Plaza Miranda bombing

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Plaza Miranda bombing
A still from a documentary showing Liberal Party members onstage at the Plaza Miranda, moments before the bombing.
Location Plaza Miranda, Quiapo, Manila, Philippines
Coordinates 14°35′53″N 120°59′01″E / 14.59815°N 120.98348°E / 14.59815; 120.98348Coordinates: 14°35′53″N 120°59′01″E / 14.59815°N 120.98348°E / 14.59815; 120.98348
Date August 21, 1971 (UTC +8)
Target political campaign rally
Attack type
Weapons hand grenades
Deaths 9
Non-fatal injuries
Suspected perpetrators

Ferdinand Marcos

Communist rebels

The Plaza Miranda bombing occurred during a political campaign rally of the Liberal Party at Plaza Miranda in the district of Quiapo, Manila in the Philippines on August 21, 1971.[1] It caused nine deaths and injured 95 others, including many prominent Liberal Party politicians.[2]


The Liberal Party's campaign rally was held to proclaim the candidacies of eight Senatorial bets as well as the candidate for the Mayoralty race in Manila. As a crowd of about 4,000 gathered to hear speeches, two hand grenades were reportedly tossed on stage.[3] Among those killed instantly were a 5-year-old child and The Manila Times photographer Ben Roxas. Almost everyone on stage was injured, including incumbent Senator Jovito Salonga, Senator Eddie Ilarde, Senator Eva Estrada-Kalaw, Liberal Party president Gerardo Roxas, Sergio Osmeña, Jr., son of former President of the Commonwealth of the Philippines, Sergio Osmeña, Atty. Martin B. Isidro Councilor, Vice Mayor and Congressman for the City of Manila, Ambrosio "King" Lorenzo, Jr. 2nd District Councilor of Manila, and Ramon Bagatsing, the party's Mayoral Candidate for the City of Manila.



Suspicion of responsibility for the blast initially fell upon incumbent President Ferdinand Marcos, whom the Liberals blamed for the bombing; however, in later years, some prominent personalities associated with the event have laid the blame on the Communist Party of the Philippines under José María Sison.[4] The matter has never been resolved.

Jovito Salonga, in his autobiography, states his belief that Sison and the CPP were responsible.[5] Former New People's Army commander, retired Armed Forces of the Philippines Brig. General Victor Corpus has also made statements alleging that Sison ordered the bombing of the political rally.[6] Corpus wrote in the autobiographical prologue to his 1989 book Silent War that he was present when some leaders of the CPP discussed the bombing after it took place.[7] In a 2004 interview with journalist Max Soliven, Corpus affirmed that Sison (spoken of specifically, by name) dispatched the cadre who attacked the meeting with a hand-grenade.[6] Based on interviews of The Washington Post with un-named former Communist Party of the Philippines Officials, it was alleged that "the (Communist) party leadership planned -- and three operatives carried out -- the attack in an attempt to provoke government repression and push the country to the brink of revolution... (Communist Party Leader) Sison had calculated that Marcos could be provoked into cracking down on his opponents, thereby driving thousands of political activists into the underground, the former party officials said. Recruits were urgently needed, they said, to make use of a large influx of weapons and financial aid that China had already agreed to provide."[8]

José María Sison continues to deny these claims,[9] and the CPP has never released any official confirmation of their culpability in the incident.[10] Marcos, for his part, also blamed the communists. Citing a communist plot to destabilize the government, he assumed emergency powers and suspended the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus[11] — a prelude to declaring Martial Law.

Most historians continue to suspect Marcos as he is known to have used false flag operations as a pretext for his declaration of martial law at this time.[12] [13] There were a series of deadly bombings in 1971, and the CIA privately stated that Marcos was responsible for at least one of them. The agency was also almost certain that none of the bombings were perpetrated by Communists. US intelligence documents declassified in the 1990s contained further evidence implicating Marcos. A proven false flag attack took place with the attempted assassination of Defense Minister Juan Ponce Enrile in 1972. President Nixon then approved Marcos' martial law move on the rationale that the country was being terrorized by Communists.[14]


Jovito Salonga was among those most seriously injured. The blast left him blind in one eye and deaf in one ear. Small pieces of shrapnel are still lodged in his body. Councilor Ambrosio "King" Lorenzo, Jr. was in a coma for two (2) weeks. He lost his sight on his left eye and his hearing on the same side. Ramon Bagatsing, the Liberal Party mayoralty candidate for Manila, lost his left leg and suffered a crushed right cheek bone and a shattered right arm.[15]

Bearing on the election[edit]

In a setback for Marcos' ruling Nacionalista Party, the Liberals took six of the eight contested Senate seats, as well as the Manila mayoralty with then Congressman Ramon Bagatsing defeating the incumbent Antonio Villegas for the mayorship of the country's premiere city.[15]


On August 21, 2002, President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo unveiled a commemorative marker in Plaza Miranda in honor of the nine innocent civilians killed in the blast.[16]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Partido Liberal Pilipinas: Timeline". Retrieved October 27, 2007. 
  2. ^ Locsin, Jr., Teodoro. "Benigno S. Aquino, Jr. Man of the Year, 1971". Retrieved October 27, 2007. 
  3. ^ "Death in the Plaza Miranda". Time. August 30, 1971. Retrieved October 27, 2007. 
  4. ^ Doronila, Amando (August 24, 2007). "Politics of violence". Inquirer Group of Companies. Archived from the original on August 24, 2014. Retrieved August 21, 2015. 
  5. ^ Dizon, David (November 19, 2002). "Salonga's Journey". Archived from the original on July 1, 2007. Retrieved October 27, 2007. 
  6. ^ a b Soliven, Max (February 12, 2004). "Revolution by Assassination?". The Philippine Star. Philstar Daily, Inc. Retrieved August 21, 2015. 
  7. ^ Victor N. Corpus (1989). Silent war. VNC Enterprises. p. 13. ISBN 978-971-91158-0-9. 
  8. ^ "EX-COMMUNISTS PARTY BEHIND MANILA BOMBING". The Washington Post. August 4, 1989. 
  9. ^ Distor, Emere. "The Left and Democratisation in the Philippines". Retrieved October 27, 2007. 
  10. ^ Nemenzo, Gemma. "Note from the Underground". Retrieved October 27, 2007. 
  11. ^ Simafrania, Eduardo D. (August 21, 2006). "Commemorating Ninoy Aquino's assassination". The Manila Times. Archived from the original on October 18, 2007. Retrieved October 27, 2007. 
  12. ^ Donnelly, Jack; Howard-Hassmann, Rhoda E. (1987). International Handbook of Human Rights. ABC-CLIO. pp. 280–281. ISBN 9780313247880. 
  13. ^ Ciment, James (2015-03-10). World Terrorism: An Encyclopedia of Political Violence from Ancient Times to the Post-9/11 Era: An Encyclopedia of Political Violence from Ancient Times to the Post-9/11 Era. Routledge. ISBN 9781317451518. 
  14. ^ Blitz, Amy (2000). The Contested State: American Foreign Policy and Regime Change in the Philippines. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 106–112. ISBN 9780847699346. 
  15. ^ a b "Binding Up the Wounds". Time Magazine. November 22, 1971. Retrieved October 28, 2007. 
  16. ^ "GMA joins people in commemorating Plaza Miranda bombing". Retrieved October 27, 2007.