(DC.) Quél. 1872
|gills on hymenium|
cap is depressedor offset
|hymenium is decurrent|
|stipe is bare|
|spore print is white|
|ecology is saprotrophic|
Pleurotus eryngii (also known as king trumpet mushroom, French horn mushroom, king oyster mushroom, king brown mushroom, boletus of the steppes,[Note 1] trumpet royale) is an edible mushroom native to Mediterranean regions of Europe, the Middle East, and North Africa, but also grown in many parts of Asia.
P. eryngii is the largest species in the oyster mushroom genus, Pleurotus, which also contains the oyster mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus. It has a thick, meaty white stem and a small tan cap (in young specimens). Its natural range extends from the Atlantic Ocean through the Mediterranean Basin and Central Europe into Western Asia and India. Unlike other species of Pleurotus, which are wood-decay fungi, the P. eryngii complex are weak parasites on the roots of herbaceous plants, although they may also be cultured on organic wastes. Typically King Oysters are cultivated on substrates consisting of sawdust and bran, as much as 40% bran by dry weight has been used with good results. They have also been grown on spent brewers grain blended with hardwood sawdust with good results. The levels of CO2 greatly affects the shape of the fruit bodies. Grown outdoors or in a grow room with high air exchange the stems will be short and caps will be large. With higher concentrations of CO2 from low air exchange the fruits will develop thick long stems with small caps. Since the cap and stem have the same texture many commercial grows use a lower air exchange to achieve large thick fruits. This also saves on heating or cooling energy by reducing the volume of outside air to be tempered. King Oysters grow best under 60 °F, any warmer and they develop hollow stems. They also prefer much higher humidity than most other oyster mushrooms, around 95–99%.
Its species name is derived from the fact that it grows in association with the roots of Eryngium campestre or other Eryngium plants (English names: 'Sea Holly' or 'Eryngo'). P. eryngii is a species complex, and a number of varieties have been described, with differing plant associates in the carrot family (Apiaceae).
- P. eryngii var. eryngii (DC.) Quél 1872 – associated with Eryngium ssp.
- P. eryngii var. ferulae (Lanzi) Sacc. 1887 – associated with Ferula communis
- P. eryngii var. tingitanus Lewinsohn 2002 – associated with Ferula tingitana
- P. eryngii var. elaeoselini Venturella, Zervakis & La Rocca 2000 – associated with Elaeoselinum asclepium
- P. eryngii var. thapsiae Venturella, Zervakis & Saitta 2002 – associated with Thapsia garganica
The mushroom has a good shelf life. An effective cultivation method was introduced to Japan around 1993 and has become popular there in a variety of dishes, and is now cultivated and sold commercially in Australia. Imported product is also commercially available in Australia and South Africa. It is also cultivated in Taiwan, China, South Korea, Italy, and the United States. It has little flavor or aroma when raw. When cooked, it develops typical mushroom umami flavors with a texture similar to that of abalone.
-  Archived May 18, 2006 at the Wayback Machine
- Zervakis, Georgios I.; Venturella, Giuseppe; Papadopoulou, Kalliopi (2001). "Genetic polymorphism and taxonomic infrastructure of the Pleurotus eryngii species-complex as determined by RAPD analysis, isozyme profiles and ecomorphological characters". Microbiology 147 (11): 3183–3194. doi:10.1099/00221287-147-11-3183.
- Alma E. Rodriguez Estrada & Daniel J. Royse (February 2008). "Pleurotus eryngii and P. nebrodensis: from the wild to commercial production". Mushroom News.
- Lewinsohn, D.; Wasser, S. P.; Reshetnikov, S. V.; Hadar, Y.; Nevo, E. (2002). "The Pleurotus eryngii species-complex in Israel: Distribution and morphological description of a New Taxon". Mycotaxon 81: 51–67.
- Venturella, G.; Zervakis, G.; La Rocca, S. (2000). "Pleurotus eryngii var. elaeoselini var. nov. from Sicily". Mycotaxon 76: 419–427.
- Alma E. Rodriguez Estrada, Maria del Mar Jimenez-Gasco and Daniel J. Royse (May–June 2010). "Pleurotus eryngii species complex: Sequence analysis and phylogeny based on partial EF1α and RPB2 genes". Fungal Biology 114 (5-6): 421–428. doi:10.1016/j.funbio.2010.03.003. PMID 20943152.
- Venturella, G., G. Zervakis & A. Saitta (2002). "Pleurotus eryngii var. thapsiae var. nov. from Sicily". Mycotaxon 81: 69–74.
-  Archived December 15, 2005 at the Wayback Machine
- Nozaki H, Itonori S, Sugita M, Nakamura K, Ohba K, Suzuki A, Kushi Y. (Aug 2008), "Mushroom acidic glycosphingolipid induction of cytokine secretion from murine T cells and proliferation of NK1.1 alpha/beta TCR-double positive cells in vitro", Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 373 (3): 435–9, doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2008.06.047, PMID 18577373
- Alam, Nuhu; Yoon, Ki Nam; Lee, Jae Seong; Cho, Hae Jin; Shim, Mi Ja; Lee, Tae Soo (Oct 2011). "Dietary effect of Pleurotus eryngii on biochemical function and histology in hypercholesterolemic rats". Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences 18 (4): 403–409. doi:10.1016/j.sjbs.2011.07.001. ISSN 1319-562X. PMC 3730794. PMID 23961153.
- Rudabe Ravash, Behrouz Shiran, Aziz-Allah Alavi, Fereshteh Bayat, Saeideh Rajaee and Georgios I. Zervakis. "Genetic variability and molecular phylogeny of Pleurotus eryngii species-complex isolates from Iran, and notes on the systematics of Asiatic populations". Mycological Progress 9 (2): 181–194. doi:10.1007/s11557-009-0624-2.
- Abdollahzadeh, J., M. R. Asef and T. Mirmahmoodi (2007). "The Pleurotus eryngii species-complex in Kurdistan region of Iran" (PDF). Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences 10: 3006–3009. doi:10.3923/pjbs.2007.3006.3009.
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