Question to whoever posted this image: was it really a left-handed Io? Or was it flipped? If it is a left-handed Io indeed (an extreem rarity) it should be mentioned; I would however replace this image by a one of the regular morph. If it's been flipped it should be flipped back.
|About 150 extant species|
Pleuroceridae, common name pleurocerids, is a family of small to medium-sized freshwater snails, aquatic gilled gastropod mollusks in the superfamily Cerithioidea.These snails have an operculum and typically a robust high-spired shell.
As currently defined, this family is confined entirely to eastern North American fresh waters. Similar snails formerly classified with Pleuroceridae, but now assigned to other families are widespread in temperate and tropical parts of Southern and Eastern Asia, and Africa. Most require unpolluted rivers and streams, but a few are adapted to living in lakes or reservoirs.
- Pleurocerinae P. Fischer, 1885 - synonyms: Ceriphasiinae Gill, 1863; Strepomatidae Haldeman, 1864; Ellipstomatidae Hannibal, 1912; Gyrotominae Hannibal, 1912; Anaplocamidae Dall, 1921
- Semisulcospirinae Morrison, 1952 - synonym: Jugidae Starobogatov, Prozorova, Bogatov & Sayenko, 2004 (n.a.)
There is very high level of mitochondrial heterogeneity in apparent species of Pleuroceridae (highest among gastropods, also with Semisulcospiridae), that has not been sufficiently explained yet as of 2015.
Genera within the family Pleuroceridae are organized in the one subfamily only since 2009 and they include:
- Pleurocera Rafinesque, 1818 - type genus of the family Pleuroceridae,
- Elimia H. Adams & A. Adams, 1854 synonyms:Goniobasis Lea, 1862
- Athearnia Morrison, 1971
- † Gyrotoma Shuttleworth, 1845
- Io Lea, 1831 - with the only species Io fluvialis (Say, 1825)
- Leptoxis Rafinesque, 1819
- Lithasia Haldeman, 1840
- Strong E. E., Gargominy O., Ponder W. F. & Bouchet P. (2008). "Global Diversity of Gastropods (Gastropoda; Mollusca) in Freshwater". Hydrobiologia 595: 149-166. hdl:10088/7390 doi:10.1007/s10750-007-9012-6.
- Strong E. E., Colgan D. J., Healy J. M., Lydeard C., Ponder W. F. & Glaubrecht M. (2011). "Phylogeny of the gastropod superfamily Cerithioidea using morphology and molecules". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 162(1): 43-89. doi:10.1111/j.1096-3642.2010.00670.x.
- Bouchet 2005
- Strong E. & Köhler F. (2009). "Morphological and molecular analysis of "Melania" jacqueti Dautzenberg & Fischer, 1906: from anonymous orphan to critical basal offshoot of the Semisulcospiridae (Gastropoda: Cerithioidea)". Zoologica Scripta 38(5): 483-502. doi:10.1111/j.1463-6409.2008.00385.x
- Whelan N. V. & Strong E. E. (2015). "Morphology, molecules and taxonomy: extreme incongruence in pleurocerids (Gastropoda, Cerithioidea, Pleuroceridae)". Zoologica Scripta> 26 pp. doi:10.1111/zsc.12139.
- Tryon G. W. (1865). "Observations on the family Strepomatidae". American Journal of Conchology 1(2): 97-135.
- Tryon G. W. (1865). Synonymy of the species of Strepomatidae (melanians) of the United States; with critical observations on their affinities, and descriptions of land, fresh water and marine Mollusca. New York, Ballière Brothers, 520 Broadway, 100 pp., 2 plates.
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