmate of the Month. She is never sophisticated, a girl you cannot really have. She is a young, healthy, simple girl - the girl next door ... we are not interested in the mysterious, difficult woman, the femme fatale, who wears elegant underwear, with lace, and she is sad, and somehow mentally filthy. The Playboy girl has no lace, no underwear, she is naked, well washed with soap and water, and she is happy.
The jaunty rabbit was quickly made into a popular symbol of extroverted male culture, becoming a lucrative source of merchandizing revenue for Playboy. In the 1950s, it was adopted as the military aircraft insignia for the Navy's VX-4 fighter-evaluation squadron.
The Playboy Interview
Besides its centerfold, a major part of Playboy for much of its existence has been the Playboy Interview, an extensive (usually several thousand-word) discussion between a notable individual and an interviewer (historian Alex Haley, for example, served as a Playboy interviewer on a few occasions; one of his interviews was with Martin Luther King Jr.; he also interviewed Malcolm X and American Nazi Party founder George Lincoln Rockwell in the April 1966 issue, then coauthored Malcolm X's autobiography). One of the magazine's most notable interviews was a discussion with then-presidential candidate Jimmy Carter in the November 1976 issue, in which he stated "I've committed adultery in my heart many times." David Sheff's interview with John Lennon and Yoko Ono appeared in the January 1981 issue, which was on newsstands at the time of Lennon's murder; the interview was later published in book format.
Rock the Rabbit
"Rock the Rabbit" was an annual music news and pictorial feature published in the March edition. The pictorial featured images of rock bands photographed by music photographer Mick Rock. Fashion designers participated in the Rock the Rabbit event by designing T-shirts inspired by Playboy's rabbit head logo for each band. The shirts were sold at Playboy's retailers and auctioned off to raise money for AIDS at LIFEbeat: The Music Industry Fights AIDS. Notable bands who were featured include: MGMT, Daft Punk, Iggy Pop, Duran Duran, Flaming Lips, Snow Patrol, and The Killers.
Many notable photographers have contributed to Playboy, including Ken Marcus, Richard Fegley, Arny Freytag, Ron Harris, Tom Kelley, David Mecey, Russ Meyer, Pompeo Posar, Suze Randall, Herb Ritts, Stephen Wayda, Sam Wu, Mario Casilli, Annie Leibovitz, Helmut Newton, and Bunny Yeager.
- For a full listing, please see List of people in Playboy 1953–1959, 1960–1969, 1970–1979, 1980–1989, 1990–1999, 2000–2009, 2010–2019.
Many celebrities (singers, actresses, models, etc.) have posed for Playboy over the years. This list is only a small portion of those who have posed. Some of them are:
- Jayne Mansfield (February 1955)
- Mara Corday (October 1958)
- Ursula Andress (June 1965)
- Carol Lynley (March 1965)
- Margot Kidder (March 1975)
- Kim Basinger (February 1983)
- Terry Moore (August 1984)
- Janet Jones (March 1987)
- Drew Barrymore (January 1995)
- Denise Richards (December 2004)
- Sasha Grey (October 2010)
- Svetlana Khorkina (November 1997 Russian edition)
- Katarina Witt (December 1998)
- Tanja Szewczenko (April 1999 German edition)
- Joanie Laurer (November 2000 and January 2002)
- Gabrielle Reece (January 2001)
- Kiana Tom (May 2002)
- Torrie Wilson (May 2003 and March 2004 [the latter with Sable])
- Amy Acuff (September 2004)
- Amanda Beard (July 2007)
- Ashley Harkleroad (August 2008)
- Linda Evans (July 1971)
- Suzanne Somers (February 1980 and December 1984)
- Teri Copley (November 1990)
- Dian Parkinson (December 1991 and May 1993)
- Shannen Doherty (March 1994 and December 2003)
- Farrah Fawcett (December 1995 and July 1997)
- Claudia Christian (October 1999)
- Shari Belafonte (September 2000)
- Brooke Burke (May 2001 and November 2004)
- Susie Feldman (August 2008)
- Karina Smirnoff (May 2011)
Playboy Special Editions
The success of Playboy magazine has led PEI to market other versions of the magazine, the Special Editions (formerly called Newsstand Specials), such as Playboy's College Girls and Playboy's Book of Lingerie, as well as the Playboy video collection.
The National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped (NLS) has published a Braille edition of Playboy since 1970. The Braille version includes all the written words in the non-Braille magazine, but no pictorial representations. Congress cut off funding for the Braille magazine translation in 1985, but U.S. District Court Judge Thomas Hogan reversed the decision on First Amendment grounds.
- Mexico (1976–1998, 2002–)
- United States (1953–)
- Colombia (2008–2012, 2017-)
- Australia (1979–2000, 2018-)—see specific article
- Bulgaria (2002–)
- Croatia (1997–)
- Czech Republic (1991–)
- Denmark (2018-)
- France (1973–1988, 1991-2011, 2016-)
- Germany (1972–)
- Greece (1985–2015, 2019-)
- Hungary (1989–1993, 1999–)
- Italy (1972–1985, 1987-2003, 2008–)
- Netherlands (1982–)
- Poland (1992–)
- Portugal (2009-2010, 2012–2013, 2015-)
- Russia (1995–)
- Slovakia (1997–2003, 2005–)
- Slovenia (2001–)
- Spain (1978–2012, 2017-)
- Sweden (1998–1999, 2017-)
- Switzerland (2017-)
- Ukraine (2005–)
- Hong Kong (1986–1993)
- Indonesia (2006–2008)
- Israel (2013)
- Japan (1975–2009)—see specific article
- Mongolia (2012–2015)
- Singapore (2015)
- Taiwan (1990-1993, 1996–2003)
- Argentina (1985–1995, 2006–2018)
- Brazil (1975–2018) (see Playboy (Brazil))
- Venezuela (2006–2017)
- Austria (2012–2014) (only special issues from time to time)
- Belgium (1987-1991, 1994-2003, 2008)
- Estonia (2007–2011)
- Georgia (2007–2008)
- Latvia (2010–2014)
- Lithuania (2008–2013)
- Macedonia (2010–2011)
- Moldova (2012)
- Norway (1997–1999)
- Romania (1999–2016)
- Serbia (2004–2015)
- Turkey (1986–1995)
The growth of the Internet prompted the magazine to develop an official web presence called Playboy Online or Playboy.com, which is the official website for Playboy Enterprises, and an online companion to Playboy magazine. The site has been available online since 1994. As part of the online presence, Playboy developed a pay web site called the Playboy Cyber Club in 1995 which features online chats, additional pictorials, videos of Playmates and Playboy Cyber Girls that are not featured in the magazine. Archives of past Playboy articles and interviews are also included. In September 2005, Playboy launched the online edition of the magazine Playboy Digital.
In 2010, Playboy introduced The Smoking Jacket, a safe-for-work website designed to appeal to young men, while avoiding nude images or key words that would cause the site to be filtered or otherwise prohibited in the workplace.
In May 2011, Playboy introduced i.playboy.com, a complete, uncensored version of its near-700 issue archive, targeting the Apple iPad. By launching the archive as a web app, Playboy was able to circumvent both Apple's App Store content restrictions and their 30% subscription fee.
Litigation and legal issues
On January 14, 2004, the Ninth Circuit U.S. Court of Appeals ruled that Playboy Enterprises Inc.'s trademark terms "Playboy" and "Playmate" should be protected in the situation where a user typing "Playboy" or "Playmate" in a browser search was instead shown advertisements of companies that competed with PEI. This decision reversed an earlier district court ruling. The suit started on April 15, 1999, when Playboy sued Excite Inc. and Netscape for trademark infringement.
Many in the American religious community opposed the publication of Playboy. The Louisiana pastor and author L. L. Clover wrote in his 1974 treatise, Evil Spirits, Intellectualism and Logic, that Playboy encouraged young men to view themselves as "pleasure-seeking individuals for whom sex is fun and women are play things."
In many parts of Asia, including India, mainland China, Myanmar, Malaysia, Thailand, Singapore, and Brunei, sale and distribution of Playboy is banned. In addition, sale and distribution is banned in most Muslim countries (except Lebanon and Turkey) in Asia and Africa, including Iran, Saudi Arabia, and Pakistan. Despite the ban on the magazine in these countries, the official Playboy brand itself can still appear on various merchandise, such as perfume and deodorants.
While banned in mainland China, the magazine is sold in Hong Kong. In Japan, where genitals of models cannot be shown, a separate edition was published under license by Shueisha. An Indonesian edition was launched in April 2006, but controversy started before the first issue hit the stands. Though the publisher said the content of the Indonesian edition will be different from the original edition, the government tried to ban it by using anti-pornography rules. A Muslim organization, the Islamic Defenders Front (IDF), opposed Playboy on the grounds of pornography. On April 12, about 150 IDF members clashed with police and stoned the editorial offices. Despite this, the edition quickly sold out. On April 6, 2007, the chief judge of the case dismissed the charges because they had been incorrectly filed.
In 1986, the American convenience store chain 7-Eleven removed the magazine. The store returned Playboy to its shelves in late 2003. 7-Eleven had also been selling Penthouse and other similar magazines before the ban.
In 1995, Playboy was returned to shelves in the Republic of Ireland after a 36-year ban, despite staunch opposition from many women's groups.
Playboy was not sold in the state of Queensland, Australia during 2004 and 2005, but returned as of 2006. Due to declining sales, the last Australia-wide edition of Playboy was the January 2000 issue.
In March 2018, Playboy announced that they would be deactivating their Facebook accounts, due to the "sexually repressive" nature of the social media platform and their mismanagement of user data resulting from the Cambridge Analytica problem.
- Nick Stone, editor. The Bedside Playboy. Chicago: Playboy Press, 1963.
- Jacob Dodd, editor. The Playboy Book: Forty Years. Santa Monica, California: General Publishing Group, 1994, ISBN 1-881649-03-2
- Playboy: 50 Years, The Photographs. San Francisco: Chronicle Books, 2003, ISBN 0-8118-3978-8
- Nick Stone, editor; Michelle Urry, cartoon editor. Playboy: 50 Years, The Cartoons. San Francisco: Chronicle Books, 2004. ISBN 0-8118-3976-1
- Gretchen Edgren, editor. The Playboy Book: Fifty Years. Taschen, 1995. ISBN 3-8228-3976-0
- G. Barry Golson, editor. The Playboy Interview. New York: Playboy Press, 1981. ISBN 0-87223-668-4 (hardcover), ISBN 0-87223-644-7 (softcover)
- G. Barry Golson, editor. The Playboy Interview Volume II. New York: Wideview/Perigee, 1983. ISBN 0-399-50768-X (hardcover), ISBN 0-399-50769-8 (softcover)
- David Sheff, interviewer; G. Barry Golson, editor. The Playboy Interviews with John Lennon and Yoko Ono. New York: Playboy Press, 1981, ISBN 0-87223-705-2; 2000 edition, ISBN 0-312-25464-4
- Stephen Randall, editor. The Playboy Interview Book: They Played the Game. New York: M Press, 2006, ISBN 1-59582-046-9
- Category:Playboy lists
- Counterculture of the 1960s
- List of men's magazines
- Playboy Bunny
- Playboy Club
- Playboy TV
- Pubic Wars
- "AAM: Total Circ for Consumer Magazines". abcas3.auditedmedia.com. Archived from the original on April 18, 2014. Retrieved March 1, 2018.
- "Playboy Enterprises, Inc". Playboyenterprises.com. Retrieved February 14, 2016.
- Seib, Christine (December 9, 2008). "Hefner's Daughter Christie Walks Away from Playboy Enterprises". The Times. London. Retrieved May 22, 2010.
- "Playboy 'to drop' naked women images". BBC News. Retrieved February 14, 2016.
- "Why America loved Playboy". BBC News. October 14, 2015. Retrieved February 14, 2016.
- Wray, Richard (November 13, 2009). "Iconix 'makes offer for Playboy'". The Guardian. London. Retrieved October 7, 2011.
- Steven Watts. Mr Playboy: Hugh Hefner and the American Dream. Wiley. pp. 80, 91, 111, 144, 152, 190. ISBN 0-470-52167-8.
- Samuel Schuman (1979). Vladimir Nabokov, A Reference Guide. p. 61.
- "11 great authors who wrote for Hugh Hefner's Playboy". BBC. September 28, 2017.
- Art Spiegelman (2001). Jack Cole and Plastic Man: Forms Stretched to Their Limits. Chronicle Books. p. 126. ISBN 0-8118-3179-5.
- Eldon Dedini (2006). An Orgy of Playboy's Eldon Dedini. Fantagraphics Books. p. 8. ISBN 1-56097-727-2.
- Stephen E. Kercher (2006). Revel with a Cause: Liberal Satire in Postwar America. University Of Chicago Press. p. 480. ISBN 0-226-43164-9.
- Shel Silverstein (2007). Playboy's Silverstein Around the World. Fireside. ISBN 0-7432-9024-0.
- Bryant, Mark (October 19, 2009). "Roy Raymonde: Cartoonist noted for his work in 'Punch' and 'Playboy'". The Independent. Retrieved March 10, 2015.
- "Blog Archive » "We All Have To Start Somewhere" Department. Case in Point No.11". EliSteinCartoons.com. February 3, 2009. Retrieved December 7, 2011.
- "Film Review: Hugh Hefner: Playboy, Activist and Rebel". Filmjournal.com. July 20, 2010. Retrieved December 7, 2011.
- Sumner, David E. (2010). The Magazine Century: American Magazines Since 1900. Books.google.com. Peter Lang Publishing. p. 134. ISBN 978-1-4331-0493-0. Retrieved February 14, 2016.
- Steven Watts (March 23, 2009). "Mr Playboy: Hugh Hefner and the American Dream". Books.google.com. p. 24. Retrieved February 14, 2016.
- Steven Watts (March 23, 2009). "Mr Playboy: Hugh Hefner and the American Dream". Books.google.com. p. 24. Retrieved February 14, 2016.
- Steven Watts (March 23, 2009). "Mr Playboy: Hugh Hefner and the American Dream". Books.google.com. p. 64. Retrieved February 14, 2016.
- Golden Dreams The Birth of Playboy by Hugh M. Hefner, page 265, Playboy, January 1994
- Summers, p. 59.
- Les Harding (August 23, 2012). They Knew Marilyn Monroe: Famous Persons in the Life of the Hollywood Icon. p. 75. ISBN 9780786490141.
- Susan Gunelius (September 16, 2009). Building Brand Value the Playboy Way. p. 16. ISBN 9780230239586.
- Gordon Jensen (July 2012). Marilyn: A Great Woman's Struggles: Who Killed Her and Why. p. 157. ISBN 9781477141502.
- Playboy Collector's Association Playboy Magazine Price Guide
- "Yes, people DID buy 'Playboy' for the articles". USA TODAY. Retrieved September 12, 2017.
- "Stars Upon Thars". Snopes.com. June 22, 2006. Retrieved May 20, 2009.
- "Kennedy, Thomas E., "A Last Conversation with Robie Macauley", Agnii, Vol. 45, 1997". Webdelsol.com. Retrieved December 7, 2011.
- Greenfieldboyce, Nell (September 5, 2008). "Pageant Protest Sparked Bra-Burning Myth". NPR. Retrieved February 6, 2012.
- "No More Miss America!". The Feminist eZine. Retrieved February 8, 2012.
- "No More Miss America!". Redstockings.org. August 22, 1968. Retrieved May 24, 2018.
- Seib, Christine (December 9, 2008). "Hefner's daughter Christie walks away from Playboy Enterprises". The Times. London. Retrieved May 22, 2010.
- Writer, By Parija Bhatnagar, CNN/Money Staff. "Playboy: 50 years and going - Oct. 15, 2003". money.cnn.com. Retrieved September 14, 2017.
- ""Top Party Schools 2009," Playboy magazine, May 2009". Archived from the original on May 9, 2009. Retrieved December 16, 2012.
- "Hugh Hefner sells LA property as financial crisis hits Playboy.html". The Daily Telegraph. London. August 11, 2009. Retrieved May 22, 2010.
- Vancore, Andrew; Heher, Ashley (July 12, 2010). "Bunny bid: Hefner offers to buy rest of Playboy". The Washington Times. Associated Press. Retrieved July 16, 2010.
- Vancore, Andrew (July 16, 2010). "Penthouse bids for Playboy". The Sun News. Associated Press. Retrieved July 16, 2010.[permanent dead link]
- "Playboy agrees to Hefner buyout offer". The Los Angeles Times. Retrieved December 16, 2012.
- "Hefner Completes $208M Playboy Buyout". Institutional Investor. March 8, 2011. Retrieved December 16, 2012.
- Playboy enters non-nude era: Sexy but 'safe for work' WTAE-TV, via CNN Money (February 24, 2016)
- Samaiya, Ravi. "Playboy says it will no longer print images of nude women". Boston Globe. Retrieved October 13, 2015.
- "Nudes Are Old News at Playboy". The New York Times. October 12, 2015. Retrieved October 13, 2015.
- "Playboy magazine to stop publishing pictures of naked women". The Guardian. Retrieved October 13, 2015.
- "The fascinating economics behind Playboy's decision to drop nudes from its magazine". Vox.com. Retrieved February 14, 2016.
- "China—not online porn—is why Playboy is dumping nude photographs". Quartz. Retrieved October 18, 2015.
- Karlin, Susan (March 7, 2016). "The Playboy Revamp Continues: How The Magazine Is Redrawing Its Cartoon Lines, Too". Co.Create. Fast Company. Retrieved March 12, 2016.
- "Playboy brings back nudity, claiming #NakedIsNormal". BBC. February 13, 2017.
- Kelly, Keith. "Hefner's son offers Playboy promotions after cuts". New York Post. NYP Holdings Inc. Retrieved November 10, 2018.
- Puzzanghera, Jim (January 2, 2018). "Playboy is considering ending its print magazine, report says". Los Angeles Times.
- Kelly, Keith. "Playboy stripping down to 4 issues per year in 2019". New York Post. NYP Holdings Inc. Retrieved November 11, 2018.
- "The Girls Next Door: The New Yorker". Retrieved December 16, 2012.
- "The Rest of the Lenna Story". 2.cs.cmu.edu. Retrieved December 7, 2011.
- "BLIND WIN RULING ON BRAILLE PLAYBOY". The New York Times. August 29, 1986. Retrieved October 16, 2011.
- "Re: Nicholson Baker and NEH". Ibiblio.org. April 16, 2001. Retrieved February 14, 2016.
- Faye, Marcia (Spring 2009). "Art Paul: The art of designing Playboy". iitmagazine. Retrieved December 7, 2011.
- Heller, Steven and Vienne, Véronique, The Education of an Art Director Allworth Communications, Inc., (2005)ISBN 1581154356, ISBN 978-1-58115-435-1 pp. 174–180. Google Books. 2006. ISBN 9781581154351. Retrieved December 7, 2011.
- "Hugh Hefner: 'I am in the center of the world'", by Oriana Fallaci, LOOK Magazine, January 10, 1967
- Rhodes, Margaret (October 13, 2015). "Playboy's Logo is What Matters — It Earns More Than Nudes Do". WIRED. Retrieved October 14, 2015.
- Playboy Interview with Jimmy Carter, Playboy, November 1976
- "McGill University website excerpt".
- "playboy.com / world of playboy / events". Archived from the original on June 7, 2011. Retrieved December 16, 2012.
- Stolz, Kim. "Duran Duran And Playboy Team Up To 'Rock The Rabbit,' Celebrate Band's 13th LP". mtv.com. MTV. Retrieved July 12, 2015.
- Cawein, Elizabeth. "MGMT Poses For Playboy In Rock The Rabbit Campaign". thefader.com. The Fader, Inc. Retrieved July 12, 2015.
- "Photographers". Vintageplayboymags.co.uk. Retrieved December 7, 2011.
- "Richard Fegley : Biography". IMDb.com. Retrieved February 14, 2016.
- "Arny Freytag". IMDb.com. Retrieved February 14, 2016.
- "Ron Harris Studio – We Have The Girls You Want". Ronharris.com. Retrieved December 7, 2011.
- "Photographer". David Mecey. Archived from the original on November 24, 2011. Retrieved December 7, 2011.
- "Russ Meyer (I) : Biography". IMDb.com. Retrieved February 14, 2016.
- "Pompeo Posar". IMDb.com. Retrieved February 14, 2016.
- "Suze Randall". Lycos.com. Archived from the original on September 27, 2011. Retrieved December 7, 2011.
- ""Playboy at 50" Christies Sale 1325 (December 17, 2003)".
- "Welcome to Stephen Wayda Photography". Archived from the original on March 3, 2009.
- James R. Petersen, Playboy Redheads, Chronicle Books, 2005, p127. ISBN 0-8118-4858-2
- "Mario Casilli, Playboy Photographer". Vintage Playboy Mags. Retrieved November 6, 2007.
- "Bunnyyeager.com". Bunnyyeager.com. Retrieved December 7, 2011.
- "Harkleroad to be in August Playboy magazine". Retrieved May 26, 2008.
- "Where the Babes are". Archived from the original on May 7, 2005.
- "NLS Reference Circular: Magazine Program (2007)". Loc.gov. August 25, 2010. Retrieved December 7, 2011.
- "The Braille Forum, June 2000". Archived from the original on May 10, 2011.
- "Philippine Playboy won't show full nudity". MSNBC. Associated Press. March 27, 2008. Retrieved March 8, 2009.
- "Playboy Takes On World With Big Video Expansion", By Richard Covington, International Herald Tribune, November 3, 1993. Retrieved June 23, 2007.
- Ndlovu, Andile (May 15, 2013). "Playboy SA stripped off mag rack". Times LIVE. Retrieved May 15, 2013.
- "Jakarta struggles with the politics of pornography as Playboy comes to town", John Aglionby, January 30, 2006, The Guardian. Retrieved June 23, 2007.
- Party Time in Milan as Playboy Comes to Town, Corriere della Sera. Retrieved on December 8, 2008.
- Portal Imprensa (March 26, 2009). "Portugal will have its own version of Playboy magazine from this month". Portal Imprensa. Retrieved March 28, 2009.
- Nati Tucker (January 14, 2013). "Show me the bunny: Playboy comes to Israel". Haaretz. Retrieved March 19, 2013.
- "Playboy Magazine Enters Estonia" Archived July 10, 2007, at the Wayback Machine, Alo Raun, Postimees, June 7, 2007. Retrieved June 30, 2007.
- "Playboy Magazine Enters Georgia, Plans to Conquer Market" Archived September 28, 2007, at the Wayback Machine, Nino Edilashvili, The Georgian Times, May 21, 2007. Retrieved June 23, 2007.
- "Playboy published also in Latvia". Baltic News Network. September 28, 2010. Retrieved October 8, 2010.
- "Playboy Macedonia". Netpress.com.mk. September 28, 2010. Archived from the original on July 22, 2011. Retrieved December 7, 2011.
- Galloway, Stephen (September 20, 2011). "Hugh Hefner: The Playboy Interview". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved February 21, 2012.
- "Playboy Web Space". Archived from the original on December 20, 1996.
- Don Babwin (July 21, 2010). "Playboy busts out of mold on the Smoking Jacket". Associated Press.
- "Netscape, Playboy settle search trademark case - CNET News.com". News.cnet.com. Retrieved December 7, 2011.
- L. L. Clover, Evil Spirits, Intellectualism and Logic (Minden, Louisiana: Louisiana Missionary Baptist Institute and Seminary, 1974), pp. 18–19.
- Megna, Michelle (March 30, 2003). "Foreign Web sites offer alternate perspectives on the conflict in Iraq". Daily News. New York.
- "Middle East and Arab World Headline News". Al Bawaba. January 1, 1970. Archived from the original on June 18, 2012. Retrieved December 7, 2011.
- Thompson, G. (April 5, 2007). "'Playboy' charges thrown out of court". ABC News. Retrieved June 7, 2013.
- [dead link]
- "Military Green Lights Playboy and Penthouse Before Banning Them". Outsidethebeltway.com. August 1, 2013. Retrieved February 14, 2016.
- Staff, Writer (March 28, 2018). "Now Playboy Deletes Its Facebook Account, Citing Values". Advertising Age. Bloomberg News. Retrieved March 29, 2018.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Playboy magazine.|
- Playboy Covers of the World—Thousands of Playboy covers from all past and present editions worldwide.
- Crossett, Andrew, "Index: The Women of Playboy – 1967 – 2007", 2007.
- Playmate database at the University of Chicago - archived version June, 2008[permanent dead link]
- A full listing of the Playboy Interview subjects and their interviewers
- Josh Lambert, "My Son, the Pornographer: Jewish Editors at Playboy"
- Playboy's Chicago history