|Mission type||Earth observation|
|COSPAR ID||1A: 2011-076F|
|SATCAT no.||1A: 38012|
|Mission duration||5 years (planned)|
|Launch mass||970 kg (2,140 lb) (each)|
|Start of mission|
|Launch date||1A: 02:03, 17 December 2011 (UTC)|
1B: 02:02, 2 December 2012 (UTC)
|Rocket||Soyuz ST-A with Fregat upper stage|
|Launch site||Centre Spatial Guyanais, ELS|
|Reference system||Geocentric orbit|
|Altitude||695 km (432 mi)|
The Pléiades constellation is composed of two very-high-resolution optical Earth-imaging satellites. Pléiades-HR 1A and Pléiades-HR 1B provide the coverage of Earth's surface with a repeat cycle of 26 days. Designed as a dual civil/military system, Pléiades will meet the space imagery requirements of European defence as well as civil and commercial needs.
Spot Image is the official and exclusive worldwide distributor of Pléiades products and services under a delegated public service agreement.
- Pléiades-HR 1A was launched via a Russian Soyuz ST-A rocket out of the Centre Spatial Guyanais, Kourou, French Guiana, on 17 December 2011 at 02:03 UTC.
- Pléiades-HR 1B was launched via a Russian Soyuz ST-A rocket out of the Centre Spatial Guyanais, Kourou, French Guiana, on 2 December 2012 at 02:02 UTC.
The two satellites operate in the same phased orbit and are offset at 180° to offer a daily revisit capability over any point on the globe. The Pléiades also share the same orbital plane as the SPOT 6 and 7, forming a larger constellation with 4 satellites, 90° apart from one another.
- Orbit: Sun-synchronous, phased, near-circular
- Mean altitude: 695 km.
Equipped with innovative latest-generation space technologies like fibre-optic gyroscopes and control moment gyroscopes, Pléiades-HR 1A, and 1B offer exceptional roll, pitch, and yaw (slew) agility, enabling the system to maximize the number of acquisitions above a given area.
Agility for Responsive Tasking
This agility coupled with particularly dynamic image acquisition programming make the Pléiades system very responsive to specific user requirements. Individual user requests was answered in record time, thanks to multiple programming plans per day and a state-of-the-art image processing chain. Performance at a glance:
- Image acquisition anywhere within an 800-km-wide ground strip with 70 cm of resolution
- Along-track stereo and tri-stereo image acquisition
- Single-pass collection of mosaics (strip-mapping) with a footprint up to a square degree
- Maximum theoretical acquisition capacity of 1,000,000 km2 per day and per satellite
- Optimized daily acquisition capacity (taking into account genuine order book, weather constraints, conflicts...) reaching 300,000 km2 per day and per satellite.
|Resolution||Panchromatic: 50 cm|
|Multispectral: 2 m|
|Pansharpened: 50 cm|
|Bundle: 50 cm PAN and 2 m MS|
|Footprint||20 km swath|
|Single pass mosaics up to 100 x 100 km|
Ground receiving stations
When satellite operations begin, four ground receiving stations will be deployed for the direct downlink and archiving of imagery data:
- Two defence centres in France and Spain
- Two civil stations: one in Toulouse (France) and a polar station in Kiruna (Sweden), which receives most of the data.
Regional receiving stations (fixed or mobile) are subsequently installed at the request of users.
The Pléiades tasking plan are refreshed and uploaded three times per day, allowing for last minute requests and the ability to utilize up-to-the-minute weather forecasts.
- The Kerguelen Island station uploads the morning pass, over Europe, Africa and the Middle East.
- The Swedish station takes care of midday orbits, over North and South Americas.
- The French station transmits the last tasking plan of the day over Asia and Oceania.
Applications of VHR imagery
The Pléiades system is designed for a range of very-high-resolution (VHR, panchromatic: 50 cm), remote sensing applications. These include:
- Land planning: detection and identification of small features (e.g. vehicles, roads, bushes)
- Agriculture: land management and crop yields, location of crop diseases, tree count (palm trees, vineyards...)
- Defense: imagery-derived intelligence and tactical planning in urban/densely populated areas
- Homeland security: mitigation, assistance in crisis events and post-crisis assessment (particularly earthquakes)
- Hydrology: topography and drainage basin gradient studies
- Forestry: illicit deforestation and management of forestry yields; REDD data qualification (sampling)
- Maritime and littoral surveillance: vessel reconnaissance and contamination (oil spill), harbor mapping
- Civil Engineering / Asset Monitoring: planning of road, rail and oil pipeline corridors
- 3D: flight simulators, high precision mapping, photovoltaic fields implantation...