Coordinates: Sky map 03h 47m 24s, +24° 07′ 00″
This is a good article. Click here for more information.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A color-composite image of the Pleiades from the Digitized Sky Survey
Observation data (J2000 epoch)
Right ascension03h 47m 24s[1]
Declination+24° 07′ 00″[1]
Distance444 ly on average[2][3][4][5] (136.2±1.2 pc)
Apparent magnitude (V)1.6[6]
Apparent dimensions (V)110' (arcmin)[6]
Physical characteristics
Other designationsSeven Sisters,[1] M45,[1] Cr 42,[1] Mel 22[1]
See also: Open cluster, List of open clusters

The Pleiades (/ˈpl.ədz, ˈpl-, ˈpl-/),[7][8] also known as the Seven Sisters, Messier 45, and other names by different cultures, is an asterism and an open star cluster containing middle-aged, hot B-type stars in the north-west of the constellation Taurus. At a distance of about 444 light years, it is among the nearest star clusters to Earth. It is the nearest Messier object to Earth, and is the most obvious cluster to the naked eye in the night sky. It is also observed to house the reflection nebula NGC 1432, an HII region.[9]

The cluster is dominated by hot blue luminous stars that have formed within the last 100 million years. Reflection nebulae around the brightest stars were once thought to be left over material from their formation, but are now considered likely to be an unrelated dust cloud in the interstellar medium through which the stars are currently passing.[10] This dust cloud is estimated to be moving at a speed of approximately 18 km/s relative to the stars in the cluster.[11]

Computer simulations have shown that the Pleiades were probably formed from a compact configuration that resembled the Orion Nebula.[12] Astronomers estimate that the cluster will survive for about another 250 million years, after which it will disperse due to gravitational interactions with its galactic neighborhood.[13]

Together with the open star cluster of the Hyades, the Pleiades form the Golden Gate of the Ecliptic.

Origin of name[edit]

The name of the Pleiades comes from Ancient Greek: Πλειάδες.[14] It probably derives from plein ("to sail") because of the cluster's importance in delimiting the sailing season in the Mediterranean Sea: "the season of navigation began with their heliacal rising".[15] However, in mythology the name was used for the Pleiades, seven divine sisters, the name supposedly deriving from that of their mother Pleione and effectively meaning "daughters of Pleione". In reality, the name of the star cluster almost certainly came first, and Pleione was invented to explain it.[16]

Astronomical role of M45 in antiquity[edit]

The M45 group played an important role in ancient times for the establishment of calendars thanks to the combination of two remarkable elements. The first, which is still valid, is its unique and perfectly identifiable aspect on the celestial vault near the ecliptic. The second, essential for the Ancients, is that in the middle of the third millennium BC., this asterism marked the vernal point.[17] The importance of this asterism is also evident in northern Europe, on the Nebra sky disc, dating around 1600 BC. and where it is represented beside the Sun and the Moon.

The Nebra sky disc, dated circa 1600 BC. The cluster of seven dots in the upper right portion of the disk is believed to be the Pleiades.

It is also this asterism that indicates the beginning of the ancient calendars. Several examples can be given:

  • In ancient India, it constitutes, in the Atharvaveda, compiled around 1200-1000 BC, the first nakṣatra (Sanskrit name for lunar stations), which is called क्रृत्तिका Kṛittika, a revealing name since it literally means "the Cuttings"[18], i.e. "Those that mark the break of the year".[19] This is so before the classic list lowers this nakṣatra to third place, henceforth giving the first to the couple βγ Arietis which, notably in Hipparchus, at that time ,marks the equinox.
  • In Mesopotamia, the MUL.APIN compendium, the first known Mesopotamian astronomy treatise, discovered at Nineveh in the library of Assurbanipal and dating from no later than 627 BC., presents a list of gods [holders of stars] who stand on "the path of the Moon", a list which begins with mul.MUL.[20]
  • In Greece, the Πλειάδες, are a group whose name is probably functional before having a mythological meaning, as André Lebœuffle points out, who has his preference for the explanation by the Indo-European root *pe/ol-/pl- which expresses the idea of multiplicity, crowd, assembly.[21]
  • We find a similar thing among the Ancient Arabs who begin their old parapegma type calendar, that of the anwā, with M45 under the name of الثريّا al-Ṯurayyā.[22] And this before their classic calendar, that of the manāzil al-qamar or "lunar stations", also begins with the couple βγ Arietis whose name, الشرطان al- Šaraṭān, is literally "the Two Marks [of entering the equinox]"[23]

So when M45 leaves the vernal point, the asterism still remains important, both functionally and symbolically. In addition to the changes we have just seen in the calendars based on the lunar stations among the Indians and the Arabs, consider the case of an ancient Yemeni calendar in which the months are designated according to an astronomical criterion which caused it to be named Calendar of the Pleiades: the month of ḫams, literally "five", is that during which the Sun and al-Ṯurayyā, ie the Pleiades, deviate away from each other by five movements of the Moon, i.e. five times the path that the "Moon" travels on average in one day and one night, to use the terminology of ᶜAbd al-Raḥmān al-Sūfī al-Ṣūfī.[24]

Nomenclature and mythology[edit]

1 dollar commemorative silver coin issued in 2020 by the Royal Australian Mint. On the reverse, the Seven Sisters (Pleiades) are represented, according to an ancient story of Australian Indigenous tradition.[25]

The Pleiades are a prominent sight in winter in the Northern Hemisphere, and are easily visible from mid-Southern latitudes. They have been known since antiquity to cultures all around the world,[26] including the Celts (Welsh: Tŵr Tewdws, Irish: Streoillín); pre-colonial Filipinos (who called it Mapúlon, Mulo‑pulo, or Muró‑púro, among other names) for whom it indicated the beginning of the year,[27][28] Hawaiians (who call them Makaliʻi),[29] Māori (who call them Matariki), Indigenous Australians (from several traditions), the Achaemenid Empire, whence in Farsi (who called them پروین Parvīn or پروی Parvī),[30] the Arabs (who call them الثريا al-Thurayyā[31]), the Chinese (who called them mǎo), the Quechua (who call them Qullqa or the storehouse), the Japanese (who call them Subaru (, スバル)), the Maya, the Aztec, the Sioux, the Kiowa,[32][33] and the Cherokee. In Hinduism, the Pleiades are known as Kṛttikā and are scripturally associated with the war-god Kartikeya and are also identified or associated with the Saptamatrika(s) (Seven Mothers). Hindus celebrate the first day (new moon) of the month of Kartik as Diwali, a festival of abundance and lamps. The Pleiades are also mentioned three times in the Bible.[34][35]

Galileo's drawings of the Pleiades star cluster from Sidereus Nuncius

The earliest-known depiction of the Pleiades is likely a Northern German Bronze Age artifact known as the Nebra sky disk, dated to approximately 1600 BC.[36] The Babylonian star catalogues name the Pleiades MULMUL (𒀯𒀯), meaning "stars" (literally "star star"), and they head the list of stars along the ecliptic, reflecting the fact that they were close to the point of vernal equinox around the 23rd century BC. The Ancient Egyptians may have used the names "Followers" and "Ennead" in the prognosis texts of the Calendar of Lucky and Unlucky Days of papyrus Cairo 86637.[37] Some Greek astronomers considered them to be a distinct constellation, and they are mentioned by Hesiod's Works and Days,[38] Homer's Iliad and Odyssey,[39] and the Geoponica.[40] The Pleiades was the most well-known star among pre-Islamic Arabs and so often simply referred to as "the Star" (al Najm).[41] Some scholars of Islam suggested that the Pleiades (ath-thurayya) are the "star" mentioned in Surah An-Najm ("The Star") in the Quran.[42]

On numerous cylinder seals from the beginning of the 1st millennium BC., M 45 is represented by seven points, while the Seven Gods appear, on low-reliefs of Neo-Assyrian royal palaces, wearing long open robes and large cylindrical headdresses surmounted by short feathers and adorned of three frontal rows of horns and a crown of feathers, while carrying both an ax and a knife, as well as a bow and a quiver[43]


In Javanese culture, the Pleiades constellation is also known as 'lintang kartika'. "Lintang" means star, and "kartika" also means star. It's as if to reiterate the significant influence of the Pleiades constellation in Javanese culture.[44]

In the pranatamangsa calendar (ancient agricultural calendar), the first month out of a total of 12 months (not the Gregorian calendar) is called 'Mongso Kartika', referring to the Kartika star cluster that appears before dawn on the eastern horizon.[45]


In Japan, the cluster is mentioned under the name Mutsuraboshi ("six stars") in the 8th-century Kojiki.[46] The cluster is now known in Japan as Subaru.

It was chosen as the name of the Subaru Telescope which is the 8.2-meter (320 in) flagship telescope of the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan. It is located at the Mauna Kea Observatory on the island of Hawaii. It had the largest monolithic primary mirror in the world from its commissioning in 1998 until 2005.[47]

It was chosen as the brand name of Subaru automobiles to reflect the origins of the firm as the joining of five companies, and is depicted in the firm's six-star logo.[48]

Observational history[edit]

Galileo Galilei was the first astronomer to view the Pleiades through a telescope. He thereby discovered that the cluster contains many stars too dim to be seen with the naked eye. He published his observations, including a sketch of the Pleiades showing 36 stars, in his treatise Sidereus Nuncius in March 1610.

The Pleiades have long been known to be a physically related group of stars rather than any chance alignment. John Michell calculated in 1767 that the probability of a chance alignment of so many bright stars was only 1 in 500,000, and so surmised that the Pleiades and many other clusters of stars must be physically related.[49] When studies were first made of the stars' proper motions, it was found that they are all moving in the same direction across the sky, at the same rate, further demonstrating that they were related.

Charles Messier measured the position of the cluster and included it as M45 in his catalogue of comet-like objects, published in 1771. Along with the Orion Nebula and the Praesepe cluster, Messier's inclusion of the Pleiades has been noted as curious, as most of Messier's objects were much fainter and more easily confused with comets—something that seems scarcely possible for the Pleiades. One possibility is that Messier simply wanted to have a larger catalogue than his scientific rival Lacaille, whose 1755 catalogue contained 42 objects, and so he added some bright, well-known objects to boost his list.[50]

Edme-Sébastien Jeaurat then drew in 1782 a map of 64 stars of the Pleiades from his observations in 1779, which he published in 1786.[51][52][53]


Location of Pleiades (circled) in the night sky
Location of Pleiades (circled) in the night sky

The distance to the Pleiades can be used as a key first step to calibrate the cosmic distance ladder. As the cluster is relatively close to the Earth, its distance should be relatively easy to measure and has been estimated by many methods. Accurate knowledge of the distance allows astronomers to plot a Hertzsprung–Russell diagram for the cluster, which, when compared to those plotted for clusters whose distance is not known, allows their distances to be estimated. Other methods can then extend the distance scale from open clusters to galaxies and clusters of galaxies, and a cosmic distance ladder can be constructed. Ultimately astronomers' understanding of the age and future evolution of the universe is influenced by their knowledge of the distance to the Pleiades. Yet some authors argue that the controversy over the distance to the Pleiades discussed below is a red herring, since the cosmic distance ladder can (presently) rely on a suite of other nearby clusters where consensus exists regarding the distances as established by the Hipparcos satellite and independent means (e.g., the Hyades, Coma Berenices cluster, etc.).[3]

Animation of proper motion in 400,000 years—cross-eyed viewing (click for viewing guide)

Measurements of the distance have elicited much controversy. Results prior to the launch of the Hipparcos satellite generally found that the Pleiades were about 135 parsecs (pc) away from Earth. Data from Hipparcos yielded a surprising result, namely a distance of only 118 pc by measuring the parallax of stars in the cluster—a technique that should yield the most direct and accurate results. Later work consistently argued that the Hipparcos distance measurement for the Pleiades was erroneous.[3][4][5][54][55][56] In particular, distances derived to the cluster via the Hubble Space Telescope and infrared color-magnitude diagram fitting (so-called "spectroscopic parallax") favor a distance between 135 and 140 pc;[3][54] a dynamical distance from optical interferometric observations of the Pleiad double Atlas favors a distance of 133 to 137 pc.[56] However, the author of the 2007–2009 catalog of revised Hipparcos parallaxes reasserted that the distance to the Pleiades is ~120 pc and challenged the dissenting evidence.[2] In 2012, Francis and Anderson[57] proposed that a systematic effect on Hipparcos parallax errors for stars in clusters biases calculation using the weighted mean and gave a Hipparcos parallax distance of 126 pc and photometric distance 132 pc based on stars in the AB Doradus, Tucana-Horologium, and Beta Pictoris moving groups, which are all similar in age and composition to the Pleiades. Those authors note that the difference between these results can be attributed to random error. More recent results using very-long-baseline interferometry (VLBI) (August 2014) and preliminary solutions using Gaia Data Release 1 (September 2016) and Gaia Data Release 2 (August 2018), determine distances of 136.2 ± 1.2 pc,[58] 134 ± 6 pc[59] and 136.2 ± 5.0 pc,[60] respectively. The Gaia Data Release 1 team was cautious about their result and the VLBI authors assert "that the Hipparcos-measured distance to the Pleiades cluster is in error".

Selected distance estimates to the Pleiades
Year Distance (pc) Notes
1999 125 Hipparcos[61]
2004 134.6 ± 3.1 Hubble Fine Guidance Sensor[54]
2009 120.2 ± 1.9 Revised Hipparcos[2]
2014 136.2 ± 1.2 Very-long-baseline interferometry[58]
2016 134 ± 6 Gaia Data Release 1[59]
2018 136.2 ± 5.0 Gaia Data Release 2[60]

For another distance debate see Polaris#Distance, also with a different measurement from Hipparcos, although this time it suggested a greater distance.


A map of the Pleiades

The cluster core radius is about 8 light-years and tidal radius is about 43 light-years. The cluster contains over 1,000 statistically confirmed members, a figure that excludes an unresolved likely further number of binary stars.[62] Its light is dominated by young, hot blue stars, up to 14 of which can be seen with the naked eye depending on local observing conditions and visual acuity of the observer. The arrangement of the brightest stars is somewhat similar to Ursa Major and Ursa Minor. The total mass contained in the cluster is estimated to be about 800 solar masses and is dominated by fainter and redder stars.[62] An estimate of the frequency of binary stars in the Pleiades is about 57%.[63]

The cluster contains many brown dwarfs, which are objects with less than about 8% of the Sun's mass, not heavy enough for nuclear fusion reactions to start in their cores and become proper stars. They may constitute up to 25% of the total population of the cluster, although they contribute less than 2% of the total mass.[64] Astronomers have made great efforts to find and analyse brown dwarfs in the Pleiades and other young clusters, because they are still relatively bright and observable, while brown dwarfs in older clusters have faded and are much more difficult to study.

Brightest stars[edit]

The nine brightest stars of the cluster are named the Seven Sisters in Greek mythology: Sterope, Merope, Electra, Maia, Taygeta, Celaeno, and Alcyone, along with their parents Atlas and Pleione. As daughters of Atlas, the Hyades were sisters of the Pleiades. The following table gives details of the brightest stars in the cluster:

Pleiades bright stars
Name Pronunciation (IPA) Designation Apparent magnitude Stellar classification Distance (ly)[65]
Alcyone /ælˈs.ən/ Eta (25) Tauri 2.86 B7IIIe 409±50
Atlas /ˈætləs/ 27 Tauri 3.62 B8III 387±26
Electra /əˈlɛktrə/ 17 Tauri 3.70 B6IIIe 375±23
Maia /ˈm.ə/ 20 Tauri 3.86 B7III 344±25
Merope /ˈmɛrəp/ 23 Tauri 4.17 B6IVev 344±16
Taygeta /tˈɪətə/ 19 Tauri 4.29 B6IV 364±16
Pleione /ˈplən, ˈpl-/ 28 (BU) Tauri 5.09 (var.) B8IVpe 422±11
Celaeno /səˈln/ 16 Tauri 5.44 B7IV 434±10
Asterope or Sterope I /əˈstɛrəp/ 21 Tauri 5.64 B8Ve 431.1±7.5
18 Tauri 5.66 B8V 444±7
Sterope II /ˈstɛrəp/ 22 Tauri 6.41 B9V 431.1±7.5
HD 23753 5.44 B9Vn 420±10
HD 23923 6.16 B8V 374.04
HD 23853 6.59 B9.5V 398.73
HD 23410 6.88 A0V 395.82

Age and future evolution[edit]

Stars of Pleiades with color and 10,000-year backwards proper motion shown

Ages for star clusters can be estimated by comparing the Hertzsprung–Russell diagram for the cluster with theoretical models of stellar evolution. Using this technique, ages for the Pleiades of between 75 and 150 million years have been estimated. The wide spread in estimated ages is a result of uncertainties in stellar evolution models, which include factors such as convective overshoot, in which a convective zone within a star penetrates an otherwise non-convective zone, resulting in higher apparent ages.[citation needed]

Another way of estimating the age of the cluster is by looking at the lowest-mass objects. In normal main-sequence stars, lithium is rapidly destroyed in nuclear fusion reactions. Brown dwarfs can retain their lithium, however. Due to lithium's very low ignition temperature of 2.5 × 106 K, the highest-mass brown dwarfs will burn it eventually, and so determining the highest mass of brown dwarfs still containing lithium in the cluster can give an idea of its age. Applying this technique to the Pleiades gives an age of about 115 million years.[66][67]

The cluster is slowly moving in the direction of the feet of what is currently the constellation of Orion. Like most open clusters, the Pleiades will not stay gravitationally bound forever. Some component stars will be ejected after close encounters with other stars; others will be stripped by tidal gravitational fields. Calculations suggest that the cluster will take about 250 million years to disperse, with gravitational interactions with giant molecular clouds and the spiral arms of our galaxy also hastening its demise.[68]

Reflection nebulosity[edit]

Hubble Space Telescope image of reflection nebulosity near Merope (IC 349)

With larger amateur telescopes, the nebulosity around some of the stars can be easily seen; especially when long-exposure photographs are taken. Under ideal observing conditions, some hint of nebulosity around the cluster may even be seen with small telescopes or average binoculars. It is a reflection nebula, caused by dust reflecting the blue light of the hot, young stars.

It was formerly thought that the dust was left over from the formation of the cluster, but at the age of about 100 million years generally accepted for the cluster, almost all the dust originally present would have been dispersed by radiation pressure. Instead, it seems that the cluster is simply passing through a particularly dusty region of the interstellar medium.

Studies show that the dust responsible for the nebulosity is not uniformly distributed, but is concentrated mainly in two layers along the line of sight to the cluster. These layers may have been formed by deceleration due to radiation pressure as the dust has moved towards the stars.[69]

Possible planets[edit]

Analyzing deep-infrared images obtained by the Spitzer Space Telescope and Gemini North telescope, astronomers discovered that one of the cluster's stars, HD 23514, which has a mass and luminosity a bit greater than that of the Sun, is surrounded by an extraordinary number of hot dust particles. This could be evidence for planet formation around HD 23514.[70]


A 3D model of the Pleiades open cluster from the Galaxy Map app (iOS/Android)


See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c d e f "Cl Melotte 22". SIMBAD. Centre de données astronomiques de Strasbourg. Retrieved 2007-04-20.
  2. ^ a b c Van Leeuwen, F. (2009). "Parallaxes and proper motions for 20 open clusters as based on the new Hipparcos catalogue". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 497 (1): 209–242. arXiv:0902.1039. Bibcode:2009A&A...497..209V. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/200811382. S2CID 16420237.
  3. ^ a b c d Majaess, Daniel J.; Turner, David G.; Lane, David J.; Krajci, Tom (2011). "Deep Infrared ZAMS Fits to Benchmark Open Clusters Hosting delta Scuti Stars". Journal of the American Association of Variable Star Observers (Jaavso). 39 (2): 219. arXiv:1102.1705. Bibcode:2011JAVSO..39..219M.
  4. ^ a b Percival, S. M.; Salaris, M.; Groenewegen, M. A. T. (2005). "The distance to the Pleiades. Main sequence fitting in the near infrared". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 429 (3): 887–894. arXiv:astro-ph/0409362. Bibcode:2005A&A...429..887P. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20041694. S2CID 14842664.
  5. ^ a b Zwahlen, N.; North, P.; Debernardi, Y.; Eyer, L.; et al. (2004). "A purely geometric distance to the binary star Atlas, a member of the Pleiades". Astronomy and Astrophysics Letters. 425 (3): L45. arXiv:astro-ph/0408430. Bibcode:2004A&A...425L..45Z. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:200400062. S2CID 37047575.
  6. ^ a b Messier 45
  7. ^ "Pleiades". Merriam-Webster Dictionary.
  8. ^ "Pleiades". Oxford English Dictionary (Online ed.). Oxford University Press. (Subscription or participating institution membership required.)
  9. ^ "NGC 1432 (Maia Nebula) - HII Ionized region in Taurus |". Retrieved 2022-12-10.
  10. ^ Gibson, S.J.; Nordsieck, K.H. (2003). "The Pleiades Reflection Nebula. II. Simple Model Constraints on Dust Properties and Scattering Geometry". The Astrophysical Journal. 589 (1): 362–377. Bibcode:2003ApJ...589..362G. doi:10.1086/374590.
  11. ^ White, Richard E.; Bally, John (May 1993). "Interstellar matter near the Pleiades. IV - The wake of the Pleiades through the interstellar medium in Taurus". The Astrophysical Journal. 409: 234. Bibcode:1993ApJ...409..234W. doi:10.1086/172658. eISSN 1538-4357. ISSN 0004-637X.
  12. ^ Kroupa, Pavel; Aarseth, Sverre; Hurley, Jarrod (2001). "The formation of a bound star cluster: From the Orion nebula cluster to the Pleiades". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 321 (4): 699–712. arXiv:astro-ph/0009470. Bibcode:2001MNRAS.321..699K. doi:10.1046/j.1365-8711.2001.04050.x. S2CID 11660522.
  13. ^ Gendler, Robert (2006). A Year in the Life of the Universe: A Seasonal Guide to Viewing the Cosmos. Voyageur Press. p. 54. ISBN 978-1610603409.
  14. ^ "Pleiades - Wiktionary". 5 August 2021.
  15. ^ "Pleiad". Oxford English Dictionary (Online ed.). Oxford University Press. Retrieved 2022-02-15. (Subscription or participating institution membership required.)
  16. ^ Robin Hard (2020). The Routledge Handbook of Greek Mythology: Partially Based on H.J. Rose's A Handbook of Greek Mythology. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-138-65260-6.
  17. ^ Wilfred G. Lambert, (en) « The section AN », in : Luigi Cagni (a cura di), Il bilinguismo a Ebla, Atti del convegno inter-nazionale (Napoli,, 19-22 aprile 1982), Napoli, Istituto Universitario Orientale, Dipartimento di studi asiatici, XXII (1984), 396-397
  18. ^ Gérard Huet. "« Dictionnaire Héritage du Sanskrit », version 3.48[2023-07-01, s.v. « Kṛttikā »" (in French and Saraiki).
  19. ^ David Pingree & Morrissey, "On the Identification of the Yogataras of the Indian Naksatras", in Journal for the History of Astronomy, Vol. 20, N° 2/61 (June 1989), p. 100.
  20. ^ Roland Laffitte. "Série MUL.APIN (BM 86378)", Tab. I, iv, 31-39., on URANOS, the astronomical website of the Selefa" (PDF) (in French).
  21. ^ (en) André Le Bœuffle, Les Noms latins d’astres et de constellations, éd. Paris: Les Belles Lettres, 1977, pp. 120-124.
  22. ^ Charles Pellat, Dictons rimés, anwa et mansions lunaires chez les Arabes, in Arabica. Journal of arabic and islamic studies, vol. 2 (1955) p. 19.
  23. ^ Roland Laffitte, Essai de reconstitution du comput antique, et« le comput des des manāzil al-qamar ou stations lunaires, in Le ciel des Arabes. Apport de l’uranographie arabe, Paris : Geuthner, 2012, pp. 42-43, puis 51-60.
  24. ^ (de) Eduard Glaser, Die Sternkunde der südarabischen Kabylen, Wien : aus der Hof- und Staatsdruckerei, (s.d.) [Aus dem XCL. Bande der Sitzb. der kays. Akad. der Wissensch., II. Jänner-Heft Jahrg.1885], pp. 3-4.
  25. ^ "The Royal Australian Mint looks to the stars to honour Australian Indigenous stories". 3 September 2020. Retrieved 31 December 2020.
  26. ^ Julien D'Huy, Yuri Berezkin. How Did the First Humans Perceive the Starry Night? On the Pleiades . The Retrospective Methods Network Newsletter 2017, pp.100-122.
  27. ^ Mintz, Malcolm W. (2021). "Monograph 1: The Philippines at the Turn of the Sixteenth Century". Intersections: Gender and Sexuality in Asia and the Pacific.
  28. ^ MacKinlay, William Egbert Wheeler (1905). A Handbook and Grammar of the Tagalog Language. U.S. Government Printing Office. p. 46.
  29. ^ Makemson, Maud. "Hawaiian Astronomical Concepts" (PDF). Retrieved 31 October 2018.
  30. ^ Dehkhoda, Ali Akbar. "Dehkhoda Dictionary". Parsi Wiki.
  31. ^ Allen, Richard Hinckley (1963) [1899]. Star Names: Their Lore and Meaning (Reprint ed.). New York, NY: Dover Publications Inc. ISBN 978-0-486-21079-7.
  32. ^ Andrews, Munya (2004). The Seven Sisters of the Pleiades: Stories from Around the World. Spinifex Press. pp. 149–152. ISBN 978-1876756451.
  33. ^ Kracht, Benjamin (2017). Kiowa Belief and Ritual. University of Nebraska Press. pp. 63, 75, 139, 189. ISBN 978-1496201461.
  34. ^ Job 9:9, Job 38:31 and Amos 5:8
  35. ^ James Hastings; John Alexander Selbie; Andrew Bruce Davidson; Samuel Rolles Driver; Henry Barclay Swete (1911). Dictionary of the Bible: Kir-Pleiades. Scribner. pp. 895–896.
  36. ^ "BBC - Science & Nature - Horizon - Secrets of the Star Disc". BBC. 2004. Retrieved 2008-03-25.
  37. ^ Jetsu, L.; Porceddu, S. (2015). "Shifting Milestones of Natural Sciences: The Ancient Egyptian Discovery of Algol's Period Confirmed". PLOS ONE. 10 (12): e.0144140 (23pp). arXiv:1601.06990. Bibcode:2015PLoSO..1044140J. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0144140. PMC 4683080. PMID 26679699.
  38. ^ Hesiod, Works and Days, (618-23)
  39. ^ Theodossiou, E.; Manimanis, V. N.; Mantarakis, P.; Dimitrijevic, M. S. (2011). "Astronomy and Constellations in the Iliad and Odyssey". Journal of Astronomical History and Heritage. 14 (1): 22. Bibcode:2011JAHH...14...22T. doi:10.3724/SP.J.1440-2807.2011.01.02. ISSN 1440-2807. S2CID 129824469.
  40. ^ "The Geoponica (Agricultural Pursuits), page 6 (V. 1)". Archived from the original on 2012-10-12. Retrieved 2011-04-22.[dead link]
  41. ^ Danielle Kira Adams (2018). Rain Stars Set, Lunar Stations Rise: Multivalent Textures of Pre-Islamic Arabian Astronomy and the Hegemonic Discourse of Order (PhD). University of Arizona. pp. 105–107.
  42. ^ Saqib Hussain, "The Prophet's Vision in Sūrat al-Najm," Journal of the International Qur'anic Studies Association, 5 (2020): 97–132.
  43. ^ Jeremy Black & Anthony Green, Gods, Demons and Symbols of Ancient Mesopotamia, an Illustrated Dictionary, London: British Museum Press, 1992, p. 162.
  44. ^ subroto, wisnu (1997). "Kearifan Lokal Ngelmu Titen Pranatamangsa" (PDF). uksw university.
  45. ^ Partosuwiryo, Suwarman (2013-02-01). "KAJIAN PRANATA MANGSA SEBAGAI PEDOMAN PENANGKAPAN IKAN DI SAMUDRA HINDIA SELATAN JAWA". Jurnal Perikanan Universitas Gadjah Mada. 15 (1): 20–25. doi:10.22146/jfs.9097. ISSN 2502-5066.
  46. ^ Andrews, Munya (2004). The Seven Sisters of the Pleiades: Stories from Around the World. North Melbourne, Victoria, Australia: Spinifex Press. p. 293. ISBN 978-1-876756-45-1.
  47. ^ "The Subaru Telescope". Retrieved 2010-09-22.
  48. ^ "Fuji Heavy Industries Changes Name to Subaru". Automotive Fleet Magazine. May 12, 2016. Retrieved 24 June 2016.
  49. ^ Michell J. (1767). "An Inquiry into the probable Parallax, and Magnitude, of the Fixed Stars, from the Quantity of Light which they afford us, and the particular Circumstances of their Situation". Philosophical Transactions. 57: 234–264. Bibcode:1767RSPT...57..234M. doi:10.1098/rstl.1767.0028.
  50. ^ Frommert, Hartmut (1998). "Messier Questions & Answers". Retrieved 2005-03-01.
  51. ^ A New review: with literary curiosities and literary intelligence, page 326, Paul Henry Maty, Printed for the author, 1783.
  52. ^ Mémoires de l'Acadêmie des sciences de l'Institut de France, page 289, Didot frères, fils et cie, 1786.
  53. ^ Edme-Sébastien Jeaurat, Carte des 64 Principales Etoiles des Playades par M. Jeaurat, pour le Janvier 1786.
  54. ^ a b c Soderblom D. R.; Nelan E.; Benedict G. F.; McArthur B.; et al. (2005). "Confirmation of Errors in Hipparcos Parallaxes from Hubble Space Telescope Fine Guidance Sensor Astrometry of the Pleiades". Astronomical Journal. 129 (3): 1616–1624. arXiv:astro-ph/0412093. Bibcode:2005AJ....129.1616S. doi:10.1086/427860. S2CID 15354711.
  55. ^ Turner, D. G. (1979). "A reddening-free main sequence for the Pleiades cluster". Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 91: 642–647. Bibcode:1979PASP...91..642T. doi:10.1086/130556.
  56. ^ a b Pan, X. (2004). "A distance of 133-137 parsecs to the Pleiades star cluster". Nature. 427 (6972): 326–328. Bibcode:2004Natur.427..326P. doi:10.1038/nature02296. PMID 14737161. S2CID 4383850.
  57. ^ Francis C.; Anderson E. (2012). "XHIP II: clusters and associations". Astronomy Letters. 1203 (11): 4945. arXiv:1203.4945. Bibcode:2012AstL...38..681F. doi:10.1134/S1063773712110023. S2CID 119285733.
  58. ^ a b Melis, Carl; Reid, Mark J.; Mioduszewski, Amy J.; Stauffer, John R.; et al. (29 August 2014). "A VLBI resolution of the Pleiades distance controversy". Science. 345 (6200): 1029–1032. arXiv:1408.6544. Bibcode:2014Sci...345.1029M. doi:10.1126/science.1256101. PMID 25170147. S2CID 34750246. See also commentary by Girardi, Léo (29 August 2014), "One good cosmic measure", Science, 345 (6200): 1001–1002, Bibcode:2014Sci...345.1001G, doi:10.1126/science.1258425, PMID 25170136, S2CID 5359091
  59. ^ a b Anthony G. A. Brown; GAIA Collaboration (2016), "Gaia Data Release 1. Summary of the astrometric, photometric, and survey properties" (PDF), Astronomy and Astrophysics (forthcoming article), 595: A2, arXiv:1609.04172, Bibcode:2016A&A...595A...2G, doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201629512, S2CID 1828208, retrieved 14 September 2016
  60. ^ a b Abramson, Guillermo (20 August 2018). "The Distance to the Pleiades According to Gaia DR2". Research Notes of the AAS. 2 (3): 150. Bibcode:2018RNAAS...2..150A. doi:10.3847/2515-5172/aada8b.
  61. ^ Van Leeuwen, Floor (1999). "HIPPARCOS distance calibrations for 9 open clusters". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 341: L71. Bibcode:1999A&A...341L..71V.
  62. ^ a b Adams, Joseph D.; Stauffer, John R.; Monet, David G.; Skrutskie, Michael F.; et al. (2001). "The Mass and Structure of the Pleiades Star Cluster from 2MASS". Astronomical Journal. 121 (4): 2053–2064. arXiv:astro-ph/0101139. Bibcode:2001AJ....121.2053A. doi:10.1086/319965. S2CID 17994583.
  63. ^ Torres, Guillermo; Latham, David W.; Quinn, Samuel N. (2021). "Long-term Spectroscopic Survey of the Pleiades Cluster: The Binary Population". The Astrophysical Journal. 921 (2): 117. arXiv:2107.10259. Bibcode:2021ApJ...921..117T. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/ac1585. S2CID 236171384.
  64. ^ Moraux, E.; Bouvier, J.; Stauffer, J. R.; Cuillandre, J.-C. (2003). "Brown in the Pleiades cluster: Clues to the substellar mass function". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 400 (3): 891–902. arXiv:astro-ph/0212571. Bibcode:2003A&A...400..891M. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20021903. S2CID 17613925.
  65. ^ Brown, A. G. A.; et al. (Gaia collaboration) (August 2018). "Gaia Data Release 2: Summary of the contents and survey properties". Astronomy & Astrophysics. 616. A1. arXiv:1804.09365. Bibcode:2018A&A...616A...1G. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201833051.
  66. ^ Basri, Gibor; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Graham, James R. (1996). "Lithium in Brown Dwarf Candidates: The Mass and Age of the Faintest Pleiades Stars". The Astrophysical Journal. 458: 600–609. Bibcode:1996ApJ...458..600B. doi:10.1086/176842.
  67. ^ Ushomirsky, G.; Matzner, C.; Brown, E.; Bildsten, L.; et al. (1998). "Light-Element Depletion in Contracting Brown Dwarfs and Pre-Main-Sequence Stars". Astrophysical Journal. 497 (1): 253–266. arXiv:astro-ph/9711099. Bibcode:1998ApJ...497..253U. doi:10.1086/305457. S2CID 14674869.
  68. ^ Converse, Joseph M. & Stahler, Steven W. (2010). "The dynamical evolution of the Pleiades". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 405 (1): 666–680. arXiv:1002.2229. Bibcode:2010MNRAS.405..666C. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2010.16505.x. S2CID 54611261.
  69. ^ Gibson, Steven J.; Nordsieck, Kenneth H. (2003). "The Pleiades Reflection Nebula. II. Simple Model Constraints on Dust Properties and Scattering Geometry". Astrophysical Journal. 589 (1): 362–377. Bibcode:2003ApJ...589..362G. doi:10.1086/374590.
  70. ^ ScienceDaily (2007). "Planets Forming In Pleiades Star Cluster, Astronomers Report". Retrieved 2012-11-15.

External links[edit]