Pliosauridae

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Pliosaurids
Temporal range:
Early Jurassic - Late Cretaceous, 199.6–89.3 Ma
Liopleurodon ferox 2.jpg
Liopleurodon ferox skull
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Reptilia
Superorder: Sauropterygia
Order: Plesiosauria
Clade: Neoplesiosauria
Suborder: Pliosauroidea
Family: Pliosauridae
Seeley, 1874
Subgroups

Pliosauridae is a family of plesiosaurian marine reptiles from the Earliest Jurassic to the early Late Cretaceous (Hettangian to Turonian stages) of Australia, Europe, North America and South America. Past the Turonian, they may have been replaced by the mosasaurs. It was formally named by Harry G. Seeley in 1874.[1]

Relationships[edit]

Pliosauridae is a stem-based taxon defined in 2010 (and in earlier studies in a similar manner) as "all taxa more closely related to Pliosaurus brachydeirus than to Leptocleidus superstes, Polycotylus latipinnis or Meyerasaurus victor".[1] The family Brachauchenidae has been proposed to include pliosauroids which have very short necks and may include Brachauchenius and Kronosaurus.[2] However, modern cladistic analyses found that this group is actually a subfamily of pliosaurids,[3] and possibly even the "crown group" of Pliosauridae.[4]

The following cladogram follows an analysis by Benson & Druckenmiller (2014).[5]

 Plesiosauria 

Stratesaurus



Eoplesiosaurus



Plesiosauroidea



Rhomaleosauridae


Pliosauridae

Thalassiodracon




Hauffiosaurus




Attenborosaurus




Marmornectes


Thalassophonea

Peloneustes




"Pliosaurus" andrewsi




Simolestes




Liopleurodon




"Liopleurodon" rossicus




Pliosaurus



Gallardosaurus



Brachaucheninae

Brachauchenius



Kronosaurus



Megacephalosaurus













References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Ketchum, H.F.; Benson, R.B.J. (2010). "Global interrelationships of Plesiosauria (Reptilia, Sauropterygia) and the pivotal role of taxon sampling in determining the outcome of phylogenetic analyses". Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society 85 (2): 361–392. doi:10.1111/j.1469-185X.2009.00107.x. PMID 20002391. 
  2. ^ [1]
  3. ^ Gasparini, Zulma (2009). "A New Oxfordian Pliosaurid (Plesiosauria, Pliosauridae) in the Caribbean Seaway" (pdf). Palaeontology 52 (3): 661–669. doi:10.1111/j.1475-4983.2009.00871.x. 
  4. ^ Ketchum, H.F.; Benson, R.B.J. (2011). "The cranial anatomy and taxonomy of Peloneustes philarchus (Sauropterygia, Pliosauridae) from the Peterborough Member (Callovian, Middle Jurassic) of the UK". Palaeontology 54 (3): 639–665. doi:10.1111/j.1475-4983.2011.01050.x. 
  5. ^ Benson, R. B. J.; Druckenmiller, P. S. (2013). "Faunal turnover of marine tetrapods during the Jurassic-Cretaceous transition". Biological Reviews: n/a. doi:10.1111/brv.12038.