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Plug-in electric vehicle

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For the more general category of electric drive for all type of vehicles, see electric vehicle. For the specific electric drive cars and SUVs, see electric car and plug-in hybrid.
As of June 2016, the Nissan Leaf (left) is the world's all-time top-selling highway-legal all-electric car (over 228,000), and the Chevrolet Volt (right) is the world's best-selling plug-in hybrid (about 117,300).[1]

A plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) is any motor vehicle that can be recharged from an external source of electricity, such as wall sockets, and the electricity stored in the rechargeable battery packs drives or contributes to drive the wheels. PEV is a subset of electric vehicles that includes all-electric or battery electric vehicles (BEVs), plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHEVs), and electric vehicle conversions of hybrid electric vehicles and conventional internal combustion engine vehicles.[2][3][4] In China, plug-in electric vehicles are called new energy vehicles (NEVs).

Plug-in cars have several benefits compared to conventional internal combustion engine vehicles. They have lower operating and maintenance costs, and produce little or no local air pollution. They reduce dependence on petroleum and may reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the onboard source of power, depending on the fuel and technology used for electricity generation to charge the batteries. Plug-in hybrids capture most of these benefits when they are operating in all-electric mode. Despite their potential benefits, market penetration of plug-in electric vehicles has been slower than expected as adoption faces several hurdles and limitations. The stock of plug-in electric cars represented just 0.1% of the one billion cars on the world's roads by the end of 2015.[5]

As of 2016, plug-in electric vehicles are significantly more expensive than conventional vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles due to the additional cost of their lithium-ion battery packs. Other factors discouraging the adoption of electric cars are the lack of public and private recharging infrastructure and, in the case of all-electric vehicles, drivers' fear of the batteries running out of energy before reaching their destination due to the limited range of existing electric cars. Plug-in hybrids eliminate the problem of range anxiety associated to all-electric vehicles, because the combustion engine works as a backup when the batteries are depleted, giving PHEVs driving range comparable to other vehicles with gasoline tanks. Several national and local governments have established tax credits, subsidies, and other incentives to promote the introduction and adoption in the mass market of plug-in electric vehicles depending on their battery size and all-electric range.

As of September 2015, there were almost 70 models of highway legal plug-in electric passenger cars and light-duty utility vans available for retail sales in the world. Cumulative global sales of highway legal plug-in electric passenger cars and light utility vehicles passed the 1.5 million unit milestone in May 2016.[6] As of June 2016, the Nissan Leaf is the world's all-time top selling highway-capable all-electric car, with global sales of more than 228,000 units, followed by the Tesla Model S with over 129,000 units sold worldwide, and the Chevrolet Volt plug-in hybrid, which together with its sibling the Opel/Vauxhall Ampera has combined global sales of about 117,300 units. Ranking next is the Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV with about 107,400 units sold.[1]

As of June 2016, cumulative sales by country are led by the United States with a stock of about 474,000 highway legal light-duty plug-in electric vehicles delivered since 2008.[7][8] China ranks second with almost 390,000 units sold between 2011 and May 2016, followed by Japan with more than 150,000 plug-ins sold between 2009 and April 2016.[6] Over 500,000 plug-in passenger cars and utility vans have been registered in Europe up until May 2016, making the continent the world's largest light-duty plug-in regional market.[7] European sales are led by Norway with over 105,000 units registered through May 2016.[6] China is the world's leader in the plug-in heavy-duty segment, including electric all-electric buses, and plug-in commercial and sanitation trucks. The stock of new energy vehicles sold in China since 2011 passed the 500,000 unit milestone in March 2016.[9] As of December 2015, China was the world's largest plug-in electric bus market with a stock of almost 173,000 vehicles.[10]

Terminology[edit]

Plug-in electric vehicle[edit]

A plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) is any motor vehicle with rechargeable battery packs that can be charged from the electric grid, and the electricity stored on board drives or contributes to drive the wheels for propulsion.[2][3] Plug-in electric vehicles are also sometimes referred to as grid-enabled vehicles (GEV)[3] and also as electrically chargeable vehicles.[11]

PEV is a subcategory of electric vehicles that includes battery electric vehicles (BEVs), plug-in hybrid vehicles, (PHEVs), and electric vehicle conversions of hybrid electric vehicles and conventional internal combustion engine vehicles.[2][3] Even though conventional hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) have a battery that is continually recharged with power from the internal combustion engine and regenerative braking, they can not be recharged from an off-vehicle electric energy source, and therefore, they do not belong to the category of plug-in electric vehicles.[2][3]

"Plug-in electric drive vehicle" is the legal term used in U.S. federal legislation to designate the category of motor vehicles eligible for federal tax credits depending on battery size and their all-electric range.[12][13] In some European countries, particularly in France, "electrically chargeable vehicle" is the formal term used to designate the vehicles eligible for these incentives.[14] While the term "plug-in electric vehicle" most often refers to automobiles or "plug-in cars", there are several other types of plug-in electric vehicle, including scooters, motorcycles, neighborhood electric vehicles or microcars, city cars, vans, light trucks or light commercial vehicles, buses, trucks or lorries, and military vehicles.[15]

Battery electric vehicles[edit]

A battery electric vehicle (BEV) uses chemical energy stored in rechargeable battery packs as its only source for propulsion.[3][16] BEVs use electric motors and motor controllers instead of internal combustion engines (ICEs) for propulsion.[3]

A plug-in hybrid operates as an all-electric vehicle or BEV when operating in charge-depleting mode, but it switches to charge-sustaining mode after the battery has reached its minimum state of charge (SOC) threshold, exhausting the vehicle's all-electric range (AER).[17][18]

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles[edit]

Main article: Plug-in hybrid

A plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV or PHV), also known as a plug-in hybrid, is a hybrid electric vehicle with rechargeable batteries that can be restored to full charge by connecting a plug to an external electric power source.[3][19] A plug-in hybrid shares the characteristics of both a conventional hybrid electric vehicle and an all-electric vehicle: it uses a gasoline engine and an electric motor for propulsion, but a PHEV has a larger battery pack that can be recharged, allowing operation in all-electric mode until the battery is depleted.[19][20][21]

Aftermarket conversions[edit]

An aftermarket electric vehicle conversion is the modification of a conventional internal combustion engine vehicle (ICEV) or hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) to electric propulsion, creating an all-electric or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle.[22][23][24]

There are several companies in the U.S. offering conversions. The most common conversions have been from hybrid electric cars to plug-in hybrid, but due to the different technology used in hybrids by each carmaker, the easiest conversions are for 2004–2009 Toyota Prius and for the Ford Escape/Mercury Mariner Hybrid.[22]

New energy vehicles[edit]

In China the term new energy vehicles (NEVs) refers to vehicles that are partially or fully powered by electricity, such as battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and plug-in hybrids (PHEVs). The Chinese government began implementation of its NEV program in 2009 to foster the development and introduction of new energy vehicles.[25]

Advantages[edit]

Lower operating and maintenance costs[edit]

Internal combustion engines are relatively inefficient at converting on-board fuel energy to propulsion as most of the energy is wasted as heat, and the rest while the engine is idling. Electric motors, on the other hand, are more efficient at converting stored energy into driving a vehicle. Electric drive vehicles do not consume energy while at rest or coasting, and modern plug-in cars can capture and reuse as much as one fifth of the energy normally lost during braking through regenerative braking.[26][27] Typically, conventional gasoline engines effectively use only 15% of the fuel energy content to move the vehicle or to power accessories, and diesel engines can reach on-board efficiencies of 20%, while electric drive vehicles typically have on-board efficiencies of around 80%.[26]

The operating cost of the Toyota Prius Plug-in Hybrid in the U.S. is estimated at US$0.03 per mile while operating in all-electric mode.[26][28]

In the United States, as of early 2010 with a national average electricity rate of US$0.10 per kWh,[29] the cost per mile for a plug-in electric vehicle operating in all-electric mode is estimated between $0.02 to $0.04, while the cost per mile of a standard automobile varies between $0.08 to $0.20, considering a gasoline price of $3.00 per gallon.[26] As petroleum price is expected to increase in the future due to oil production decline and increases in global demand, the cost difference in favor of PEVs is expected to become even more advantageous.[26]

According to Consumer Reports, as of December 2011 the Nissan Leaf has a cost of 3.5 cents per mile and the Chevrolet Volt has a cost in electric mode of 3.8 cents per mile. The Volt cost per mile is higher because it is heavier than the Leaf. These estimates are based on the fuel economy and energy consumption measured on their tests and using a U.S. national average rate of 11 cents per kWh of electricity. When the Volt runs in range-extended mode using its premium gasoline-powered engine, the plug-in hybrid has a cost of 12.5 cents per mile. The out-of-pocket cost per mile of the three most fuel efficient gasoline-powered cars as tested by the magazine are the Toyota Prius, with a cost of 8.6 cents per miles, the Honda Civic Hybrid with 9.5 cents per mile, the Toyota Corolla with 11.9 cents per mile, and the Hyundai Elantra 13.1 cents per mile. The analysis also found that on trips up to 100 mi (160 km), the Volt is cheaper to drive than the Prius and the other three cars due to the Volt's 35 mi (56 km) driving range on electricity. The previous operating costs do not include maintenance, depreciation or other costs.[30]

All-electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles also have lower maintenance costs as compared to internal combustion vehicles, since electronic systems break down much less often than the mechanical systems in conventional vehicles, and the fewer mechanical systems on board last longer due to the better use of the electric engine. PEVs do not require oil changes and other routine maintenance checks.[26][27]

The following table compares out-of-pocket fuel costs estimated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency according to its official ratings for fuel economy (miles per gallon gasoline equivalent in the case of plug-in electric vehicles) for series production all-electric passenger vehicles rated by the EPA as of December 2015,[31] versus EPA rated most fuel efficient plug-in hybrid with long distance range (Chevrolet Volt - second generation ), gasoline-electric hybrid car (Toyota Prius Eco - fourth generation),[32][33][34] and EPA's average new 2016 vehicle, which has a fuel economy of 25 mpg-US (9.4 L/100 km; 30 mpg-imp).[31][32]

Comparison of fuel efficiency and costs for all the electric cars rated by the EPA for the U.S. market as of December 2015
against EPA rated most fuel efficient plug-in hybrid, hybrid electric vehicle and 2016 average gasoline-powered car in the U.S.
(Fuel economy and operating costs as displayed in the Monroney label)[31][35]
Vehicle Model
year
EPA rated
Combined
fuel economy
EPA rated
City
fuel economy
EPA rated
Highway
fuel economy
Cost to drive
25 miles (40 km)
Annual
fuel cost
Notes
BMW i3 (60 A·h)[36][37] 2014/15 124 mpg-e
(27 kW·h/100 mi
17.2 kW·h/100 km)
137 mpg-e
(25 kW·h/100 mi
15.6 kW·h/100 km)
111 mpg-e
(30 kW·h/100 mi
19.3 kW·h/100 km)
$0.88 $550 (1) (3) (4) (5)
Scion iQ EV[38] 2013 121 mpg-e
(28 kW·h/100 mi
17.7 kW·h/100 km)
138 mpg-e
(24 kW·h/100 mi
15.5 kW·h/100 km)
105 mpg-e
(32 kW·h/100 mi
20.4 kW·h/100 km)
$0.91 $550 (1)
Chevrolet Spark EV[39] 2014/15/16 119 mpg-e
(28 kW·h/100 mi
18.0 kW·h/100 km)
128 mpg-e
(26 kW·h/100 mi
16.7 kW·h/100 km)
109 mpg-e
(31 kW·h/100 mi
19.6 kW·h/100 km)
$0.91 $550 (1)
BMW i3 (94 A·h)[36] 2017 118 mpg-e
(29 kW·h/100 mi)
129 mpg-e 106 mpg-e $0.94 $550 (1)
Honda Fit EV[40] 2013/14 118 mpg-e
(29 kW·h/100 mi
18.1 kW·h/100 km)
132 mpg-e
(26 kW·h/100 mi
16.2 kW·h/100 km)
105 mpg-e
(32 kW·h/100 mi
20.4 kW·h/100 km)
$0.94 $550 (1)
Fiat 500e[41] 2013/14/15 116 mpg-e
(29 kW·h/100 mi
18.4 kW·h/100 km)
122 mpg-e
(28 kW·h/100 mi
17.5 kW·h/100 km)
108 mpg-e
(31 kW·h/100 mi
19.8 kW·h/100 km)
$0.95 $550 (1)
Volkswagen e-Golf[42] 2015/16 116 mpg-e
(29 kW·h/100 mi
18.4 kW·h/100 km)
126 mpg-e
(27 kW·h/100 mi; 17.0 kW·h/100 km)
105 mpg-e
(33 kW·h/100 mi; 20.4 kW·h/100 km)
$0.95 $550 (1)
Nissan Leaf (24 kW-hr)[43] 2013/14/15/16 114 mpg-e
(30 kW·h/100 mi;
18.7 kW·h/100 km)
126 mpg-e
(27 kW·h/100 mi;
17.0 kW·h/100 km)
101 mpg-e
(33 kW·h/100 mi;
21 kW·h/100 km)
$0.96 $600 (1) (6)
Mitsubishi i[44] 2012/13/14/16 112 mpg-e
(30 kW·h/100 mi;
19.1 kW·h/100 km)
126 mpg-e
(27 kW·h/100 mi;
17.0 kW·h/100 km)
99 mpg-e
(34 kW·h/100 mi;
22 kW·h/100 km)
$0.98 $600 (1)
Nissan Leaf (30 kW-hr)[43] 2016 112 mpg-e
(30 kW·h/100 mi;
19.1 kW·h/100 km)
124 mpg-e
(28 kW·h/100 mi; 17.2 kW·h/100 km)
101 mpg-e
(34 kW·h/100 mi; 21 kW·h/100 km)
$0.97 $600 (1)
Fiat 500e[45] 2016 112 mpg-e
(30 kW·h/100 mi;
19.1 kW·h/100 km)
121 mpg-e
(28 kW·h/100 mi;
17.7 kW·h/100 km)
103 mpg-e
(33 kW·h/100 mi;
21 kW·h/100 km)
$0.97 $600 (1)
Smart electric drive[46] 2013/14/15/16 107 mpg-e
(32 kW·h/100 mi;
20.0 kW·h/100 km)
122 mpg-e
(28 kW·h/100 mi;
17.5 kW·h/100 km)
93 mpg-e
(36 kW·h/100 mi;
23 kW·h/100 km)
$1.02 $600 (1) (7)
Kia Soul EV[47] 2015/16 105 mpg-e
(32 kW·h/100 mi;
20.4 kW·h/100 km)
120 mpg-e
(29 kW·h/100 mi; 18 kW·h/100 km)
92 mpg-e
(37 kW·h/100 mi; 23 kW·h/100 km)
$1.04 $600 (1)
Ford Focus Electric[48] 2012/13/14/15/16 105 mpg-e
(32 kW·h/100 mi;
20.4 kW·h/100 km)
110 mpg-e
(31 kW·h/100 mi;
19 kW·h/100 km)
99 mpg-e
(34 kW·h/100 mi;
22 kW·h/100 km)
$1.04 $600 (1)
Tesla Model S AWD - 70D[31][49] 2015/16 101 mpg-e
(33 kW·h/100 mi;
21 kW·h/100 km)
101 mpg-e
(33 kW·h/100 mi;
21 kW·h/100 km)
102 mpg-e
(33 kW·h/100 mi;
21 kW·h/100 km)
$1.07 $650 (1)
Tesla Model S AWD - 85D[31][50] 2015/16 100 mpg-e
(34 kW·h/100 mi;
21 kW·h/100 km)
95 mpg-e
(35 kW·h/100 mi;
22 kW·h/100 km)
106 mpg-e
(32 kW·h/100 mi; 20.2 kWh/100 km)
$1.10 $650 (1) (8)
Tesla Model S AWD - 90D[31][49] 2015/16 100 mpg-e
(34 kW·h/100 mi;
21 kW·h/100 km)
95 mpg-e
(35 kW·h/100 mi;
22 kW·h/100 km)
106 mpg-e
(32 kW·h/100 mi;
20.2 kW·h/100 km)
$1.10 $650 (1)
Tesla Model S (60 kW·h)[31][49] 2014/15/16 95 mpg-e
(35 kW·h/100 mi;
22 kW·h/100 km)
94 mpg-e
(36 kW·h/100 mi;
23 kW·h/100 km)
97 mpg-e
(35 kW·h/100 mi;
22 kW·h/100 km)
$1.14 $700 (1)
Tesla Model S AWD - P85D[31][50] 2015/16 93 mpg-e
(36 kW·h/100 mi;
23 kW·h/100 km)
89 mpg-e
(38 kW·h/100 mi;
24 kW·h/100 km)
98 mpg-e
(35 kW·h/100 mi; 22 kW·h/100 km)
$1.17 $700 (1) (8)
Tesla Model S AWD - P90D[31][49] 2015/16 93 mpg-e
(36 kW·h/100 mi;
23 kW·h/100 km)
89 mpg-e
(38 kW·h/100 mi;
24 kW·h/100 km)
98 mpg-e
(35 kW·h/100 mi;
22 kW·h/100 km)
$1.17 $700 (1)
Tesla Model X AWD – 90D[51] 2016 92 mpg-e
(34 kW·h/100 mi;
23 kW·h/100 km)
90 mpg-e
(37 kW·h/100 mi;
24 kW·h/100 km)
94 mpg-e
(32 kW·h/100 mi;
23 kW·h/100 km)
$1.20 $700 (1)
Tesla Model X AWD – P90D[51] 2016 89 mpg-e
(38 kW·h/100 mi;
24 kW·h/100 km)
89 mpg-e
(38 kW·h/100 mi;
24 kW·h/100 km)
90 mpg-e
(38 kW·h/100 mi;
24 kW·h/100 km)
$1.23 $750 (1)
Tesla Model S (85 kW·h)[52] 2012/13/14/15 89 mpg-e
(38 kW·h/100 mi;
24 kW·h/100 km)
88 mpg-e
(38 kW·h/100 mi;
24 kW·h/100 km)
90 mpg-e
(37 kW·h/100 mi;
24 kW·h/100 km)
$1.23 $750 (1)
Mercedes-Benz B-Class Electric Drive[53] 2014/15/16 84 mpg-e
(40 kW·h/100 mi;
25 kW·h/100 km)
85 mpg-e
(40 kW·h/100 mi;
25 kW·h/100 km)
83 mpg-e
(41 kW·h/100 mi;
26 kW·h/100 km)
$1.30 $800 (1)
Toyota RAV4 EV[54] 2012/13/14 76 mpg-e
(44 kW·h/100 mi;
28 kW·h/100 km)
78 mpg-e
(43 kW·h/100 mi;
27 kW·h/100 km)
74 mpg-e
(46 kW·h/100 mi;
29 kW·h/100 km)
$1.43 $850 (1)
BYD e6[31][55] 2012/13/14/15/16 63 mpg-e
(54 kW·h/100 mi;
34 kW·h/100 km)
61 mpg-e
(55 kW·h/100 mi;
35 kW·h/100 km)
65 mpg-e
(52 kW·h/100 mi;
33 kW·h/100 km)
$1.76 $1,050 (1)
Second gen Chevrolet Volt[31][56][57]
Plug-in hybrid (PHEV)
Electricity only/ gasoline only
2016 106 mpg-e
(31 kW·h/100 mi;
20.2 kW·h/100 km)
42 mpg
113 mpg-e
(30 kW·h/100 mi;
18.9 kW·h/100 km)
43 mpg
99 mpg-e
(35 kW·h/100 mi;
22 kW·h/100 km)
42 mpg
$1.01/$1.23 $650 (1) (2) (9)
2016 Toyota Prius Eco (4th gen)[33]
Hybrid electric vehicle (HEV)
Gasoline-electric hybrid
2016 56 mpg 58 mpg 53 mpg $0.92 $550 (2) (10)
Ford Fusion AWD A-S6 2.0L[31][58]
Gasoline-powered
(Average new vehicle)
2016 25 mpg 22 mpg 31 mpg $2.06 $1,250 (2) (11)
Notes: All estimated fuel costs based on 15,000 miles (24,000 km) annual driving, 45% highway and 55% city

(1) Values rounded to the nearest $50. Electricity cost of $0.13/kW·h (as of 3 December 2015). Conversion 1 gallon of gasoline=33.7 kW·h.
(2) Regular gasoline price of US$2.06 per gallon (as of 3 December 2015).
(3) The 2014 i3 REx is classified by EPA as a series plug-in hybrid, while for CARB is a range-extended battery-electric vehicle (BEVx). The i3 REx is the most fuel efficient EPA-certified current year vehicle with a gasoline engine with a combined gasoline/electricity rating of 88 mpg-e, but its total range is limited to 150 mi (240 km).[32][59]
(4) The 2014/16 BMW i3 (60 A·h) is the most fuel efficient EPA-certified vehicle of all fuel types considered in all years.[59]
(5) The i3 REx has a combined fuel economy in all-electric mode of 117 mpg-e (29 kW·h/100 mi; 18 kW·h/100 km).[60]
(6)The 2016 model year Leaf correspond to the variant with the 24 kW·h battery pack.
(7) Ratings correspond to both convertible and coupe models.
(8) Model with 85 kW·h battery pack
(9) Most fuel efficient plug-in hybrid capable of long distance travel. The 2016 Volt has a rating of 77 mpg-e for combined gasoline/electricity operation.[32]
(10) Most fuel efficient hybrid electric car.[31][32] (11) Other 2016 MY cars achieving 25 mpg-US (9.4 L/100 km; 30 mpg-imp) combined city/hwy include the Honda Accord A-S6 3.5L, Toyota Camry A-S6 3.5L and Toyota RAV4 A-S6 2.5L.[31][58]

The following table compares EPA's estimated out-of-pocket fuel costs and fuel economy ratings of serial production plug-in hybrid electric vehicles rated by EPA as of May 2016 expressed in miles per gallon gasoline equivalent (mpg-e),[31] versus the most fuel efficient gasoline-electric hybrid car, the 2016 Toyota Prius Eco (fourth generation), rated 56 mpg-US (4.2 L/100 km; 67 mpg-imp), and EPA's average new 2016 vehicle, which has a fuel economy of 25 mpg-US (9.4 L/100 km; 30 mpg-imp).[31][61][33] The table also shows the fuel efficiency for plug-in hybrids in all-electric mode expressed as KWh/100 mile, the metric used by EPA to rate electric cars before November 2010.[62]

Comparison of out-of-pocket fuel costs and fuel economy for plug-in hybrid electric cars
rated by EPA as of May 2016 with MPGe and conventional MPG(1)
(as displayed in the Monroney label and the US DoE fueleconomy.gov website)
Vehicle Year
model
Operating
mode
(EV range)
EPA rated
Combined
fuel economy
EPA rated
city
fuel economy
EPA rated
highway
fuel economy
Fuel cost
to drive
25 miles
Annual
fuel cost(1)
(15,000 mi)
Notes
BMW i3 REx[63][64] 2014/15 Electricity only
(72 mi)
117 mpg-e
(29 kWh/100 mi)
97 mpg-e (35 kW·h/100 mi) 79 mpg-e (44 kW·h/100 mi) $0.94 $650 The EPA classifies the i3 REx as a
series plug-in hybrid while CARB as a
range-extended battery-electric vehicle (BEVx).
The 2014 i3 REx is the most fuel efficient
EPA-certified current year vehicle with
a gasoline engine with a combined
gasoline/electricity rating of 88 mpg-e
(city 97 mpg-e/hwy 79 mpg-e).[65][66]
Gasoline only
(78 mi)
39 mpg 41 mpg 37 mpg $1.72
Honda Accord Plug-in Hybrid[67] 2014 Electricity
and gasoline
(13 mi)
115mpg-e
(29 kWh/100 mi)
- - $1.03 $650 The 2014 Accord is the most fuel
efficient plug-in hybrid in blended EV mode
with a rating of 115 mpg-e.
The Accord has a rating for combined
EV/hybrid operation of 57 mpg-e.[68]
Gasoline only 46 mpg 47 mpg 46 mpg $1.11
Chevrolet Volt (2nd gen)[69][70] 2016/17 Electricity only
(53 mi)
106 mpg-e
(31 kWh/100 mi)
113 mpg-e
(29 kWh/100 mi)
99 mpg-e
(34 kWh/100 mi)
$1.01 $650 The 2016 Volt has a combined
gasoline/electricity rating of 77 mpg-e
(city 82 mpg-e/hwy 72 mpg-e).[65]
Regular gasoline.
Gasoline only 42 mpg 43 mpg 42 mpg $1.21
Hyundai Sonata PHEV[71] 2016 Electricity
and gasoline
(27 mi)
99mpg-e
(34 kWh/100 mi)
- - $1.19 $700 During the first 27 mi uses some gasoline.
The actual all-electric range is between 0 to 27 mi.[71]
Gasoline only 40 mpg - - $1.28
Chevrolet Volt (1st gen)[72][73] 2013/15 Electricity only
(38 mi)
98 mpg-e
(35 kWh/100 mi)
- - $1.01 $650 The 2013/15 Volt has a combined
gasoline/electricity rating of 62 mpg-e
(city 63 mpg-e/hwy 61 mpg-e).[65]
Premium gasoline.
Gasoline only 37 mpg 35 mpg 40 mpg $1.21
Ford Fusion Energi[74] 2017 Electricity
and gasoline
(22 mi)
97 mpg-e
(35 kW-hrs/100 mi)
- - $1.14 $700 The actual all-electric range is between 0 to 21 mi.[74]
Gasoline only 42 mpg - - $1.21
Toyota Prius PHV[75] 2012/15 Electricity
and gasoline
(11 mi)
95 mpg-e
(29 kWh/100 mi
plus 0.2 gallons/100 mi)
- - $1.03 $600 After the first 11 miles the car
functions like a regular Prius hybrid
The 2012/15 Prius has a combined
gasoline/electricity rating of 58 mpg-e
(city 59 mpg-e/hwy 56 mpg-e).[65]
Gasoline only 50 mpg 51 mpg 49 mpg $1.02
Chevrolet Volt[76] 2011/12 Electricity only 94 mpg-e
(36 kWh/100 mi)
95 mpg-e
(36 kWh/100 mi)
93 mpg-e
(37 kWh/100 mi)
$1.17 $800 Premium gasoline.
Gasoline only 37 mpg 35 mpg 40 mpg $1.70
Ford C-Max Energi[77]

Ford Fusion Energi[77]
2013/16 Electricity
and gasoline
(20 mi)
88 mpg-e
(37 kWh/100 mi)
95 mpg-e (36 kW·h/100 mi) 81 mpg-e (42 kW·h/100 mi) $1.25 $750 The Energi did not use any gasoline
for the first 20 miles in EPA tests,
but depending on the driving style,
the car may use both gasoline
and electricity during EV mode.
The Energi models have a combined
EV/hybrid operation rating of 51 mpg-e
(city 55 mpg-e/hwy 46 mpg-e).[65]
Gasoline only 38 mpg 40 mpg 36 mpg $1.34
Audi A3 e-tron ultra[78] 2016 Electricity only
(17 mi)
86 mpg-e
(38 kWh/100 mi)
- - $1.37 $900 During the first 17 mi uses some gasoline.
The actual all-electric range is between 0 to 17 mi.[78]
Gasoline only 39 mpg - - $1.61
Cadillac ELR[79] 2014/15 Electricity only
(37 mi)
82 mpg-e
(41 kWh/100 mi)
- - $1.33 $900 The 2014/15 ELR has a combined
gasoline/electricity rating of 54 mpg-e
(city 54 mpg-e/hwy 55 mpg-e).[65]
Gasoline only 33 mpg 31 mpg 35 mpg $1.90
Audi A3 e-tron[78] 2016 Electricity only
(16 mi)
83 mpg-e
(40 kWh/100 mi)
- - $1.49 $950 During the first 16 mi uses some gasoline.
The actual all-electric range is between 0 to 16 mi.[78]
Gasoline only 35 mpg - - $1.79
BMW i8[63][80] 2014/15/16 Electricity
and
gasoline
(15 mi)
76 mpg-e
(43 kWh/100 mi)
- - $1.77 $1,150 The i8 does not run on 100% electricity
as it consumes 0.1 gallons per 100 mi
in EV mode (all-electric range = 0 mi)
The i8 has a rating for combined EV/hybrid
operation of 37 mpg-e.[68]
Gasoline only 28 mpg 28 mpg 29 mpg $2.24
BMW 330e[81] 2016 Electricity
and gasoline
(14 mi)
72 mpg-e
(47 kWh/100 mi)
- - $1.74 $1,050 During the first 14 mi uses some gasoline.
The actual all-electric range is between 0 to 14 mi.[81]
Premium gasoline.
Gasoline only 31 mpg - - $2.02
Porsche 918 Spyder[63][82] 2015 Electricity only
(12 mi)
67 mpg-e
(50 kWh/100 mi)
- - $1.62 $1,500 Premium gasoline.
Gasoline only 22 mpg 20 mpg 24 mpg $2.85
BMW X5 xDrive40e[83] 2016 Electricity only
(14 mi)
56 mpg-e
(59 kWh/100 mi)
- - $2.23 $1,450 During the first 14 mi uses some gasoline.
The actual all-electric range is between 0 to 14 mi.[83]
Gasoline only 24 mpg - - $2.61
Mercedes-Benz S 500 e[84] 2015 Electricity
and gasoline
(14 mi)
58 mpg-e
(59 kWh/100 mi)
- - $2.13 $1,350 During the first 14 mi uses some gasoline.
The actual all-electric range is between 0 to 12 mi.[84]
Premium gasoline.
Gasoline only 26 mpg - - $2.41
Fisker Karma[85] 2012 Electricity only
(33 mi)
54 mpg-e
(62 kWh/100 mi)
- - $2.02 $1,450 Premium gasoline.
Gasoline only 20 mpg 20 mpg 21 mpg $3.14
Volvo XC90 T8[86] 2016 Electricity
and gasoline
(14 mi)
53 mpg-e
(58 kWh/100 mi)
- - $2.19 $1,400 During the first 14 mi uses some gasoline.
The actual all-electric range is between 0 to 13 mi.[86]
Premium gasoline.
Gasoline only 25 mpg - - $2.51
Porsche Panamera S E-Hybrid[87] 2016 Electricity
and gasoline
(16 mi)
51 mpg-e
(51 kWh/100 mi)
- - $2.15 $1,350 The all-electric range is between 0 to 15 mi
Premium gasoline.
Gasoline only 25 mpg 23 mpg 29 mpg $2.51
Porsche Panamera S E-Hybrid[87] 2014/15 Electricity
and gasoline
(16 mi)
50 mpg-e
(52 kWh/100 mi)
- - $2.18 $1,400 The all-electric range is between 0 to 15 mi
The S E-Hybrid has a rating for combined
EV/hybrid operation of 31 mpg-e.[68]
Gasoline only 25 mpg 23 mpg 29 mpg $2.51
Porsche Cayenne S E-Hybrid[63][88] 2015/16 Electricity
and gasoline
(14 mi)
47 mpg-e
(69 kWh/100 mi)
- - $2.24 $1,550 Premium gasoline.
Gasoline only 22 mpg 21 mpg 24 mpg $2.85
McLaren P1[63][89] 2014/15 Electricity
and gasoline
(19 mi)
18 mpg-e
(25 kWh/100 mi)
- - $3.79 $2,200 The P1 does not run on 100% electricity
as it consumes 4.8 gallons per 100 mi
in EV mode (all-electric range = 0 mi)[89]
The P1 has a rating for combined EV/hybrid
operation of 17 mpg-e.[68]
Gasoline only 17 mpg 16 mpg 20 mpg $3.69
2016 Toyota Prius Eco (4th gen)[33] 2016 Gasoline-electric
hybrid
56 mpg 58 mpg 53 mpg $0.91 $550 Most fuel efficient hybrid electric car.[31]
Ford Fusion AWD 2.0L[31][58]
(Average new vehicle)
2016 Gasoline
only
25 mpg 22 mpg 31 mpg $2.04 $1,200 Other 2016 MY cars achieving 25 mpg combined
city/hwy include the Honda Accord 3.5L,
Toyota Camry 3.5L and Toyota RAV4 2.5L.[31][58]
Notes: (1) Based on 45% highway and 55% city driving. Electricity cost of US$0.13/kWh, premium gasoline price of US$2.51 per gallon (used by the 2015 Volt, i3 REx, ELR, i8, Mercedes S500e, Karma and all Porsche models), and regular gasoline price of US$2.04 per gallon (as of 18 December 2015). Conversion 1 gallon of gasoline=33.7 kWh.

The Edison Electric Institute (EEI) conducted an analysis that demonstrated that between January 1976 and February 2012 the real price for gasoline has been much more volatile than the real price of electricity in the United States. The analysis is based on a plug-in electric vehicle with an efficiency of 3.4 miles per kW-hr (like the Mitsubishi i MiEV) and a gasoline-powered vehicle with a fuel economy rated at 30 mpg-US (7.8 L/100 km; 36 mpg-imp) (like the 2012 Fiat 500). The EEI estimated that operating a plug-in would have had an equivalent cost of around US$1.50 a gallon in the late 1970s and early 1980s, and around US$1.00 a gallon since the late 1990s. In contrast, the price to operate an internal combustion engine vehicle has had much ample variations, costing more than US$3.50 per gallon during the 1979 energy crisis, then had a couple of lows with prices at less than US$1.50 during 1999 and 2001, only to climb and reach a maximum of more than US$4.00 before the beginning of the 2007–2009 financial crisis, by early 2012 has fluctuated around US$3.50. The analysis found that the cost of an equivalent electric-gallon of gasoline would have been not only cheaper to operate during the entire analysis period but also that equivalent electricity prices are more stable and have been declining in terms of equivalent dollars per gallon.[90][91]

Air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions[edit]

Electric cars, as well as plug-in hybrids operating in all-electric mode, emit no harmful tailpipe pollutants from the onboard source of power, such as particulates (soot), volatile organic compounds, hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, ozone, lead, and various oxides of nitrogen. The clean air benefit is usually local because, depending on the source of the electricity used to recharge the batteries, air pollutant emissions are shifted to the location of the generation plants.[27] In a similar manner, plug-in electric vehicles operating in all-electric mode do not emit greenhouse gases from the onboard source of power, but from the point of view of a well-to-wheel assessment, the extent of the benefit also depends on the fuel and technology used for electricity generation. This fact has been referred to as the long tailpipe of plug-in electric vehicles. From the perspective of a full life cycle analysis, the electricity used to recharge the batteries must be generated from renewable or clean sources such as wind, solar, hydroelectric, or nuclear power for PEVs to have almost none or zero well-to-wheel emissions.[2][27] On the other hand, when PEVs are recharged from coal-fired plants, they usually produce slightly more greenhouse gas emissions than internal combustion engine vehicles and higher than hybrid electric vehicles.[27][92] In the case of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles operating in hybrid mode with assistance of the internal combustion engine, tailpipe and greenhouse emissions are lower in comparison to conventional cars because of their higher fuel economy.[2]

The magnitude of the potential advantage depends on the mix of generation sources and therefore varies by country and by region. For example, France can obtain significant emission benefits from electric and plug-in hybrids because most of its electricity is generated by nuclear power plants; California, where most energy comes from natural gas, hydroelectric and nuclear plants can also secure substantial emission benefits. The U.K. also has a significant potential to benefit from PEVs as natural gas plants dominate the generation mix. On the other hand, emission benefits in Germany, China, India, and the central regions of the United States are limited or non-existent because most electricity is generated from coal.[27][93] However these countries and regions might still obtain some air quality benefits by reducing local air pollution in urban areas. Cities with chronic air pollution problems, such as Los Angeles, México City, Santiago, Chile, São Paulo, Beijing, Bangkok and Kathmandu may also gain local clean air benefits by shifting the harmful emission to electric generation plants located outside the cities. Nevertheless, the location of the plants is not relevant when considering greenhouse gas emission because their effect is global.[27]

Carbon footprint during production[edit]

Ricardo

A report published in June 2011, prepared by Ricardo in collaboration with experts from the UK's Low Carbon Vehicle Partnership, found that hybrid electric cars, plug-in hybrids and all-electric cars generate more carbon emissions during their production than current conventional vehicles, but still have a lower overall carbon footprint over the full life cycle. The higher carbon footprint during production of electric drive vehicles is due mainly to the production of batteries. As an example, 43 percent of production emissions for a mid-size electric car are generated from the battery production, while for standard mid-sized gasolineinternal combustion engine vehicle, around 75% of the embedded carbon emissions during production comes from the steel used in the vehicle glider.[94] The following table summarizes key results of this study for four powertrain technologies:

Comparison of full life cycle assessment(well-to-wheels) of carbon emissions
and carbon footprint during production for four different powertrain technologies[94]
Type of vehicle
(powertrain)
Estimated
emissions in production
(tonnes CO2e)
Estimated
lifecycle emissions
(tonnes CO2e)
Percentage of

emissions
during production

Standard gasoline vehicle 5.6 24 23%
Hybrid electric vehicle 6.5 21 31%
Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle 6.7 19 35%
Battery electric vehicle 8.8 19 46%
Notes: Estimates based upon a 2015 model vehicle assuming 150,000 km (93,000 mi) full life travel using 10% ethanol blend and 500g/kWh grid electricity.

The Ricardo study also found that the lifecycle carbon emissions for mid-sized gasoline and diesel vehicles are almost identical, and that the greater fuel efficiency of the diesel engine is offset by higher production emissions.[94]

Volkswagen

In 2014 Volkswagen published the results of life-cycle assessment of its electric vehicles certified by TÜV NORD, and independent inspection agency. The study found that CO
2
emissions during the use phase of its all-electric VW e-Golf are 99% lower than those of the Golf 1.2 TSI when powers comes from exclusively hydroelectricity generated in Germany, Austria and Switzerland. Accounting for the full lifecycle, the e-Golf reduces emissions by 61%, offsetting higher production emissions. When the actual EU-27 electricity mix is considered, the e-Golf emissions are still 26% lower than those of the conventional Golf 1.2 TSI. Similar results were found when comparing the e-Golf with the Golf 1.6 TDI. The analysis considered recycling of the three vehicles at the end of their lifetime.[95]

Well-to-wheel GHG emissions in the U.S.[edit]

Environmental Protection Agency

The following table compares tailpipe and upstream CO2 emissions estimated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for all series production model year 2014 plug-in electric vehicles available in the U.S. market. Total emissions include the emissions associated with the production and distribution of electricity used to charge the vehicle, and for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, it also includes emissions associated with tailpipe emissions produced from the internal combustion engine. These figures were published by the EPA in October 2014 in its annual report "Light-Duty Automotive Technology, Carbon Dioxide Emissions, and Fuel Economy Trends: 1975 Through 2014." All emissions are estimated considering average real world city and highway operation based on the EPA 5-cycle label methodology, using a weighted 55% city and 45% highway driving. For the first time, the 2014 Trends report presents an analysis of the impact of alternative fuel vehicles, with emphasis in plug-in electric vehicles because as their market share is approaching 1%, the EPA concluded that PEVs began to have a measurable impact on the U.S. overall new vehicle fuel economy and CO2 emissions.[96][97]

For purposes of an accurate estimation of emissions, the analysis took into consideration the differences in operation between plug-in hybrids. Some, like the Chevrolet Volt, can operate in all-electric mode without using gasoline, and others operate in a blended mode like the Toyota Prius PHV, which uses both energy stored in the battery and energy from the gasoline tank to propel the vehicle, but that can deliver substantial all-electric driving in blended mode. In addition, since the all-electric range of plug-in hybrids depends on the size of the battery pack, the analysis introduced a utility factor as a projection of the share of miles that will be driven using electricity by an average driver, for both, electric only and blended EV modes. Since all-electric cars do not produce tailpipe emissions, the utility factor applies only to plug-in hybrids. The following table shows the overall fuel economy expressed in terms of miles per gallon gasoline equivalent (mpg-e) and the utility factor for the ten MY2014 plug-in hybrids available in the U.S. market, and EPA's best estimate of the CO2 tailpipe emissions produced by these PHEVs.[96]

In order to account for the upstream CO2 emissions associated with the production and distribution of electricity, and since electricity production in the United States varies significantly from region to region, the EPA considered three scenarios/ranges with the low end scenario corresponding to the California powerplant emissions factor, the middle of the range represented by the national average powerplant emissions factor, and the upper end of the range corresponding to the powerplant emissions factor for the Rocky Mountains. The EPA estimates that the electricity GHG emission factors for various regions of the country vary from 346 g CO2/kWh in California to 986 g CO2/kWh in the Rockies, with a national average of 648 g CO2/kWh.[96]

Comparison of tailpipe and upstream CO2 emissions(1) estimated by EPA
for the MY 2014 plug-in electric vehicles available in the U.S. market[96]
Vehicle Overall
fuel
economy
(mpg-e)
Utility
factor(2)
(share EV
miles)
Tailpipe CO2
(g/mi)
Tailpipe + Total Upstream CO2
Low
(g/mi)
Avg
(g/mi)
High
(g/mi)
BMW i3 124 1 0 93 175 266
Chevrolet Spark EV 119 1 0 97 181 276
Honda Fit EV 118 1 0 99 185 281
Fiat 500e 116 1 0 101 189 288
Nissan Leaf 114 1 0 104 194 296
Mitsubishi i 112 1 0 104 195 296
Smart electric drive 107 1 0 109 204 311
Ford Focus Electric 105 1 0 111 208 316
Tesla Model S (60 kWh) 95 1 0 122 229 348
Tesla Model S (85 kWh) 89 1 0 131 246 374
BMW i3 REx(3) 88 0.83 40 134 207 288
Mercedes-Benz B-Class ED 84 1 0 138 259 394
Toyota RAV4 EV 76 1 0 153 287 436
BYD e6 63 1 0 187 350 532
Chevrolet Volt 62 0.66 81 180 249 326
Toyota Prius Plug-in Hybrid 58 0.29 133 195 221 249
Honda Accord Plug-in Hybrid 57 0.33 130 196 225 257
Cadillac ELR 54 0.65 91 206 286 377
Ford C-Max Energi 51 0.45 129 219 269 326
Ford Fusion Energi 51 0.45 129 219 269 326
BMW i8 37 0.37 198 303 351 404
Porsche Panamera S E-Hybrid 31 0.39 206 328 389 457
McLaren P1 17 0.43 463 617 650 687
Average MY 2014 gasoline car 24.2 0 367 400 400 400
Notes: (1) Based on 45% highway and 55% city driving. (2) The utility factor represents, on average, the percentage of miles that will be driven
using electricity (in electric only and blended modes) by an average driver. (3) The EPA classifies the i3 REx as a series plug-in hybrid[96][31]
Union of Concerned Scientists

The Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS) published a study in 2012 that assessed average greenhouse gas emissions in the U.S. resulting from charging plug-in car batteries from the perspective of the full life-cycle (well-to-wheel analysis) and according to fuel and technology used to generate electric power by region. The study used the model year 2011 Nissan Leaf all-electric car to establish the analysis baseline, and electric-utility emissions are based on EPA's 2009 estimates. The UCS study expressed the results in terms of miles per gallon instead of the conventional unit of grams of greenhouse gases or carbon dioxide equivalent emissions per year in order to make the results more friendly for consumers. The study found that in areas where electricity is generated from natural gas, nuclear, hydroelectric or renewable sources, the potential of plug-in electric cars to reduce greenhouse emissions is significant. On the other hand, in regions where a high proportion of power is generated from coal, hybrid electric cars produce less CO2 equivalent emissions than plug-in electric cars, and the best fuel efficient gasoline-powered subcompact car produces slightly less emissions than a PEV. In the worst-case scenario, the study estimated that for a region where all energy is generated from coal, a plug-in electric car would emit greenhouse gas emissions equivalent to a gasoline car rated at a combined city/highway driving fuel economy of 30 mpg-US (7.8 L/100 km; 36 mpg-imp). In contrast, in a region that is completely reliant on natural gas, the PEV would be equivalent to a gasoline-powered car rated at 50 mpg-US (4.7 L/100 km; 60 mpg-imp).[98][99]

The study concluded that for 45% of the U.S. population, a plug-in electric car will generate lower CO2 equivalent emissions than a gasoline-powered car capable of combined 50 mpg-US (4.7 L/100 km; 60 mpg-imp), such as the Toyota Prius and the Prius c. The UCS also found that for 37% of the population, the electric car emissions will fall in the range of a gasoline-powered car rated at a combined fuel economy of 41 to 50 mpg-US (5.7 to 4.7 L/100 km; 49 to 60 mpg-imp), such as the Honda Civic Hybrid and the Lexus CT200h. Only 18% of the population lives in areas where the power-supply is more dependent on burning carbon, and the greenhouse gas emissions will be equivalent to a car rated at a combined fuel economy of 31 to 40 mpg-US (7.6 to 5.9 L/100 km; 37 to 48 mpg-imp), such as the Chevrolet Cruze and Ford Focus.[99][100][101] The study found that there are no regions in the U.S. where plug-in electric cars will have higher greenhouse gas emissions than the average new compact gasoline engine automobile, and the area with the dirtiest power supply produces CO2 emissions equivalent to a gasoline-powered car rated at 33 mpg-US (7.1 L/100 km).[98]

In September 2014 the UCS published an updated analysis of its 2012 report. The 2014 analysis found that 60% of Americans, up from 45% in 2009, live in regions where an all-electric car produce fewer CO2 equivalent emissions per mile than the most efficient hybrid. The UCS study found several reasons for the improvement. First, electric utilities have adopted cleaner sources of electricity to their mix between the two analysis. The 2014 study used electric-utility emissions based on EPA's 2010 estimates, but since coal use nationwide is down by about 5% from 2010 to 2014, actual efficiency in 2014 is better than estimated in the UCS study. Second, electric vehicles have become more efficient, as the average 2013 all-electric vehicle used 0.33 kWh per mile, representing a 5% improvement over 2011 models. Also, some new models are cleaner than the average, such as the BMW i3, which is rated at 0.27 kWh by the EPA. An i3 charged with power from the Midwest grid would be as clean as a gasoline-powered car with about 50 mpg-US (4.7 L/100 km), up from 39 mpg-US (6.0 L/100 km) for the average electric car in the 2012 study. In states with a cleaner mix generation, the gains were larger. The average all-electric car in California went up to 95 mpg-US (2.5 L/100 km) equivalent from 78 mpg-US (3.0 L/100 km) in the 2012 study. States with dirtier generation that rely heavily on coal still lag, such as Colorado, where the average BEV only achieves the same emissions as a 34 mpg-US (6.9 L/100 km; 41 mpg-imp) gasoline-powered car. The author of the 2014 analysis noted that the benefits are not distributed evenly across the U.S. because electric car adoptions is concentrated in the states with cleaner power.[102][103]

Change from 2009 to 2012 of the percentage of Americans that live in regions where powering an electric vehicle on the regional electricity grid produces lower global warming emissions than a gasoline car expressed in terms of combined cith/highway fuel economy rating. Source: Union of Concerned Scientists.[104]

In November 2015 the Union of Concerned Scientists published a new report comparing two battery electric vehicles (BEVs) with similar gasoline vehicles by examining their global warming emissions over their full life-cycle, cradle-to-grave analysis. The two BEVs modeled, midsize and full-size, are based on the two most popular BEV models sold in the United States in 2015, the Nissan Leaf and the Tesla Model S. The study found that all-electric cars representative of those sold today, on average produce less than half the global warming emissions of comparable gasoline-powered vehicles, despite taken into account the higher emissions associated with BEV manufacturing. Considering the regions where the two most popular electric cars are being sold, excess manufacturing emissions are offset within 6 to 16 months of average driving. The study also concluded that driving an average EV results in lower global warming emissions than driving a gasoline car that gets 50 mpg-US (4.7 L/100 km) in regions covering two-thirds of the U.S. population, up from 45% in 2009. Based on where EVs are being sold in the United States in 2015, the average EV produces global warming emissions equal to a gasoline vehicle with a 68 mpg-US (3.5 L/100 km) fuel economy rating. The authors identified two main reason for the fact that EV-related emissions have become even lower in many parts of the country since the first study was conducted in 2012. Electricity generation has been getting cleaner, as coal-fired generation has declined while lower-carbon alternatives have increased. In addition, electric cars are becoming more efficient. For example, the Nissan Leaf and the Chevrolet Volt, have undergone improvements to increase their efficiencies compared to the original models launched in 2010, and other even more efficient BEV models, such as the most lightweight and efficient BMW i3, have entered the market.[104][105]

National Bureau of Economic Research

One criticism to the UCS study is that the analysis was made using average emissions rates across regions instead of marginal generation at different times of the day. The former approach does not take into account the generation mix within interconnected electricity markets and shifting load profiles throughout the day.[106][107] An analysis by three economist affiliated with the National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER), published in November 2014, developed a methodology to estimate marginal emissions of electricity demand that vary by location and time of day across the United States. The marginal analysis, applied to plug-in electric vehicles, found that the emissions of charging PEVs vary by region and hours of the day. In some regions, such as the Western U.S. and Texas, CO2 emissions per mile from driving PEVs are less than those from driving a hybrid car. However, in other regions, such as the Upper Midwest, charging during the recommended hours of midnight to 4 a.m. implies that PEVs generate more emissions per mile than the average car currently on the road. The results show a fundamental tension between electricity load management and environmental goals as the hours when electricity is the least expensive to produce tend to be the hours with the greatest emissions. This occurs because coal-fired units, which have higher emission rates, are most commonly used to meet base-level and off-peak electricity demand; while natural gas units, which have relatively low emissions rates, are often brought online to meet peak demand.[107]

Well-to-wheel GHG emissions in several countries[edit]

A study published in the UK in April 2013 assessed the carbon footprint of plug-in electric vehicles in 20 countries. As a baseline the analysis established that manufacturing emissions account for 70 g CO2/km for an electric car and 40 g CO2/km for a petrol car. The study found that in countries with coal-intensive generation, PEVs are no different from conventional petrol-powered vehicles. Among these countries are China, Indonesia, Australia, South Africa and India. A pure electric car in India generates emissions comparable to a 20 mpg-US (12 L/100 km; 24 mpg-imp) petrol car.[108][109]

The country ranking was led by Paraguay, where all electricity is produced from hydropower, and Iceland, where electricity production relies on renewable power, mainly hydro and geothermal power. Resulting carbon emissions from an electric car in both countries are 70 g CO2/km, which is equivalent to a 220 mpg-US (1.1 L/100 km; 260 mpg-imp) petrol car, and correspond to manufacturing emissions. Next in the ranking are other countries with low carbon electricity generation, including Sweden (mostly hydro and nuclear power ), Brazil (mainly hydropower) and France (predominantly nuclear power). Countries ranking in the middle include Japan, Germany, the UK and the United States.[108][109][110]

The following table shows the emissions intensity estimated in the study for those countries where electric vehicle are available, and the corresponding emissions equivalent in miles per US gallon of a petrol-powered car:

Country comparison of full life cycle assessment
of greenhouse gas emissions resulting from charging plug-in electric cars and
emissions equivalent in terms of miles per US gallon of a petrol-powered car[108][110]
Country PEV well-to-wheels
carbon dioxide equivalent
emissions per electric car
expressed in (CO2e/km)
Power
source
PEV well-to-wheels
emissions equivalent
in terms of mpg US
of petrol-powered car
Equivalent
petrol car
 Sweden 81 Low carbon 159 mpg-US (1.48 L/100 km) Hybrid
multiples
 France 93 123 mpg-US (1.91 L/100 km)
 Canada 115 Fossil light 87 mpg-US (2.7 L/100 km) Beyond
hybrid
 Spain 146 61 mpg-US (3.9 L/100 km)
 Japan 175 Broad mix 48 mpg-US (4.9 L/100 km) New
hybrid
 Germany 179 47 mpg-US (5.0 L/100 km)
 United Kingdom 189 44 mpg-US (5.3 L/100 km)
 United States 202 Fossil heavy 40 mpg-US (5.9 L/100 km) Efficient
petrol
 Mexico 203 40 mpg-US (5.9 L/100 km)
 China 258 Coal-based 30 mpg-US (7.8 L/100 km) Average
petrol
 Australia 292 26 mpg-US (9.0 L/100 km)
 India 370 20 mpg-US (12 L/100 km)
Note: Electric car manufacturing emissions account for 70 g CO2/km
Source: Shades of Green: Electric Cars’ Carbon Emissions Around the Globe, Shrink That Footprint, February 2013.
[110]

Less dependence on imported oil[edit]

Evolution of oil prices since 1987 (average Brent spot prices - adjusted for U.S. inflation).

For many net oil importing countries the 2000s energy crisis brought back concerns first raised during the 1973 oil crisis. For the United States, the other developed countries and emerging countries their dependence on foreign oil has revived concerns about their vulnerability to price shocks and supply disruption. Also, there have been concerns about the uncertainty surrounding peak oil production and the higher cost of extracting unconventional oil. A third issue that has been raised is the threat to national security because most proven oil reserves are concentrated in relatively few geographic locations, including some countries with strong resource nationalism, unstable governments or hostile to U.S. interests.[27][111][112] In addition, for many developing countries, and particularly for the poorest African countries, high oil prices have an adverse impact on the government budget and deteriorate their terms of trade thus jeopardizing their balance of payments, all leading to lower economic growth.[113][114]

Through the gradual replacement of internal combustion engine vehicles for electric cars and plug-in hybrids, electric drive vehicles can contribute significantly to lessen the dependence of the transport sector on imported oil as well as contributing to the development of a more resilient energy supply.[27][111][112][115]

Vehicle-to-grid[edit]

Main article: Vehicle-to-grid

Plug-in electric vehicles offer users the opportunity to sell electricity stored in their batteries back to the power grid, thereby helping utilities to operate more efficiently in the management of their demand peaks.[116] A vehicle-to-grid (V2G) system would take advantage of the fact that most vehicles are parked an average of 95 percent of the time. During such idle times the electricity stored in the batteries could be transferred from the PEV to the power lines and back to the grid. In the U.S this transfer back to the grid have an estimated value to the utilities of up to $4,000 per year per car.[117] In a V2G system it would also be expected that battery electric (BEVs) and plug-in hybrids (PHEVs) would have the capability to communicate automatically with the power grid to sell demand response services by either delivering electricity into the grid or by throttling their charging rate.[116][118][119]

Disadvantages[edit]

Tesla Model S electric car (left) and Fisker Karma plug-in hybrid (right) at the parking spots reserved for green cars at San Francisco International Airport.

Cost of batteries and cost of ownership[edit]

Cost of batteries

As of 2015, plug-in electric vehicles are significantly more expensive as compared to conventional internal combustion engine vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles due to the additional cost of their lithium-ion battery pack. According to a 2010 study by the National Research Council, the cost of a lithium-ion battery pack was about US$1,700/kWh of usable energy, and considering that a PHEV-10 requires about 2.0 kWh and a PHEV-40 about 8 kWh, the manufacturer cost of the battery pack for a PHEV-10 is around US$3,000 and it goes up to US$14,000 for a PHEV-40.[120][121] As of June 2012, and based on the three battery size options offered for the Tesla Model S, the New York Times estimated the cost of automotive battery packs between US$400 to US$500 per kilowatt-hour.[122] A 2013 study by the American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy reported that battery costs came down from US$1,300 per kWh in 2007 to US$500 per kWh in 2012. The U.S. Department of Energy has set cost targets for its sponsored battery research of US$300 per kWh in 2015 and US$125 per kWh by 2022. Cost reductions through advances in battery technology and higher production volumes will allow plug-in electric vehicles to be more competitive with conventional internal combustion engine vehicles.[123]

According to a study published in February 2016 by Bloomberg New Energy Finance (BNEF), battery prices fell 65% since 2010, and 35% just in 2015, reaching US$350 per kWh. The study concludes that battery costs are on a trajectory to make electric vehicles without government subsidies as affordable as internal combustion engine cars in most countries by 2022. BNEF projects that by 2040, long-range electric cars will cost less than US$22,000 expressed in 2016 dollars. BNEF expects electric car battery costs to be well below US$120 per kWh by 2030, and to fall further thereafter as new chemistries become available.[5]

Cost of ownership

A study published in 2011 by the Belfer Center, Harvard University, found that the gasoline costs savings of plug-in electric cars do not offset their higher purchase prices when comparing their lifetime net present value of purchase and operating costs for the U.S. market at 2010 prices, and assuming no government subidies. According to the study estimates, a PHEV-40 is US$5,377 more expensive than a conventional internal combustion engine, while a battery electric vehicles is US$4,819 more expensive.[124] These findings assumed a battery cost of US$600 per kWh, which means that the Chevrolet Volt battery pack cost around US$10,000 and the Nissan Leaf pack costs US$14,400. The study also assumed a gasoline price of US$3.75 per gallon (as of mid June 2011), that vehicles are driven 12,000 miles (19,000 km) per year, an average price of electricity of US$0.12 per kWh, that the plug-in hybrid is driven in all-electric mode 85% of the time, and that the owner of PEVs pay US$1,500 to install a Level II 220/240 volt charger at home.[125]

The study also include hybrid electric vehicles in the comparison, and analyzed several scenarios to determine how the comparative net savings will change over the next 10 to 20 years, assuming that battery costs will decrease while gasoline prices increase, and also assuming higher fuel efficiency of conventional cars, among other scenarios. Under the future scenarios considered, the study found that BEVs will be significantly less expensive than conventional cars (US$1,155 to US$7,181 cheaper), while PHEVs, will be more expensive than BEVs in almost all comparison scenarios, and only less expensive than conventional cars in a scenario with very low battery costs and high gasoline prices. The reason for the different savings among PEVs is because BEVs are simpler to build and do not use liquid fuel, while PHEVs have more complicated powertrains and still have gasoline-powered engines. The following table summarizes the results of four of the seven scenarios analyzed by the study.[125]

Comparison of net lifetime savings
among conventional gasoline-powered cars, hybrids and plug-in electric cars
for several scenarios (U.S. market at 2010 prices)[125]
Description Conventional
ICE
Hybrid electric
(HEV)
Plug-in hybrid
(PHEV)
Battery electric
(BEV)
Scenario: 2010 costs
(battery US$600 per kWh, gasoline US$3.75 per gallon, and electricity US$0.12 per kWh)
Purchase price US$21,390 US$22,930 US$30,235 US$33,565
Total net present cost US$32,861 US$33,059 US$38,239 US$37,680
Cost differential with conventional car - US$197 US$5,377 US$4,819
Scenario: Future Costs - Lower battery cost and higher gasoline and electricity prices
(battery US$300 per kWh, gasoline US$4.50 per gallon, and electricity US$0.15 per kWh)
Total net present cost US$34,152 US$32,680 US$34,601 US$30,674
Cost differential with conventional car - (US$1,472) US$449 (US$3,478)
Scenario: Future Costs - Low battery cost and higher gasoline and electricity prices
(battery US$150 per kWh, gasoline US$4.50 per gallon, and electricity US$0.15 per kWh)
Total net present cost US$34,152 US$32,080 US$32,549 US$26,971
Cost differential with conventional car - (US$2,072) (US$1,603) (US$7,181)
Scenario: Higher fuel efficiency
ICEs:50 miles per US gallon (4.7 L/100 km; 60 mpg-imp)
HEVs and PHEVs: 75 miles per US gallon (3.1 L/100 km; 90 mpg-imp)
(battery US$300 per kWh, gasoline US$4.50 per gallon, and electricity US$0.15 per kWh)
Total net present cost US$32,829 US$31,366 US$34,403 US$30,674
Cost differential with conventional car - (US$463) US$2,574 (US$1,155)
Note: Assumes vehicles are driven 12,000 miles (19,000 km) per year and plug-in hybrid is driven in all-electric mode 85% of the time. Does not take into account other differences in cost of ownership.

According to a study by the Electric Power Research Institute published in June 2013, the total cost of ownership of the 2013 Nissan Leaf SV is substantially lower than that of comparable conventional and hybrid vehicles. For comparison, the study constructed average hybrid and conventional vehicles and assumed an average US distance per trip distribution. The study took into account the manufacturer's suggested retail price, taxes, credits, destination charge, electric charging station, fuel cost, maintenance cost, and additional cost due to the use of a gasoline vehicle for trips beyond the range of the Leaf.[126]

Electric Power Research Institute comparison of
the Leaf versus average conventional and hybrid cars.
Vehicle Operating mode
(powertrain)
Total ownership cost
US Average California
Nissan Leaf SV All-electric $37,288 $35,596
Chevrolet Volt Plug-in hybrid $44,176 $40,800
Average Conventional Gasoline $44,949 $46,561
Average Hybrid Gasoline-electric hybrid $44,325 $45,416
Notes: Costs are based on a gasoline price of $3.64 per gallon, an electricity rate of $0.12/kWh, and a vehicle lifetime of 150,000 miles.
The average conventional car was constructed by averaging of Honda Civic EX, Chevrolet Cruze LTZ, Ford Focus Titanium, and Volkswagen Passat.
The average hybrid car was constructed from Ford Fusion Hybrid, Honda Civic Hybrid, Toyota Camry Hybrid XLE, and Toyota Prius trim IV.

Availability of recharging infrastructure[edit]

Despite the widespread assumption that plug-in recharging will take place overnight at home, residents of cities, apartments, dormitories, and townhouses do not have garages or driveways with available power outlets, and they might be less likely to buy plug-in electric vehicles unless recharging infrastructure is developed.[127][128] Electrical outlets or charging stations near their places of residence, in commercial or public parking lots, streets and workplaces are required for these potential users to gain the full advantage of PHEVs, and in the case of EVs, to avoid the fear of the batteries running out energy before reaching their destination, commonly called range anxiety.[128][129] Even house dwellers might need to charge at the office or to take advantage of opportunity charging at shopping centers.[130] However, this infrastructure is not in place and it will require investments by both the private and public sectors.[129]

Several cities in California and Oregon, and particularly San Francisco and other cities in the San Francisco Bay Area and Silicon Valley, already have deployed public charging stations and have expansion plans to attend both plug-ins and all-electric cars.[129] Some local private firms such as Google and Adobe Systems have also deployed charging infrastructure. In Google's case, its Mountain View campus has 100 available charging stations for its share-use fleet of converted plug-ins available to its employees.[129][131] Solar panels are used to generate the electricity, and this pilot program is being monitored on a daily basis and performance results are published on the RechargeIT website.[131] As of December 2013, Estonia is the first and only country that had deployed an EV charging network with nationwide coverage, with 165 fast chargers available along highways at a minimum distance of between 40 to 60 km (25 to 37 mi), and a higher density in urban areas.[132][133][134]

The importance to build the infrastructure necessary to support electric vehicles is illustrated by the decision of Car2Go in San Diego, California, that due to insufficient charging infrastructure decided to replace all of its all-electric car fleet with gasoline-powered cars starting on 1 May 2016. When the carsharing service started in 2011, Car2Go expected 1,000 charging stations to be deployed around the city, but only 400 were in place by early 2016. As a result, an average of 20% of the carsharing fleet is unavailable at any given time because the cars are either being charged or because they don’t have enough electricity in them to be driven. Also, many of the company’s 40,000 San Diego members say they often worry their Car2Go will run out of charge before they finish their trip.[135]

Battery swapping[edit]

Better Place's battery switching station in Israel

A different approach to resolve the problems of range anxiety and lack of recharging infrastructure for electric vehicles was developed by Better Place. Its business model considers that electric cars are built and sold separately from the battery pack. As customers are not allowed to purchase battery packs, they must lease them from Better Place which will deploy a network of battery swapping stations thus expanding EVs range and allowing long distance trips. Subscribed users pay a per-distance fee to cover battery pack leasing, charging and swap infrastructure, the cost of sustainable electricity, and other costs.[136][137] Better Place signed agreement for deployment in Australia, Denmark, Israel, Canada, California, and Hawaii.[138] The Renault Fluence Z.E. was the electric car built with switchable battery technology sold for the Better Place network.[139] The robotic battery-switching operation was completed in about five minutes.[140]

After implementing the first modern commercial deployment of the battery swapping model in Israel and Denmark, Better Place filed for bankruptcy in Israel in May 2013. The company's financial difficulties were caused by the high investment required to develop the charging and swapping infrastructure, about US$850 million in private capital, and a market penetration significantly lower than originally predicted by Shai Agassi. Less than 1,000 Fluence Z.E. cars were deployed in Israel and around 400 units in Denmark.[141][142]

Tesla Motors designed its Model S to allow fast battery swapping.[143] In June 2013, Tesla announced their goal to deploy a battery swapping station in each of its supercharging stations. At a demonstration event Tesla showed that a battery swap operation with the Model S takes just over 90 seconds, about half the time it takes to refill a gasoline-powered car used for comparison purposes during the event.[144][145] The first stations are planned to be deployed along Interstate 5 in California where, according to Tesla, a large number of Model S sedans make the San Francisco-Los Angeles trip regularly. These will be followed by the Washington, DC to Boston corridor.[144]

Other charging solutions[edit]

Roof-mounted solar panels of the REVA NXR concept car.
Nissan Leaf SV roof-mounted solar panel.

The REVA NXR exhibited in the 2009 Frankfurt Motor Show and the Nissan Leaf SV trim both have roof-mounted solar panels. These solar panels are designed to trickle charge the batteries when the car is moving or parked.[146][147][148] Another proposed technology is REVive, by REVA. When the REVA NXR's batteries are running low or are fully depleted, the driver is able to send an SMS to REVive and unlock a hidden reserve in the battery pack. REVA has not provided details on how the system will work.[149][150] The Fisker Karma uses solar panel in the roof to recharge the 12-volt lead-acid accessory battery.[151] The Nissan Leaf SL trim also has a small solar panel at the rear of the roof/spoiler that can trickle charge the auxiliary 12-volt lead-acid battery.[152]

Potential overload of the electrical grid[edit]

The existing electrical grid, and local transformers in particular, may not have enough capacity to handle the additional power load that might be required in certain areas with high plug-in electric car concentrations. As recharging a single electric-drive car could consume three times as much electricity as a typical home, overloading problems may arise when several vehicles in the same neighborhood recharge at the same time, or during the normal summer peak loads. To avoid such problems, utility executives recommend owners to charge their vehicles overnight when the grid load is lower or to use smarter electric meters that help control demand. When market penetration of plug-in electric vehicles begins to reach significant levels, utilities will have to invest in improvements for local electrical grids in order to handle the additional loads related to recharging to avoid blackouts due to grid overload. Also, some experts have suggested that by implementing variable time-of-day rates, utilities can provide an incentive for plug-in owners to recharge mostly overnight, when rates are lower.[129][153]

General Motors is sponsoring the Pecan Street demonstration project in Austin, Texas. The project objective is to learn the charging patterns of plug-in electric car owners, and to study how a residential fleet of electric vehicles might strain the electric grid if all owners try to charge them at the same, which is what the preliminary monitoring found when the plug-in cars return home in the evening. The Mueller neighborhood is the test ground, and as of June 2013, the community has nearly 60 Chevrolet Volt owners alone. This cluster of Volts was achieved thanks to GM's commitment to match the federal government's $7,500 rebate incentive, which effectively halves the purchase price of the plug-hybrid electric cars.[154]

Risks associated with noise reduction[edit]

Electric cars and plug-in hybrids when operating in all-electric mode at low speeds produce less roadway noise as compared to vehicles propelled by an internal combustion engine, thereby reducing harmful noise health effects. However, blind people or the visually impaired consider the noise of combustion engines a helpful aid while crossing streets, hence plug-in electric cars and conventional hybrids could pose an unexpected hazard when operating at low speeds.[155][156]

The 2011 Nissan Leaf had a switch to manually turn off its electric warning sound system.

Several tests conducted in the U.S. have shown that this is a valid concern, as vehicles operating in electric mode can be particularly hard to hear below 20 mph (30 km/h) for all types of road users and not only the visually impaired.[157][158][159] At higher speeds the sound created by tire friction and the air displaced by the vehicle start to make sufficient audible noise.[156] However, a 2011 study, commissioned by the UK Department for Transport (DfT) and conducted by the Transport Research Laboratory, found little correlation between pedestrian vehicle involvement density and noise level for the majority of vehicles. In addition, the analysis found no evidence of a pattern in pedestrian vehicle involvement densities when only considering those accidents occurring on 30 mph (48 km/h) or slower roads, or where the pedestrian was disabled. A previous study did not found an increased pedestrian vehicle involvement density for electric and hybrid vehicles with respect to their conventional counterparts which raised the question as to whether added sound is necessarily required.[160]

Some carmakers announced they have decided to address this safety issue, and as a result, the new Nissan Leaf electric car and Chevrolet Volt plug-in hybrid, both launched in December 2010, as well as the Fisker Karma plug-in hybrid launched in 2011 launched in 2012, include electric warning sounds to alert pedestrians, the blind and others to their presence.[161][162][163][164][165] As of January 2014, most of the hybrids and plug-in electric and hybrids available in the United States, Japan and Europe make warning noises using a speaker system. The Tesla Model S is one of the few electric cars without warning sounds, because Tesla Motors will await until regulations are enacted.[166] Volkswagen and BMW also decided to add artificial sounds to their electric drive cars only when required by regulation.[167]

The Japanese Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism issued guidelines for hybrid and other near-silent vehicles in January 2010.[168] In the United States the Pedestrian Safety Enhancement Act of 2010 was approved by the U.S. Senate and the House of Representatives in December 2010.[169][170][171] The act does not stipulate a specific speed for the simulated noise but requires the U.S. Department of Transportation to study and establish a motor vehicle safety standard that would set requirements for an alert sound.[169][172] A proposed rule was published for comment by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) in January, 2013. It would require hybrids and electric vehicles traveling at less than 18.6 miles per hour (30 km/h) to emit warning sounds that pedestrians must be able to hear over background noises. According to the NHTSA proposal carmakers would be able to pick the sounds the vehicles make from a range of choices, and similar vehicles would have to make the same sounds. The rules were scheduled to go into effect in September 2014.[173][174] However, in January 2015 the NHTSA rescheduled the date for a final ruling to the end of 2015. Since the regulation comes into force three years after being rendered as a final rule, compliance was delayed to 2018.[175]

On 6 February 2013, the European Parliament approved a draft law to tighten noise limits for cars to protect public health, and also to add alerting sounds to ensure the audibility of hybrid and electric vehicles to improve the safety of vulnerable road users in urban areas, such as blind, visually and auditorily challenged pedestrians, cyclists and children. The draft legislation states a number of tests, standards and measures that must first be developed for an Acoustic Vehicle Alerting Systems (AVAS) to be compulsory in the future.[176][177] The approved amendment establishes that the sound to be generated by the AVAS should be a continuous sound and should be easily indicative of vehicle behavior and should sound similar to the sound of a vehicle of the same category equipped with an internal combustion engine."[177] In April 2014 the European Parliament approved legislation that requires the mandatory use of the AVAS for all new electric and hybrid electric vehicles and car manufacturers have to comply within 5 years.[178][179]

Risks of battery fire[edit]

Frontal crash test of a Volvo C30 DRIVe Electric to assess the safety of the battery pack.

Lithium-ion batteries may suffer thermal runaway and cell rupture if overheated or overcharged, and in extreme cases this can lead to combustion.[180] To reduce these risks, lithium-ion battery packs contain fail-safe circuitry that shuts down the battery when its voltage is outside the safe range.[181][182] When handled improperly, or if manufactured defectively, some rechargeable batteries can experience thermal runaway resulting in overheating. Especially prone to thermal runaway are lithium-ion batteries. Reports of exploding cellphones have been reported in newspapers. In 2006, batteries from Apple, HP, Toshiba, Lenovo, Dell and other notebook manufacturers were recalled because of fire and explosions.[183][184][185][186] Also, during the Boeing 787 Dreamliner's first year of service, at least four aircraft suffered from electrical system problems stemming from its lithium-ion batteries, resulting in the whole Dreamliner fleet being voluntarily grounded in January 2013.[187][188]

Several plug-in electric vehicle fire incidents have taken place since the introduction of mass-production plug-in electric vehicles in 2008. Most of them have been thermal runaway incidents related to the lithium-ion batteries and have involved the Zotye M300 EV, Chevrolet Volt, Fisker Karma, BYD e6, Dodge Ram 1500 Plug-in Hybrid, Toyota Prius Plug-in Hybrid, Mitsubishi i-MiEV and Outlander P-HEV. As of November 2013, four fires after a crash have been reported associated with the batteries of all-electric cars involving a BYD e6 and three Tesla Model S cars.

The first modern crash-related fire was reported in China in May 2012, after a high-speed car crashed into a BYD e6 taxi in Shenzhen.[189] The second reported incident occurred in the United States in October 1, 2013, when a Tesla Model S caught fire after the electric car hit metal debris on a highway in Kent, Washington state, and the debris punctured one of 16 modules within the battery pack.[190][191] A second reported fire occurred on October 18, 2013 in Merida, Mexico. In this case the vehicle was being driven at high speed through a roundabout and crashed through a wall and into a tree. On November 6, 2013, a Tesla Model S being driven on Interstate 24 near Murfreesboro, Tennessee caught fire after it struck a tow hitch on the roadway, causing damage beneath the vehicle.[192]

The U.S. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) is conducting a study due in 2014 to establish whether lithium-ion batteries in plug-electric vehicles pose a potential fire hazard. The research is looking at whether the high-voltage batteries can cause fires when they are being charged and when the vehicles are involved in an accident.[193] Both General Motors and Nissan have published a guide for firefighters and first responders to properly handle a crashed plug-in electric-drive vehicle and safely disable its battery and other high voltage systems.[194][195]

Rare earth metals availability and supply security[edit]

Common technology for plug-ins and electric cars is based on the lithium-ion battery and an electric motor which uses rare earth elements. The demand for lithium, heavy metals, and other specific elements (such as neodymium, boron and cobalt) required for the batteries and powertrain is expected to grow significantly due to the future sales increase of plug-in electric vehicles in the mid and long term.[196][197] As of 2011, the Toyota Prius battery contains more than 20 lb (9.1 kg) of the rare earth element lanthanum,[198] and its motor magnets use neodymium and dysprosium.[199] While only 0.25 oz (7 g) of lithium carbonate equivalent (LCE) are required in a smartphone and 1.1 oz (30 g) in a tablet computer, electric vehicles and stationary energy storage systems for homes, businesses or industry use much more lithium in their batteries. As of 2016 a hybrid electric passenger car might use 11 lb (5 kg) of LCE, while one of Tesla's high performance electric cars could use as much as 180 lb (80 kg).[200]

Some of the largest world reserves of lithium and other rare metals are located in countries with strong resource nationalism, unstable governments or hostility to U.S. interests, raising concerns about the risk of replacing dependence on foreign oil with a new dependence on hostile countries to supply strategic materials.[196][197][201][202]

Lithium
The Salar de Uyuni in Bolivia is one of the largest known lithium reserves in the world.[201][203]

The main deposits of lithium are found in China and throughout the Andes mountain chain in South America. In 2008 Chile was the leading lithium metal producer with almost 30%, followed by China, Argentina, and Australia.[197][204] In the United States lithium is recovered from brine pools in Nevada.[205][206]

Nearly half the world's known reserves are located in Bolivia,[197][201] and according to the US Geological Survey, Bolivia's Salar de Uyuni desert has 5.4 million tons of lithium.[201][205] Other important reserves are located in Chile, China, and Brazil.[197][205] Since 2006 the Bolivian government have nationalized oil and gas projects and is keeping a tight control over mining its lithium reserves. Already the Japanese and South Korean governments, as well as companies from these two countries and France, have offered technical assistance to develop Bolivia's lithium reserves and are seeking to gain access to the lithium resources through a mining and industrialization model suitable to Bolivian interests.[201][207][208]

According to a 2011 study conducted at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the University of California Berkeley, the currently estimated reserve base of lithium should not be a limiting factor for large-scale battery production for electric vehicles, as the study estimated that on the order of 1 billion 40 kWh Li-based batteries (about 10 kg of lithium per car)[209] could be built with current reserves, as estimated by the U.S. Geological Survey.[210] Another 2011 study by researchers from the University of Michigan and Ford Motor Company found that there are sufficient lithium resources to support global demand until 2100, including the lithium required for the potential widespread use of hybrid electric, plug-in hybrid electric and battery electric vehicles. The study estimated global lithium reserves at 39 million tons, and total demand for lithium during the 90-year period analyzed at 12-20 million tons, depending on the scenarios regarding economic growth and recycling rates.[211]

A 2016 study by Bloomberg New Energy Finance (BNEF) found that availability of lithium and other finite materials used in the battery packs will not be a limiting factor for the adoption of electric vehicles. BNEF estimated that battery packs will require less than 1% of the known reserves of lithium, nickel, manganese, and copper through 2030, and 4% of the world’s cobalt. After 2030, the study states that new battery chemistries will probably shift to other source materials, making packs lighter, smaller, and cheaper.[5]

Rare earth elements

China has 48% of the world's reserves of rare earth elements, the United States has 13%, and Russia, Australia, and Canada have significant deposits. Until the 1980s, the U.S. led the world in rare earth production, but since the mid-1990s China has controlled the world market for these elements. The mines in Bayan Obo near Baotou, Inner Mongolia, are currently the largest source of rare earth metals and are 80% of China's production. In 2010 China accounted for 97% of the global production of 17 rare earth elements.[198] Since 2006 the Chinese government has been imposing export quotas reducing supply at a rate of 5% to 10% a year.[202][212][213]

Prices of several rare earth elements increased sharply by mid-2010 as China imposed a 40% export reduction, citing environmental concerns as the reason for the export restrictions. These quotas have been interpreted as an attempt to control the supply of rare earths. However, the high prices have provided an incentive to begin or reactivate several rare earth mining projects around the world, including the United States, Australia, Vietnam, and Kazakhstan.[212][213][214][215]

Evolution of global rare earth oxides production by country (1950-2000)

In September 2010, China temporarily blocked all exports of rare earths to Japan in the midst of a diplomatic dispute between the two countries. These minerals are used in hybrid cars and other products such wind turbines and guided missiles, thereby augmenting the worries about the dependence on Chinese rare earth elements and the need for geographic diversity of supply.[213][216] A December 2010 report published by the US DoE found that the American economy vulnerable to rare earth shortages and estimates that it could take 15 years to overcome dependence on Chinese supplies.[217][218] China raised export taxes for some rare earths from 15 to 25%, and also extended taxes to exports of some rare earth alloys that were not taxed before. The Chinese government also announced further reductions on its export quotas for the first months of 2011, which represent a 35% reduction in tonnage as compared to exports during the first half of 2010.[219]

On September 29, 2010, the U.S. House of Representatives approved the Rare Earths and Critical Materials Revitalization Act of 2010 (H.R.6160).[220][221] The approved legislation is aimed at restoring the U.S. as a leading producer of rare earth elements, and would support activities in the U.S. Department of Energy (US DoE) to discover and develop rare earth sites inside of the U.S. in an effort to reduce the auto industry's near-complete dependence on China for the minerals.[221][222] A similar bill, the Rare Earths Supply Technology and Resources Transformation Act of 2010 (S. 3521), is being discussed in the U.S. Senate.[221][223]

In order to avoid its dependence on rare earth minerals, Toyota Motor Corporation announced in January 2011 that it is developing an alternative motor for future hybrid and electric cars that does not need rare earth materials. Toyota engineers in Japan and the U.S. are developing an induction motor that is lighter and more efficient than the magnet-type motor used in the Prius, which uses two rare earths in its motor magnets. Other popular hybrids and plug-in electric cars in the market that use these rare earth elements are the Nissan Leaf, the Chevrolet Volt and Honda Insight. For its second generation RAV4 EV due in 2012, Toyota is using an induction motor supplied by Tesla Motors that does not require rare earth materials. The Tesla Roadster and the Tesla Model S use a similar motor.[199]

Car dealers reluctance to sell[edit]

With the exception of Tesla Motors, almost all new cars in the United States are sold through dealerships, so they play a crucial role in the sales of electric vehicles, and negative attitudes can hinder early adoption of plug-in electric vehicles.[224][225] Dealers decide which cars they want to stock, and a salesperson can have a big impact on how someone feels about a prospective purchase. Sales people have ample knowledge of internal combustion cars while they do not have time to learn about a technology that represents a fraction of overall sales.[224] As with any new technology, and in the particular case of advanced technology vehicles, retailers are central to ensuring that buyers, especially those switching to a new technology, have the information and support they need to gain the full benefits of adopting this new technology.[225]

Car dealerships play a crucial role in the sales of plug-in electric vehicles. Shown a dealership exhibiting first generation Chevrolet Volts.

There are several reasons for the reluctance of some dealers to sell plug-in electric vehicles. PEVs do not offer car dealers the same profits as gasoline-powered car. Plug-in electric vehicles take more time to sell because of the explaining required, which hurts overall sales and sales people commissions. Electric vehicles also may require less maintenance, resulting in loss of service revenue, and thus undermining the biggest source of dealer profits, their service departments. According to the National Automobile Dealers Association (NADS), dealers on average make three times as much profit from service as they do from new car sales. However, a NADS spokesman said there was not sufficient data to prove that electric cars would require less maintenance.[224] According to the New York Times, BMW and Nissan are among the companies whose dealers tend to be more enthusiastic and informed, but only about 10% of dealers are knowledgeable on the new technology.[224]

A study conducted at the Institute of Transportation Studies (ITS), at the University of California, Davis (UC Davis) published in 2014 found that many car dealers are less than enthusiastic about plug-in vehicles. ITS conducted 43 interviews with six automakers and 20 new car dealers selling plug-in vehicles in California’s major metro markets. The study also analyzed national and state-level J.D. Power 2013 Sales Satisfaction Index (SSI) study data on customer satisfaction with new car dealerships and Tesla retail stores. The researchers found that buyers of plug-in electric vehicles were significantly less satisfied and rated the dealer purchase experience much lower than buyers of non-premium conventional cars, while Tesla Motors earned industry-high scores. According to the findings, plug-in buyers expect more from dealers than conventional buyers, including product knowledge and support that extends beyond traditional offerings.[225][226]

In 2014 Consumer Reports published results from a survey conducted with 19 secret shoppers that went to 85 dealerships in four states, making anonymous visits between December 2013 and March 2014. The secret shoppers asked a number of specific questions about cars to test the salespeople’s knowledge about electric cars. The consumer magazine decided to conduct the survey after several consumers who wanted to buy a plug-in car reported to the organization that some dealerships were steering them toward gasoline-powered models. The survey found that not all sales people seemed enthusiastic about making PEV sales; a few outright discouraged it, and even one dealer was reluctant to even show a plug-in model despite having one in stock. And many sales people seemed not to have a good understanding of electric-car tax breaks and other incentives or of charging needs and costs. Consumer Reports also found that when it came to answering basic questions, sales people at Chevrolet, Ford, and Nissan dealerships tended to be better informed than those at Honda and Toyota. The survey found that most of the Toyota dealerships visited recommended against buying a Prius Plug-in and suggested buying a standard Prius hybrid instead. Overall, the secret shoppers reported that only 13 dealers “discouraged sale of EV,” with seven of them being in New York. However, at 35 of the 85 dealerships visited, the secret shoppers said sales people recommended buying a gasoline-powered car instead.[227]

The ITS-Davis study also found that a small but influential minority of dealers have introduced new approaches to better meet the needs of plug-in customers. Examples include marketing carpool lane stickers, enrolling buyers in charging networks, and preparing incentive paperwork for customers. Some dealers assign seasoned sales people as plug-in experts, many of whom drive plug-ins themselves to learn and be familiar with the technology and relate the car’s benefits to potential buyers. The study concluded also that carmakers could do much more to support dealers selling PEVs.[225]

Government incentives[edit]

Several national and local governments around the world have established tax credits, grants and other financial and non-financial incentives for consumers to purchase a plug-in electric vehicle as a policy to promote the introduction and mass market adoption of this type of vehicles.

Asia[edit]

The Nissan Leaf electric car is eligible for government incentives for plug-in electric vehicles in Japan, the United States and several European countries.
Japan

In May 2009 the Japanese Diet passed the "Green Vehicle Purchasing Promotion Measure" that went into effect on June 19, 2009, but retroactive to April 10, 2009.[228] The program established tax deductions and exemptions for environmentally friendly and fuel efficient vehicles, according to a set of stipulated environmental performance criteria, and the requirements are applied equally to both foreign and domestically produced vehicles. The program provides purchasing subsidies for two type of cases, consumers purchasing a new passenger car without trade-in (non-replacement program), and for those consumers buying a new car trading an used car registered 13 years ago or earlier (scrappage program).[228][229]

China

On June 1, 2010, The Chinese government announced a trial program to provide incentives up to 60,000 yuan (~US$8,785) for private purchase of new battery electric vehicles and 50,000 yuan (~US$7,320) for plug-in hybrids in five cities.[230][231]

Europe[edit]

As of 2010, 17 of the 27 European Union member states provide tax incentives for electrically chargeable vehicles. The incentives consist of tax reductions and exemptions, as well as of bonus payments for buyers of PEVs and hybrid vehicles.[14][232]

In the UK the Plug-in Car Grant scheme provided a 25% incentive towards the cost of new plug-in electric cars that qualify as ultra-low carbon vehicles, capped at GB£5,000 (US$7,800) until February 2016.[233] Both private and business fleet buyers are eligible for the government grant.[234] In December 2015, the Department for Transport (DfT) announced that Plug-in car grant was extended to encourage more than 100,000 UK motorists to buy cleaner vehicles. The criteria for the Plug-in Car Grant was updated and the maximum grant dropped from GB£5,000 (~US$7,450) to GB£4,500 (~US$6,700). The eligible ultra-low emission vehicles (ULEVs) must meet criteria in one of three categories depending on emission levels (CO2 emissions bands between 50 and 75g/km) and zero-emission-capable mileage (minimum of 10 mi (16 km)).[235][236][237]

Both in the UK and Germany, the Tesla Model S, and other premium cars are not eligible to the purchase incentives because both countries have set a purchase price cap.

A price cap is in place, with all Category 1 plug-in vehicles eligible for the full grant no matter what their purchase price, while Category 2 and 3 models with a list price of more than GB£60,000 (~US$90,000) will not be eligible for the grant. Vehicles with a zero-emission range of at least 70 miles (110 km) (category 1), including hydrogen fuel cell vehicles, will get a full GB£4,500 (~US$6,700), but plug-in hybrids (categories 2 and 3) costing under GB£60,000 (~US$90,000) will receive GB£2,500 (~US$3,725).[236][237] Under the extended scheme, some plug-in hybrid sports car will no longer be eligible for the grant, such as the BMW i8 because of its GB£100,000 (~US$150,000) purchase price tag.[238] The updated scheme went into force on 1 March 2016.[237]

Germany approved an incentive scheme in April 2016 with a budget of €1 billion (US$1.13 billion). The cost of the purchase incentive will be shared equally between the government and automakers. Electric car buyers will get a €4,000 (US$4,520) discount while buyers of plug-in hybrid vehicles will get a discount of €3,000 (US$3,390). Premium cars, such as the Tesla Model S and BMW i8, are not eligible to the incentive because there is a cap of €60,000 (US$67,800) for the purchase price. The scheme is scheduled to start as early as May 2016. Nissan, Volkswagen, Daimler and BMW have signed up to participate in the scheme.[239][240][241]

North America[edit]

United States

In the United States the Energy Improvement and Extension Act of 2008, and later the American Clean Energy and Security Act of 2009 (ACES) granted tax credits for new qualified plug-in electric vehicles.[12] The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) also authorized federal tax credits for converted plug-ins, though the credit is lower than for new PEVs.[13]

The federal tax credit for new plug-in electric vehicles is worth $2,500 plus $417 for each kilowatt-hour of battery capacity over 5 kWh, and the portion of the credit determined by battery capacity cannot exceed $5,000. Therefore, the total amount of the credit allowed for a new PEV is $7,500.[12] Several states have established incentives and tax exemptions for BEVs and PHEV, and other non-monetary incentives.

Fleet of Chevrolet Volts at a solar-powered charging station in Toronto. The plug-in hybrid is eligible for rebates or tax credits in the United States, the UK, several European countries and several Canadian provinces.

President Barack Obama set the goal of bringing 1 million plug-in electric vehicles on the road by 2015.[242][243] However, considering the actual slow rate of PEV sales, as of mid-2012 several industry observers have concluded that this goal is unattainable.[244][245][246] In September 2014 Governor of California Jerry Brown signed a bill, the Charge Ahead California Initiative, that sets a goal of placing at least 1 million zero-emission vehicles and near-zero-emission vehicles on the road in California by January 1, 2023.[247]

Canada

Ontario established a rebate between CA$5,000 to CA$8,500 (~US$4,900 to US$8,320), depending on battery size, for purchasing or leasing a new plug-in electric vehicle after July 1, 2010. The rebates are available to the first 10,000 applicants who qualify.[248]

Quebec offers rebates of up to CA$8,500 (US$8,485) from January 1, 2012, for the purchase of new plug-in electric vehicles equipped with a minimum of 4 kWh battery, and new hybrid electric vehicles are eligible for a CA$1,000 rebate. All-electric vehicles with high-capacity battery packs are eligible for the full C$8,000 rebate, and incentives are reduced for low-range electric cars and plug-in hybrids.[249][250]

Production plug-in electric vehicles available[edit]

The General Motors EV1 was the first mass-produced and purpose-designed all-electric car of the modern era from a major automaker.

During the 1990s several highway-capable plug-in electric cars were produced in limited quantities, all were battery electric vehicles, and they were available through leasing mainly in California. Popular models included the General Motors EV1 and the Toyota RAV4 EV. Some of the latter were sold to the public and are in use still today.[251] In the late 2000s began a new wave of mass production plug-in electric cars, motorcycles and light trucks. However, as of 2011, most electric vehicles in the world roads were low-speed, low-range neighborhood electric vehicles (NEVs) or electric quadricycles. Pike Research estimated there were almost 479,000 NEVs on the world roads in 2011.[252] Just in China, a total of 200,000 low-speed small electric cars were sold in 2013, most of which are powered by lead-acid batteries.[253] As of October 2015, the GEM neighborhood electric vehicle is the market leader in North America, with global sales of more than 50,000 units since 1998.[254]

Two plug-in electric cars, a Honda Fit EV all-electric car (left) and a Ford C-Max Energi plug-in hybrid (right), charging from an on-street public charging station in San Francisco.

As of August 2015, there were almost 70 models of highway-capable plug-in electric passenger cars and light-utility vans available in the world, with 45 different plug-in electric passenger car models offered in Europe, 20 available in North America, 19 in China, 14 in Japan, and 7 in Australia.[255] There are also available several commercial models of plug-in motorcycles, all-electric buses, and heavy-duty trucks.

The Renault-Nissan Alliance is the leading all-electric vehicle manufacturer with global sales of more than 340,000 units since 2010 through the end of May 2016.[256] Mitsubishi Motors ranks second, with global sales of about 135,000 plug-in electric vehicles since 2009 through December 2015, consisting of all-electric cars of the Mitsubishi i-MiEV family, all-electric Mitsubishi Minicab MiEV utility vans and trucks, and the plug-in hybrid Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV.[257] Ranking second is Tesla Motors with over 139,000 electric cars sold between 2008 and June 2016.[258][259] Next is General Motors with combined global sales since December 2010 of almost 113,000 vehicles through December 2015, consisting of over 106,000 plug-in hybrids of the Volt/Ampera family, over 4,300 Chevrolet Spark EVs, and over 2,400 Cadillac ELRs.[260][261][262][263]

BYD Auto ended 2015 as the world's best selling manufacturer of highway legal light-duty plug-in electric vehicles, with 61,722 units sold, mostly plug-in hybrids, followed by Tesla Motors, with 50,580 units sold in 2015.[260][264][265] During the first half of 2016, BYD continued as the world's top selling plug-in car manufacturer with over 43,000 units sold, and again, followed by Tesla with over 29,000 units delivered.[266]

Sales and main markets[edit]

Detroit Electric car charging in 1919. During the Golden Age of the electric car at the beginning of the 20th century, the EV stock peaked at about 30,000 vehicles.[267]

By mid-September 2015, the global stock of highway legal plug-in electric passenger cars and utility vans passed the one million sales milestone.[268][269] When global sales are broken down by type of powertrain, all-electric cars have oversold plug-in hybrids, with the pure electrics capturing 60% of global sales as of December 2015.[270] Sales of plug-in electric vehicles achieved the one million milestone almost twice as fast as hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). While it took four years and 10 months to reach one-million PEV sales, it took more than around nine years and a few months for HEVs to reach its first million sales.[268][269]

Between 2007 and 2010, only 11,768 plug-in electric vehicles were sold worldwide.[271] By comparison, during the Golden Age of the electric car at the beginning of the 20th century, the EV stock peaked at approximately 30,000 vehicles.[267] After the introduction of the Nissan Leaf and the Chevrolet Volt in late December 2010, the first mass-production plug-in cars by major carmakers, plug-in car sales grew to about 50,000 units in 2011, jumped to 125,000 in 2012, and rose to almost 213,000 plug-in electric cars and utility vans in 2013. Sales totaled over 315,000 units in 2014, up 48% from 2013.[272]

Annual sales of light-duty plug-in electric vehicles in the world's top markets between 2011 and 2015.[272]

In five years, global sales of highway legal light-duty plug-in electric vehicles have increased more than ten-fold, totaling more than 565,00 units in 2015. Plug-in sales in 2015 increased about 80% from 2014, driven mainly by China and Europe.[272] Both markets passed in 2105 the U.S. as the largest plug-in electric car markets in terms of total annual sales, with China ranking as the world's best-selling plug-in electric passenger car country market in 2015.[273][274] About 307,000 plug-in cars and vans were sold during the first half of 2016.[266] Since 2004, cumulative global sales totaled over 1.5 million plug-in cars and utility vans by the end of May 2016.[6] Despite the rapid growth experienced, the plug-in electric car segment represented just 0.1% of the one billion cars on the world's roads by the end of 2015.[5]

As of June 2016, cumulative sales of highway legal light-duty plug-in electric vehicles by country are led by the United States with a stock of about 474,000 cars delivered since 2008.[7][8] China ranks second with 389,885 units sold between 2011 and May 2016, followed by Japan with 150,142 plug-in units sold between 2009 and April 2016.[6] As of May 2016, more than 500,000 light-duty plug-in electric vehicles have been registered in Europe, making the continent the world's largest plug-in regional market in the light-duty segment, which includes utility vans.[7] As of May 2016, European registrations are led by Norway (105,306), followed by the Netherlands (93,310) and France (89,629).[6] As of June 2016, more than 613,000 new energy vehicles have been sold in China since 2011, making the country the world's leader in the plug-in heavy-duty segment, including electric buses, plug-in trucks, and sanitation trucks.[9][275][276] As of December 2015, China was the world's largest electric bus market with close to 173,000 plug-in electric buses, representing almost the entire global stock of plug-in buses.[10][277]

During 2014, four of the ten top selling countries achieved plug-in electric car sales with a market share higher than 1% of new car sales.[278][279] Also two small countries achieved this mark in 2014.[280] In 2015 nine countries achieved plug-in electric car sales with a market share equal or higher than 1% of total new car sales.[273] In 2015 the European plug-in passenger car market share passed the one percent mark (1.41%) for the first time.[281] The following table presents the top 10 countries according to their PEV market share of total new car sales between 2015 and 2013. The market share for two selected regions, Europe and California, is also shown.

Top 10 countries or autonomous territories by plug-in electric passenger car market share
of total new car sales between 2015 and 2013
Rank Country
or territory
Market
share (%)
2015[273][282]
Rank Country
or territory
Market
share (%)
2014[278]
Rank Country
or territory
Market
share (%)
2013[283]
1  Norway 22.39 % 1  Norway 13.84 % 1  Norway 6.10 %
2  Netherlands 9,74 % 2  Netherlands 3.87 % 2  Netherlands 5.55 %
3  Hong Kong 4.84 % 3  Iceland[280] and Estonia (1.57%).[280] 2.71 % 3  Iceland 0.94 %
4  Iceland[284] 2.93 % 4  Estonia[280] 1.57 % 4  Japan 0.91 %
5  Sweden 2.62 % 5  Sweden[279] 1.53 % 5  France(2) 0.83 %
6  Denmark 2.29 % 6  Japan 1.06 % 6  Estonia 0.73 %
7   Switzerland 1.98 % 7  Denmark[285] 0.88 % 7  Sweden[279] 0.71 %
8  France 1.19 % 8   Switzerland[286] 0.75 % 8  United States 0.60 %
9  United Kingdom 1.07 % 9  United States 0.72 % 9   Switzerland 0.44 %
10  Austria[287] 0.90 % 10  France(2) 0.70 % 10  Denmark 0.29 %
Selected regional markets
Plug-in electric passenger car market share between 2015 and 2013
 California[288] 3.1 %  California[288] 3.2 %  California[288] 2.5 %
 Europe(1)[281] 1.41 %  Europe(1)[289] 0.66 %  Europe(1)[290] 0.49 %
Notes: (1) European figures correspond to European Union member countries plus EFTA countries (Norway and Switzerland)
2) The French market share corresponds to combined sales all-electric passenger cars and utility vans only (plug-in hybrids not included).

United States[edit]

U.S. plug-in electric vehicle cumulative sales by month by type of powertrain from December 2010 up to December 2015.[291][292]

As of June 2016, the United States is the country with the largest fleet of light-duty plug-in electric vehicles in the world, with about 474,000 highway-capable plug-in electric cars sold since the market launch of the Tesla Roadster in 2008.[7][293] As of May 2016, the American plug-in stock represented 30.7% of the global stock of light-duty plug-in electric vehicles.[6] California is the country's largest regional market with 200,000 plug-in electric vehicles delivered by March 2016, representing 47% of all plug-in cars sold in American market since 2008.[294][295]

Nationwide sales climbed from 17,800 units delivered in 2011 to 53,200 during 2012, and reached 97,100 in 2013, up 83% from the previous year.[296] Cumulative plug-in electric car sales since 2008 reached the 250,000 unit milestone in August 2014.[297] During 2014 plug-in electric car sales totaled 123,248 units, up 27.0% from 2013, and fell to 114,248 in 2015, down 7.4% from 2014.[261] A total of 64,165 plug-in cars were sold during the first half of 2016, up 18.9% from the same period in 2015.[293] June 2016 is the best monthly plug-in sales volume on record, with 13,772 units delivered.[8]

The Chevrolet Volt is the all-time top selling plug-in electric car in the U.S. Domestic sales passed the 100,000 unit milestone in July 2016.[298]

The market share of plug-in electric passenger cars increased from 0.14% of new car sales in 2011 to 0.37% in 2012, 0.62% in 2013, and reached 0.75% of new car sales during 2014.[261][299][300] As plug-in car sales slowed down during 2015, the segment's market share fell to 0.66% of new car sales.[261] The market share increased to 0.75% during the first half of 2016.[293] The highest-ever market share for plug-in vehicles was achieved also in June 2016 with 0.91% of new car sales.[8] California plug-in sales in 2015 achieved a 3.1% market share, 4.7 times higher than the U.S., and its plug-in market share was surpassed only by two countries, Norway (22.4%) and the Netherlands (9.7%).[301]

As of June 2016, cumulative sales are led by the Chevrolet Volt plug-in hybrid with 98,558 units, followed by the Nissan Leaf all-electric car with 95,384 units delivered.[302] Launched in the U.S. market in June 2012, the Tesla Model S ranks as the third top selling plug-in electric car with 74,861 units sold.[293][300][303] Plug-in electric car sales in 2014 were led by the Nissan Leaf with 30,200 units, followed the Volt with 18,805, and the Model S with 16,689 units.[262][303] The Tesla Model S was the top selling plug-in car in the U.S. in 2015 with 25,202 units delivered, followed by the Nissan Leaf with 17,269 units, and the Volt with 15,393.[261][303] During the first half of 2016 the Model S remained as the top selling plug-in car in the country with about 11,700 units, followed by the Volt with 9,808, and the Fusion Energi with 7,235.[293]

China[edit]

Further information: New energy vehicles in China
Sales of domestically produced new energy vehicles in China by year between 2011 and 2015.[253][304][305][306][307]

New energy vehicle sales in China totaled more than 613,000 units between January 2011 and June 2016[9][275][276] These figures include heavy-duty commercial vehicles such buses and sanitation trucks, and only include vehicles manufactured in the country as imports are not subject to government subsidies.[9] As of June 2016, the Chinese stock of plug-in electric vehicles consisted of over 450,000 all-electric vehicles (73.4%) and more than 163,000 plug-in hybrids (26.6%) sold since 2011.[9][275][276][308] As of December 2015, the global stock of plug-in electric buses is estimated to be about 173,000 units, almost entirely deployed in China, the world's largest electric bus market. Of these, almost 150,000 are all-electric buses. The Chinese electric bus stock grew nearly six fold between 2014 and 2015.[10]

As of December 2015, China ranked as the world's largest plug-in electric bus market with a stock of almost 173,000 vehicles.[10] Shown a BYD K9 bus in Shenzhen.

With 176,627 plug-in passenger cars sold in 2015, China passed the U.S., the top selling country in 2014, and became the world's best-selling plug-in electric car country market in 2015.[273][309] As of March 2016, in terms of light-duty plug-in passenger car stock, China ranks second after the United States, with cumulative sales of around 300,000 plug-in cars.[310] As of December 2015, the Chinese plug-in stock represented 21% of the global cumulative sales of highway legal plug-in electric passenger cars.[273]

New energy vehicle sales during 2014 reached 74,763 units, up 320% from 2013, and representing a market share of 0.32% of the 23.5 million new car sales sold that year.[305] Of these, 71% were passenger cars, 27% buses, and 1% trucks.[311] The BYD Qin plug-in hybrid, introduced in December 2013, ranked as the top selling plug-in electric car in China in 2014 with 14,747 units sold,[311] and became the country's top selling passenger NEV ever.[312] Domestically produced new energy vehicle sales in 2015 totaled a record 331,092 units.[304]

Since 2014 the BYD Qin is the all-time top selling new energy passenger vehicle in China, with 56,191 units sold through June 2016.[312][313]

Sales of plug-in passenger cars, excluding imports, totaled 176,627 units in 2015, allowing China to rank as the world's best-selling plug-in electric car country market in 2015.[273] The plug-in electric passenger car segment market share rose to 0.84% in 2015, up from 0.25% in 2014.[314] The top selling passenger models in 2015 were the BYD Qin plug-in hybrid with 31,898 units sold, followed by the BYD Tang (18,375), and the all-electric Kandi EV (16,736).[315][316][317]

The BYD Tang, released in June 2015, ranked as the top selling plug-in electric car in China during the first half of 2016.[318]

As a reflex of the explosive growth of the Chinese plug-in electric car market in 2015, BYD Auto ended 2015 as the world's best selling manufacturer of highway legal light-duty plug-in electric vehicles, with around 60,000 units sold, ahead of Tesla Motors (50,580).[260][264] The stock of new energy vehicles sold in China since 2011 achieved the 500,000 unit milestone in March 2016, making the country the world's leader in the plug-in heavy-duty segment, including electric buses and plug-in trucks.[9] A total of 170,000 new energy vehicles were sold in the first half of 2016, up 126.9% from the same period the previous year.[276] The BYD Tang ranked as the top selling plug-in electric car in China during the first half of 2016 with 19,134 units sold.[318][319] As of June 2016, the BYD Qin, with 56,191 units sold since its inception, remains the all-time top selling plug-in electric car in the country.[253][311][312][315][319][320][321][322][323]

Japan[edit]

As of June 2015, the Nissan Leaf is the top selling plug-in electric car in Japan, with about 53,500 units sold since December 2010.[324]

As of March 2016, the stock of light-duty plug-in electric vehicles in Japan is the third largest in the world after the United States and China, with about 150,000 highway legal plug-in electric vehicles sold in the country since 2009.[310] During 2012, global sales of pure electric cars were led by Japan with a 28% market share of total sales, followed by the United States with a 26% share. Japan ranked second after the U.S. in terms of its share of plug-in hybrid sales in 2012, with a 12% of global sales.[325] A total of 30.587 highway-capable plug-in electric vehicles were sold in Japan in 2013.[278] In 2014 the segment sales remained flat with 30,390 units sold, and a market share of 1.06% of total new car sales in the country (kei cars not included).[278]

As of December 2014, the Nissan Leaf is the market leader with 48,641 units sold since December 2010,[326] followed by the Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV with 19,672 units sold since January 2013.[327] The Prius PHV has sold 19,100 units between January 2012 and September 2014,[328] and the Mitsubishi i-MiEV, launched for fleet customers in Japan in late July 2009, with cumulative sales of 10,423 i-MiEVs through September 2014.[327][329] Combined sales of the van and truck version of the Mitsubishi Minicab MiEV reached 6,291 units through December 2014.[327] Other models available in Japan are the Honda Accord Plug-in Hybrid, Tesla Model S, BMW i3, BMW i8, and the Nissan e-NV200, but official sales figures are not available.[330]

During 2013 sales were led by the Nissan Leaf with 13,021 units, followed by the Outlander P-HEV with 9,608 units.[327][331][332] The Leaf continued as the market leader in 2014 with 14,177 units sold,[333] followed by the Outlander P-HEV with 10,064 units,[327] together representing about 80% of the plug-in segment sales in Japan in 2014 (30,390).[330]

Europe[edit]

For more details of European and other countries, see electric car use by country.

Cumulative sales of light-duty plug-in electric vehicles in Europe passed the 500,000 unit milestone in May 2016, representing about a third of global sales.[7] Of these, 192,827 units (38.6%) were registered in 2015.[281][334] Out of the plug-in stock registered in 2015, passenger cars accounted for 186,170 units (96.5%).[335] European sales in the light-duty plug-in electric segment, which includes utility vans, were led by the Netherlands with almost 90,000 units registered at the end of 2015.[273] Almost 25% of the European stock is on the roads in the Nordic countries, with over 100,000 registered plug-in electric cars as of December 2015. Combined registrations in the four countries in 2015 were up 91% from 2014.[336][337] The stock of light-duty plug-in electric vehicles registered in Norway passed the 100,000 unit milestone in April 2016, making the country the fourth largest plug-in market in the world after the U.S., China and Japan, and becoming the leading European market.[310]

Annual sales of light-duty plug-in electric vehicles in Europe
by type of powertrain (2010-2015)
Year Total BEV
sales(1)
Growth
(BEVs)
Total
PHEV
sales
Growth
(PHEVs)
Total PEV
sales(2)
Growth
(PEVs)
PEV
market
share(3)
2010 2,919[338] - 0 - 2,919 - 0.01%[339]
2011 13,779[338] 372.0% 304[340] - 14,083 382.5% 0.08%[341]
2012 24,713[342] 79.4% 9,620[340][343] 3,064% 34,333 143.8% 0.23%[344]
2013 40,496[342] 63.9% 31,447[345] 226.9% 71,943 109.5% 0.53%[346]
2014 65,199[347] 61.0% 39,547[345] 25,8% 104,746 45.6% 0.75% [348]
2015 97,687[334] 49.8% 95,140[281] 240.6% 192,827 84.1% 1.41%[281]
Total 244,793 - 176,058 - 420,851 - -
Notes: (1) Battery electric vehicles (BEV) includes all-electric passenger cars and utility vans.
(2) Includes all-electric passenger cars, all-electric utility vans, and plug-in hybrids.
(3) Market share of the plug-in passenger segment of total new car sales (utility vans not included).

A total of 1,614 all-electric cars and 1,305 light-utility vehicles were sold in 2010. Sales jumped from 2,919 units in 2010 to 13,779 in 2011, consisting of 11,271 pure electric cars and 2,508 commercial vans.[338] In addition, over 300 plug-in hybrids were sold in 2011, mainly Opel Amperas.[340] Light-duty plug-in vehicle sales totaled 34,333 units in 2012, consisting of 24,713 all-electric cars and vans, and 9,620 plug-in hybrids.[340][342][343] The Opel/Vauxhall Ampera plug-in hybrid was Europe's top selling plug-in electric car in 2012 with 5,268 units, closely followed by the all-electric Nissan Leaf with 5,210 units.[340][349]

The Opel Ampera plug-in hybrid was the top selling plug-in electric car in Europe in 2012 with 5,268 units.[340]

The plug-in segment sales more than double to 71,943 units in 2013. Pure electric passenger and light commercial vehicles sales increased by 63.9% to 40,496 units.[342] In addition, a total of 31,477 extended-range cars and plug-in hybrids were sold in 2013.[345] Registrations reached 104,746 light-duty plug-in electric vehicles in 2014, up 45.6% from 2013. A total of 65,199 pure electric cars and light-utility vehicles were registered in Europe in 2014, up 60.9% from 2013. All-electric passenger cars represented 87% of the European all-electric segment registrations.[347] Extended-range cars and plug-in hybrid registrations totaled 39,547 units in 2014, up 25.8% from 2013.[345]

For the first time in the region, in 2015 plug-in hybrids (195,140) outsold all-electric cars (89,640) in the passenger car segment,[281] however, when light-duty plug-in utility vehicles are accounted for, the all-electric segment totaled 97,687 registrations in 2015, up 65,199 in 2014, and ahead of the plug-in hybrid segment.[334] Also in 2015, the European market share of plug-in electric cars passed the 1% mark for the first time, with a 1.41% share of new car sales that year.[281]

During 2013 took place a surge in sales of plug-in hybrids in the European market, particularly in the Netherlands, with 20,164 PHEVs registered during the year.[350][351] Out of the 71,943 highway-capable plug-in electric passenger cars and utility vans sold in the region during 2013, plug-in hybrids totaled 31,447 units, representing 44% of the plug-in electric vehicle segment sales that year.[342][345] This trend continued in 2014. Plug-in hybrids represented almost 30% of the plug-in electric drive sales during the first six months of 2014, and with the exception of the Nissan Leaf, sales of the previous European best selling models fell significantly, while recently introduced models captured a significant share of the segment sales, with the Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV, Tesla Model S, BMW i3, Renault Zoe, Volkswagen e-Up!, and the Volvo V60 Plug-in Hybrid ranking among the top ten best selling models.[352]

In 2014 Norway was the top selling country in the light-duty all-electric market segment, with 18,649 passenger cars and utility vans registered, more than doubling its 2013 sales. France ranked second with 15,046 units registered, followed by Germany with 8,804 units, the UK with 7,730 units, and the Netherlands with 3,585 car and vans registrations.[353] The Netherlands was the top selling country in the plug-in hybrid segment with 12,425 passenger cars registered,[354] followed by the UK with 7,821,[355] Germany with 4,527,[356] and Sweden 3,432 units.[279] Five European countries achieved plug-in electric car sales with a market share higher than 1% of new car sales in 2014, Norway (13.84%), the Netherlands (3.87%), Iceland (2.71%), Estonia (1.57%), and Sweden (1.53%).[278][279][280]

The Outlander P-HEV is the all-time top selling plug-in electric car in Europe with 59,264 units delivered as of December 2015.[357][358]

In 2013 the top selling plug-in was the Leaf with 11,120 units sold,[359] followed by the Outlander P-HEV with 8,197 units.[357] The Mitsubishi Outlander plug-in hybrid was the top selling plug-in electric vehicle in Europe in 2014 with 19,853 units sold,[358] surpassing of the Nissan Leaf (14,658), which fell to second place.[360] Ranking third was the Renault Zoe with 11,231 units.[361]

For a second year running, the Mitsubishi’s Outlander P-HEV was the top selling plug-in electric car in Europe with 31,214 units sold in 2015, up 57% from 2014.[358] The Renault Zoe ranked second among plug-in electric cars, with 18,727 registrations, and surpassed the Nissan Leaf to become best selling pure electric car in Europe in 2015.[334] Ranking next were the Volkswagen Golf GTE plug-in hybrid (17,300), followed by the all-electric Tesla Model S (15,515) and the Nissan Leaf (15,455), the BMW i3, including its REx variant, (12,047), and the Audi A3 e-tron plug-in hybrid (11,791).[334][358]

The Netherlands was the top selling country in the European light-duty plug-in electric market segment, with 43,971 passenger cars and utility vans registered in 2015. Norway ranked second with 34,455 units registered, followed by the UK with 28,188 units, France with 27,701 car and vans registrations, and Germany with 23,464 plug-in cars.[273] Eight European countries achieved plug-in electric car sales with a market share higher than 1% of new car sales in 2015, Norway (22.4%), the Netherlands (9.7%), Iceland (2.9%), Sweden (2.6%), Denmark (2.3%), Switzerland (2.0%), France (1.2%) and the UK (1.1%).[273][282]

As of December 2015, and accounting for cumulative sales since 2010, the Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV is the all-time top selling plug-in electric car in the region with 59,264 units delivered,[357][358] followed by the Nissan Leaf with 48,936 units,[326][334] Renault Zoe with 38,890 units,[362] Tesla Model S with 28,149,[334][363][364] and the BMW i3 with 23,268 units.[358][363][365] The Renault Kangoo Z.E. is the top selling all-electric utility van with 21,016 units.[362]

Top 12 selling plug-in electric car models in Europe
(sales or registrations between 2010-2015)
Ranking Model Total sales/
registrations
2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010
1 Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV[357][358] 59,264 31,214 19,853 8,197      
2 Nissan Leaf[326][334][340][359][363] 48,936 15,455 14,658 11,120 5,210 1,728 144
3 Renault Zoe[362] 38,890 18,728 11,231 8,863 68    
4 Tesla Model S[334][363][364] 28,149 15,515 8,734 ~3,900      
5 BMW i3[358][363][365] 23,268 12,047 9,744 1,477      
6 Renault Kangoo Z.E.[362] 21,016 4,238 4,197 5,850 5,260 991  
7 Volvo V60 Plug-in Hybrid[358][366][367][368] 19,898 6,349 5,441 8,066 42    
8 Volkswagen Golf GTE[358] 18,397 17,300 1,097        
9 Volkswagen e-Golf[334][363] 14,438 11,110 3,328        
10 Audi A3 e-tron[358] 12,945 11,791 1,154        
11 Toyota Prius PHV[369][370][371][372] 10,371 932 1,352 4,591 3,496    
12 Opel Ampera[340][366][373] 9,989 300 933 3,184 5,268 304  
Norway[edit]
Registration of plug-in electric vehicles in Norway by year between 2004 and 2015. Includes plug-in hybrids and all-electric cars and vans. Used imports are included.[374][375]

The stock of light-duty plug-in electric vehicles registered in Norway passed the 100,000 unit milestone in April 2016, making the country the world's fourth largest plug-in market.[310][376] Accounting for registrations of both new car sales and used imports, the Norwegian light-duty plug-in electric fleet consist of about 81,500 all-electric passenger cars, almost 17,100 plug-in hybrids, and over 2,000 all-electric vans.[310] Sales of used imports in Norway are significant, and as of December 2015, over 11,500 used plug-in vehicles from neighboring countries had been imported, mainly pure electric cars.[375][377][378] The government's target of 50,000 all-electric cars on Norwegian roads was reached in April 2015, more than two years earlier than expected, thanks to the successful policies implemented to promote electric vehicle adoption that include fiscal and non-monetary incentives.[379][380]

The Norwegian fleet of electric cars is one of the cleanest in the world because 98% of the electricity generated in the country comes from hydropower.[381][382] Norway, with about 5.2 million people, is the country with the largest EV ownweship per capita in the world.[383][384][385] In March 2014, Norway became the first country where over one in every 100 registered passenger cars is plug-in electric.[386] The segment's market penetration reached 2% in March 2015,[387] and passed 3% in December 2015.[388][389]

Historical evolution of the Norwegian plug-in electric car segment market share of new car sales and monthly records through June 2016. (Source: Norwegian Road Federation (OFV).

Also the Norwegian plug-in electric vehicle market share of new car sales is the highest in the world. The electric car segment market share rose from 1.6% in 2011, to 3.1% in 2012,[390] and reached 5.6% of new car sales in 2013.[374] In 2014, the all-electric market share climbed to 12.5%, and totaled 13.8% when plug-in hybrids are accounted for.[278][391] The combined sales of new plug-in cars reached a market share of 23.4% of all new passenger cars sold in 2015, all-electrics had 17.1%, while the plug-in hybrids had 5.2%.[273] During the first six months of 2016, the combined sales of new plug-in cars reached a market share of 28.4% of all new passenger cars sold; all-electrics with 15.1%, and plug-in hybrids reaching a record 13.3%, up from 4.5% in 2015.[392] The highest-ever monthly market share for plug-in electric passenger segment was achieved in March 2016 with 33.5% of new car sales (all-electrics 18.7% and plug-in hybrid 14.8%).[393][394]

Also, Norway was the first country in the world to have all-electric cars topping the new car sales monthly ranking. The Tesla Model S has been the top selling new car four times, twice in 2013, first in September and again in December,[395][396] one more time in March 2014,[397] and again in March 2015.[398][399][400] The Nissan Leaf has topped the monthly new car sales ranking twice, first in October 2013 and again in January 2014.[401][402][403] In March 2014 the Tesla Model S also broke the 28-year-old record for monthly sales of a single model regardless of its power source, with 1,493 units sold, surpassing the Ford Sierra, which sold 1,454 units in May 1986.[397][404] In March 2015 another record was set, with three all-electric cars ranking as the top 3 selling new cars in the country, the Tesla Model S with 1,140 units, the Volkswagen e-Golf with 956 (out of a total of 1,421 units sold by the Golf nameplate), and the Nissan Leaf with 526.[398][399][400] In July 2016, when new car registrations are break down by type of powertrain, a total of five plug-in cars ranked among the top 10 best selling new cars in Norway that month, with the Mitsubishi Outlander plug-in hybrid variant listed for the first time as the top selling new car.[405]

Electric cars have access to bus lanes in Norway. Shown a Nissan Leaf, the all-time top selling plug-in electric car in the country.

A total of 39,632 light-duty plug-in electric vehicles were registered in Norway in 2015, up 69.3% from 2014. New plug-in sales totaled 34,455 units, consisting of 25,779 pure electric cars, 7,964 plug-in hybrids, and 712 all-electric utility vans. In addition, 5,177 used imports were registered.[375] The VW e-Golf, with 8,943 units sold, was the best-selling plug-in electric car in 2015, ahead of the Tesla Model S (4,039) and the Nissan Leaf (3,189).[406] The top selling plug-in hybrid in 2015 was the Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV with 2,875 units, followed by the Volkswagen Golf GTE (2,000), and the Audi A3 e-tron (1,684).[406]

Sales of new light-duty plug-in vehicles totaled 22,425 units during the first half of 2016, consisting of 11,744 all-electric cars, 10,338 plug-in hybrids, and 343 all-electric vans.[392] The VW e-Golf continued to rank as top selling all-electric car during the first half of 2016 with 2,859 units, while the Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV was the top selling plug-in hybrid (2,843).[392] As of June 2016, the Nissan Leaf remained the all-time best selling plug-in electric car in the country with a total of 17,837 new Leafs registered since 2011.[377][392][406][407][408] When used imported Leafs from neighboring countries are accounted for, there were almost 25,000 Leafs on Norwegian roads by late June 2016, representing about 10% of Leaf global sales.[409] As of December 2015, the Volkswagen e-Golf ranked second, with 10,961 new units registered since 2014,[406] followed by the Tesla Model S, with 10,062 new units registered in Norway through December 2015,[377][406][407] representing about 10% of the Model S global sales.[410]

Netherlands[edit]
Registration of highway-capable plug-in electric vehicles in the Netherlands by year between 2010 and 2015.[354][411][412][413][414]

A total of 94,450 highway legal light-duty plug-in electric vehicles were registered in the Netherlands at the end of June 2016, consisting of 81,887 range-extended and plug-in hybrids, 11,041 pure electric cars, and 1,522 all-electric light utility vans. When buses, trucks, motorcycles, quadricycles and tricycles are accounted for, the Dutch plug-in electric-drive fleet climbs to 96,106 units.[415] The country's electric vehicle stock reaches 130,590 units when fuel cell electric vehicles (24), mopeds (3,728), electric bicycles (30,708), and microcars (239) are accounted for.[415] The Netherlands was the world's third best-selling country market for light-duty plug-in vehicles in 2015, with 43,971 plug-in passenger cars and utility vans registered that year.[273] The Netherlands is also among the country's with the highest EV market penetration in the world.[416]

Registrations of plug-in electric car represented a 0.57% share of total new car registrations in the country during 2011 and 2012.[417] During 2013 plug-in electric passenger car registrations totaled 22,415 units, climbing 338% from 2012, the highest rate of growth of any country in the world in 2013.[413][416] The segment's market share surged almost ten times from 2012 to 5.37% new car sales in the country during that year, the world's second highest in 2013 after Norway (5.6%). The rapid growth of segment during 2013, allowed the Netherlands to reach a market penetration for plug-in vehicles of around 1.71 vehicles per 1,000 people, second only to Norway (4.04).[416] The market share of the plug-in electric passenger car segment in 2014 fell to 3.86% of total new passenger car registrations, after the end of some of the tax incentives.[354][418] With 43,769 plug-in passenger cars registered in 2015, the segment market share rose to a record 9.7% of new car sales in the Dutch market in 2015, the second highest after Norway (22.4%).[273][419]

As of June 2016, the Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV is the all-time top selling plug-in electric vehicle in the Netherlands, with 24,656 units registered.[415]

In November 2013, a total of 2,736 Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEVs were sold, making the plug-in hybrid the top selling new car in the country that month, representing a market share of 6.8% of all the new cars sold.[420][421] Again in December 2013, the Outlander P-HEV ranked as the top selling new car in the country with 4,976 units, representing a 12.6% market share of new car sales, contributing to a world record plug-in vehicle market share of 23.8% of new car sales.[422][423] The Netherlands is the second country, after Norway, where plug-in electric cars have topped the monthly ranking of new car sales.[420][421][423] The strong increase of plug-in car sles during the last months of 2013 was due to the end of the total exemption of the registration fee for corporate cars, which is valid for 5 years. From January 1, 2014, all-electric vehicles pay a 4% registration fee and plug-in hybrids a 7% fee.[418]

The top 5 best-selling plug-in electric cars in 2015 were all plug-in hybrids, led by the Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV (8,757), followed by the Volkswagen Golf GTE (8,183), Audi A3 e-tron (4,354), Volvo V60 Plug-in Hybrid (3,851), and Volkswagen Passat GTE (2,879). The top selling all-electric car was the Tesla Model S (1,842).[424] Plug-in car sales achieved its best monthly volume on record ever in December 2015, with about 15,900 units sold, and allowing the segment to reach a record market share of about 23%. The surge in plug-in car sales was due to reduction of the registration fees for plug-in hybrids. From January 1, 2016, all-electric vehicles continue to pay a 4% registration fee, but for a plug-in hybrid the fee rises from 7% to 15% if its CO2 emissions do not exceed 50 g/km. The rate for a conventional internal combustion car is 25% of its book value.[425][426]

A total of 5,397 plug-in cars were registered in the first half of 2016, consisting of 3,724 plug-in hybrids and 1,673 all-electric cars. The market share of the plug-in car segment captured 2.8% of new car sales during the period.[415] As of June 2016, the Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV remains as the all-time top-selling plug-in car in the country with 24,656 registered. Ranking second is the Volvo V60 Plug-in Hybrid (14,732), followed by the Volkswagen Golf GTE (9,272), Tesla Model S (5,229), and Audi A3 e-tron (4,932).[415]

France[edit]
Further information: Electric cars in France
Registration of highway capable plug-in electric vehicles in France by type of vehicle between 2010 and 2015.[427][428][429][430][431][432][433][434]

Since January 2010, a total of 86,909 light-duty plug-in electric vehicles have been registered in France through April 2016, consisting of 54,066 electric passenger cars, 22,473 all-electric utility vans, and 10,370 plug-in hybrids.[273][427][428][429][430][431][432][433][434][435][436][437] Electric car registrations increased from 184 units in 2010 to 2,630 in 2011. Sales in 2012 increased 115% from 2011 to 5,663 cars.[427][438][439] Registrations reached 8,779 electric cars in 2013, up 55.0% from 2012,[428] and the all-electric market share of total new car sales went up to 0.49% from 0.3% in 2012.[439][440] In addition, 5,175 electric utility vans were registered in 2013, up 42% from 2012.[428] Sales of electric passenger cars and utility vans totaled 13,954 units in 2013,[428] capturing a combined market share of 0.65% of these two segments.[416] Almost 1,500 plug-in hybrids were registered during 2012 and 2013, 666 units in 2012,[441] and 808 units in 2013.[442][443]

A total of 15,045 all-electric cars and vans were registered in 2014, of which, pure electric passenger cars totaled 10,560 units.[431] This figure rises to 10,968 units if the BMW i3 with range extender is accounted for.[444] All-electric utility vans totaled 4,485 units registered in 2014.[431] All-electric cars captured a 0.59% market share of new car registered in France in 2014.[427] Light-duty all-electric vehicle sales achieved its best monthly volume on record ever in December 2014, with 2,227 units registered, twice the volume registered the same month in 2013.[431] Plug-in hybrid car registrations totaled 1,519 units in 2014, almost doubling registrations from a year earlier.[445] Plug-in hybrid sales were driven by the Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV, with 820 units registered in 2014, capturing 54% of the segment registrations in France that year.[446]

The Renault Zoe has led electric car sales in France since 2013, and ranks as the country's best selling plug-in electric car ever with 27,155 units registered through June 2016.[313]

In 2012, all-electric car registrations in France were led by the Bolloré Bluecar with 1,543 units.[447] The Renault Kangoo Z.E. was the top selling utility electric vehicle with 2,869 units registered in 2012.[448][449] The Renault Twizy electric quadricycle, launched in March 2012, sold 2,232 units during 2012, surpassing the Bolloré Bluecar, and ranked as the second best selling plug-in electric vehicle after the Kangoo Z.E.[450] In 2013, registrations of pure electric cars were led by the Renault Zoe with 5,511 units with 62.8% of total EV sales.[428] Registrations of all-electric light utility vehicles were led again by the Renault Kangoo Z.E. with 4,174 units.[428]

The Zoe continued leading all-electric vehicle registration in 2014, with 5,970 units registered, followed by the Kangoo Z.E. van with 2,657 registrations, and the Nissan Leaf ranked next with 1,600 units.[427][451] As of December 2014, the French leader in the all-electric segment is the Renault Zoe with 11,529 units registered since 2012, followed by the Kangoo Z.E. utility van with 10,483 units registered since 2010, the Bolloré Bluecar with 3,770 units, and the Nissan Leaf with 3,645 units.[427][428][451][452][453] Most units of the Bluecar are in operation for the Autolib' carsharing service in Paris, and similar carsharing programs in Lyon and Bordeaux.[454] As of June 2016, the Zoe remains as the all-time top selling plug-in electric car in France with 27,155 units registered since its inception in 2012.[313]

United Kingdom[edit]
Registration of plug-in electric vehicles in the UK between 2011 and December 2015.[355][455][456][457][458]

About 80,000 light-duty plug-in electric vehicles have been registered in the UK up until June 2016, including about 75,000 plug-in hybrids and all-electric cars, and about 4,000 plug-in commercial vans. This figure includes a significant number of registered plug-in electric cars and vans which were not eligible for the grant schemes.[459] Since the launch of the Plug-In Car Grant in January 2011, a total of 66,296 eligible cars have been registered through June 2016,[460] and, as of March 2016, the number of claims made through the Plug-in Van Grant scheme totaled 2,167 units since the launch of the scheme in 2012.[461]

Before the introduction of series production plug-in vehicles, a total of 1,096 all-electric vehicles were registered in the UK between 2006 and December 2010.[462] All-electric car sales grew from 138 units in 2010 to 1,082 units during 2011.[456][463] Before 2011, the G-Wiz, a heavy quadricycle, listed as the top-selling EV for several years.[464] During 2012, a total of 2,254 plug-in electric cars were registered in the UK. Sales in 2012 were led by the Nissan Leaf with 699 units.[458][465][466] Plug-in electric car registrations totaled 3,584 units in 2013,[458][467] and the segment had a 0.16% market share of new cars sold in the UK in 2013.[467] The top selling plug-in electric car in 2013 was again the Nissan Leaf, with over 1,650 units sold.[468]

The Nissan Leaf, with 12,433 units sold until 2015, has been the best-selling pure electric car in the UK for fourth year running.[468][469][470][471][472]

The British market experienced a rapid growth of plug-in car sales during 2014, driven by the introduction of new models such as the BMW i3, Tesla Model S, Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV, Renault Zoe, and Volkswagen e-Up!.[470][473][474] Plug-in electric car registrations in the UK quadruple to 14,518 units in 2014.[470] Registrations consisted of 6,697 pure electrics and 7,821 plug-in hybrids. The plug-in electric car segment captured a 0.59% market share of new car sales in 2014.[355] In November 2014 the passenger plug-in segment's market share passed 1% of monthly new car sales for the first time in the UK.[475][476] The Mitsubishi plug-in hybrid became the top selling plug-in electric vehicle in July 2014,[477] and ended 2014 as the top selling plug-in electric car in the UK that year with 5,370 units sold.[478][479] The Nissan Leaf sales also experienced a significant growth in 2014, with 4,051 units sold.[470]

Since March 2015, the Mitsubishi Outlander PHEV is the all-time top selling plug-in electric vehicle in the UK, and two years since launch, there were 21,053 Outlander P-HEVs in the UK's roads.[480][481]

The surge in demand for plug-in cars continued during 2015.[482] Plug-in electric car registrations in the UK totaled 28,188 units in 2015, consisting of 9,934 pure electric cars and 18,254 plug-in hybrids. The plug-in electric car segment raised its market share of new car sales in 2015 to almost 1.1%, up from 0.59% in 2014.[355][483] The plug-in segment reached a record market share of 1.7% of new car sales in the UK, the highest ever.[483] Sales of the Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV in the British market reached the 10,000 unit milestone in March 2015, allowing the plug-in hybrid to overtake the Leaf as the all-time top selling plug-in electric vehicle in the UK.[480][484] The Leaf passed the 10,000 unit milestone in June 2015.[485] The top selling models in 2015 were the Outlander P-HEV with 11,681 units registered, followed by the Leaf with 5,236 units, and the BMW i3 with 2,213 units.[469]

Plug-in car sales in March 2016 achieved the best monthly plug-in sales volume on record ever, with 7,144 grant eligible cars registered, exceeding the previous high of 6,104 units, recorded in March 2015.[486][487] A total of 19,252 plug-in electric cars were registered in the UK during the first half of 2016, consisting of 5,267 pure electrics and 13,985 plug-in hybrids. During the first half of 2016 the plug-in car segment's market share reached 1.36% of new car sales.[460] While overall new car registrations year-to-date increased 3.2% from the same period in 2015, total plug-in car registrations during the first six months of 2016 increased 31.8% from 2015.[460] Registrations during the first six months of 2016 recorded the highest-volume half-year ever for plug-in electric car registrations.[488] As of June 2016, the Outlander P-HEV remained the all-time top selling plug-in electric car in the UK, with 22,783 units registered,[469][488] and the Nissan Leaf continued to rank as the top selling all-electric car ever, with 14,769 units registered.[468][469][470][471][488]

Germany[edit]
Annual registration of plug-in electric vehicles in Germany by type of vehicle between 2010 and 2015.[356][489][490][491][492]

As of April 2016, there were about 57,000 plug-in electric cars registered in Germany.[493][494] About 73% of the about 50,000 plug-in cars registered in the country by the end of 2015 took place during the last two years, with 13,049 units registered in 2014, and 23,464 registered in 2015.[356][490][493] The official German definition of electric vehicles changed at the beginning of 2013, before that, official statistics only registered all-electric vehicles because plug-in hybrids were accounted together with conventional hybrids. As a result, the registrations figures for 2012 and older do not account for total new plug-in electric car registrations.[495]

Total plug-in electric car registrations increased from 1,558 units in 2009 to 2,307 in 2010. The total registered plug-in electric stock in 2011 increased to 4,541 cars, to 7,114 in 2012, and reached 12,156 registered cars on 1 January 2014.[496] Registrations of plug-in electric drive vehicles represented a 0.028% market share of all passenger vehicles registered in Germany at the beginning of 2014.[496] The plug-in hybrid segment in the German market in 2014 experienced an explosive growth of 226.9% year-over-year, and the overall plug-in segment increased 75.5% from a year earlier.[356][489] The surge in sales continued in 2015, the plug-in hybrid segment grew 125.1% year-over-year, while the all-electric segment climbed 91.2% from the previous year.[490]

As of December 2013, the Smart electric drive led plug-in electric car registrations in Germany with 2,952 units.[496]

A total of 2,956 all-electric vehicles were registered in Germany during 2012, a 37.2% increase over 2011.[492] When 901 registered plug-in hybrids are accounted for, 2012 registrations climb to 3,857 units,[492][497] and sales of plug-in electric car represented a 0.12% market share of new passenger vehicles sold in the country in 2012.[498] Most sales in the country were made by corporate and fleet customers and 1,493 all-electric vehicles were registered by the automobile industry, as demonstration or research vehicles.[492] Registrations of plug-in electric-drive vehicles were led by the Opel Ampera extended-range electric car with 828 units, followed by the Smart electric drive with 734 units.[497][499] In addition, a total of 2,413 Renault Twizys were sold during 2012, making Germany the top selling European market for the electric quadricycle.[450][500]

The BMW i3 led plug-in car registrations in Germany in 2014.[501]

A total of 5,042 plug-in electric cars were registered in Germany in 2013.[496] Registrations were led by the Smart electric drive with 2,146 units, followed by Renault Zoe with 1,019, the Nissan Leaf with 855 units, and the BMW i3 with 559.[502][503] During the first six months of 2014 the BMW i3 was the leader, with 1,378 units registered, followed by the Volkswagen e-Up! with 884 and the Smart ED with 645.[504][505] Accounting for registrations of plug-in electric cars between January 2010 and June 2014, the leading model is the Smart electric drive with 3,959 units registered, with a significant number in use by carsharing services, followed by the BMW i3 with 1,937 units, the Renault Zoe with 1,532, and the Opel Ampera with 1,450 units.[491][492][496][497][502][504][505][506]

Canada[edit]
Several electric cars charging in downtown Toronto. From farthest to closest, a Nissan Leaf, a Smart ED, and a Mitsubishi i MiEV.

Cumulative sales of plug-in electric cars in Canada passed the 20,000 unit mark in May 2016.[507] The Chevrolet Volt, released in 2011, is the all-time top selling plug-in electric vehicle in the country, with cumulative sales of 6,707 units through June 2016, representing over 30% of all plug-in cars sold in the country.[298][507] Ranking second is the Tesla Model S with 4,396 units sold, followed by the Nissan Leaf with 3,815 units delivered, both as of June 2016.[263]

As of December 2015, there were 18,451 highway legal plug-in electric cars registered in Canada, consisting of 10,034 (54%) all-electric cars and 8,417 (46%) plug-in hybrids.[508] Until 2014 Canadian sales were evenly split between all-electric cars (50.8)% and plug-in hybrids (49.2%).[509] The Model S was the top selling plug-in electric car in Canada in 2015 with 2,010 units sold.[263][508]

Top selling PEV models[edit]

For more details of sales by model, see list of modern production plug-in electric vehicles.

All-electric cars and vans[edit]

The Nissan Leaf is the world's top selling highway legal plug-in electric car in history. Global Leaf sales passed the 200,000 unit milestone in December 2015, five years after its introduction.[510][511]

The world's top selling highway-capable all-electric car ever is the Nissan Leaf with global sales of more than 228,000 units by the end of June 2016.[512] The top market for Leaf sales is the United States with 95,384 units delivered,[298] followed by Japan with 67,106,[513][514] and Europe with 60,228, all markets through June 2016.[326][515][516] The European market is led by Norway with 17,837 new units registered up until June 2016.[375][377][392][407][408]

Ranking second is the all-electric Tesla Model S, with global deliveries of over 129,000 units through June 2016, with the United States as its leading market with about 75,000 units sold.[298] Norway is the Model S largest overseas market, with 11,303 new units registered through June 2016,[375][377][392][407] followed by China with 5,524 units registered through September 2015.[517][518] The world's top selling all-electric light utility vehicle is the Renault Kangoo Z.E., with global sales of 23,219 electric vans delivered through June 2016.[362]

The following table presents global sales of the top selling highway-capable electric cars and light utility vehicles produced between 2008 and June 2016. The table includes all-electric passenger cars and utility vans with cumulative sales of about or over 20,000 units since the introduction of the first modern production all-electric car in 2008, the Tesla Roadster.

Top selling highway legal electric cars and light
utility vehicles produced between 2008 and June 2016(1)
Model Market
launch
Global
sales
Sales
through
Nissan Leaf Dec 2010 + 228,000 Jun 2016[512]
Tesla Model S Jun 2012 129,393 Jun 2016[1]
Renault Zoe Dec 2012 51,193 Jun 2016[1]
BMW i3 Nov 2013 ~ 49,500(2) Jun 2016[1]
Mitsubishi i-MiEV family Jul 2009 ~ 37,600 Jun 2016[1]
BAIC EV series 2012 33,809(3) Jun 2016[311][315][519][520]
Volkswagen e-Golf May 2014 24,498(4) Jun 2016[261][293][521][522][523]
BYD e6 Oct 2011 23,483(3) Jun 2016[311][315][524][525][526]
JAC J3/iEV family 2010 23,241(3) Jun 2016[311][315][519][520][527][528]
Renault Kangoo Z.E. Oct 2011 23,219 Jun 2016.[362]
Cumulative global sales 2008–June 2016 ~925,000 Jun 2016[266][273]
Notes:
(1) Vehicles are considered highway-capable if able to achieve at least a top speed of
100 km/h (62 mph). Several models, such as the Chery QQ3 EV/eQ EV, Kandi EV and
the Zotye Zhidou E20, are highway legal in China but do not meet this requirement.
(2) BMW i3 sales includes the REx variant.
(3) Sales in main China only. (4) Sales in Europe and the U.S. only.

Plug-in hybrids[edit]

The Volt/Ampera family is the world's best selling plug-in hybrid. Combined global sales of Volt and Ampera models passed the 100,000 unit milestone in October 2015.[529]

As of June 2016, the Volt/Ampera family is the world's best selling plug-in hybrid and the third best selling plug-in electric car after the Nissan Leaf and the Model S. Chevrolet Volt and Opel/Vauxhaul Ampera combined sales totaled about 117,300 units worldwide, including just over 10,000 Opel/Vauxhall Amperas sold in Europe through June 2016.[1] Volt sales are led by the United States with 98,558 units delivered, followed by Canada with 6,707 units, both through June 2016.[298][530] The Netherlands is the leading Ampera market with 4,947 units registered as of December 2015.[531]

Ranking next is the Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV with about 107,000 units sold worldwide as of June 2016.[313] As of March 2016, Europe ranked as the Outlander P-HEV leading market with 65,529 units sold, followed by Japan with 33,730 units.[532] European sales are led by the Netherlands with 24,572 units registered,[533] followed by the UK with 21,053 units registered, both at the end of March 2016,[481] and Sweden with 4,433 units sold through November 2015.[534]

Ranking third is the first generation Toyota Prius Plug-in Hybrid with 75,400 units sold worldwide through April 2016.[535] The United States is the market leader with 42,366 units delivered through June 2016.[293][536] Japan ranks next with about 22,100 units, followed by Europe with 10,500 units, both, through April 2016.[535] The leading European market is the Netherlands with 4,134 units registered as of 30 November 2015.[537] Production of the first generation Prius Plug-in ended in June 2015.[538] The second generation Prius plug-in hybrid, the Toyota Prius Prime, is expected to be released in the U.S. by the end of 2016.[539]

The following table presents cumulative sales through June 2016 of those plug-in hybrid models that have sold about 10,000 units since the introduction of the first modern production plug-in hybrid vehicle in December 2008, the BYD F3DM.

Top selling highway legal plug-in hybrid electric cars
between 2008 and June 2016
Model Market
launch
Global
sales
Sales
through
Chevrolet Volt(1) Dec 2010 ~117,300 Jun 2016[1]
Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV Jan 2013 ~107,400 Jun 2016[1]
Toyota Prius PHV Jan 2012 +75,400 Jun 2016[1]
BYD Qin(2) Dec 2013 56,191 Jun 2016[1]
BYD Tang(2) Jun 2015 37,509 Jun 2016[1]
Ford Fusion Energi(3) Feb 2013 35,118 Jun 2016[261][263][293][300]
Ford C-Max Energi(4) Oct 2012 30,692 Jun 2016[261][263][293][312][521]
Volkswagen Golf GTE Aug 2014 24,089 Jun 2016[358][523]
Volvo V60 Plug-in Hybrid Nov 2012 21,185 Jun 2016[358][368][540][541]
SAIC Roewe 550 PHEV(2) Nov 2013 20,422 Jun 2016[311][542][543]
Audi A3 Sportback e-tron(5) Aug 2014 18,467 Jun 2016[263][293][358][523][544]
Volvo XC90 T8(5) Aug 2015 9,044 Jun 2016[261][263][293][521][523]
BMW i8(5) Aug 2014 8,789 Jun 2016[263][293][545][546][547]
Cumulative global sales Dec 2008–June 2016 ~620,000 Jun 2016[266][273]
Notes: (1) Includes Vauxhall/Opel Ampera sales in Europe, and Holden Volt in Australia and New Zealand.
This figure includes about 10,000 Opel/Vauxhall Amperas sold in Europe through December 2015.[548]
(2) Sales in China only. (3) Sales in the U.S. and Canada only. (4) Only includes European sales for 2015.
(5) Only accounts for CYTD 2016 sales in Europe, U.S. and Canada.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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  282. ^ a b Jose, Pontes (2016-02-03). "Markets Roundup December 2015 (Special Edition)". EVSales.com. Retrieved 2016-02-17.  For countries with top PEV market share in 2015 see "Engines of Growth:" Hong Kong 4.84%, Denmark 2.29%, Sweden 2.62%, and Switzerland 1.98%.
  283. ^ Zachary Shahan (2013-03-07). "Electric vehicle market share in 19 countries". ABB Conversations. Retrieved 2014-04-12. 
  284. ^ Jose, Pontes (2016-01-29). "Iceland December 2015". EVSales.com. Retrieved 2016-02-17.  Plug-in electric car sales in Iceland reached a market share of 2.93%f of new car sales in 2015.
  285. ^ Jose Pontes (2015-01-10). "Denmark December 2014". EVSales.com. Retrieved 2015-03-15. Denmark's PEV market shared in 2014 was 0.88% of total new car sales. 
  286. ^ Jose Pontes (2015-01-18). "Switzerland December 2014". EVSales.com. Retrieved 2015-03-15. Switzerland's PEV market shared in 2014 was 0.75% of total new car sales. 
  287. ^ Statistik Austria (2016-03-16). "Kraftfahrzeuge - Neuzulassungen: Neuzulassungen nach Jahren" [Motor vehicles - registrations: Registrations by year] (in German). Statistik Austria. Retrieved 2016-03-20.  Download the file "Kfz-Neuzulassungen Jänner bis Dezember 2015." A total of 2,778 passenger plug-in electric cars were sold in Austria in 2015 (consisting of 1,677 all-electrics, 931 gasoline-powered plug-in hybrids, and 170 diesel-powered plug-in hybrids) out of 308,555 passenger cars, resulting in a market share of 0.90% (see pp. 78 PDF version).
  288. ^ a b c California New Car Dealers Association (CNCDA) (February 2016). "California New Vehicle Registrations Expected to Remain Above 2 Million Units in 2016" (PDF). CNCDA. Retrieved 2016-02-17.  Registrations through December 2015 since 2011. Revised figures for 2014.
  289. ^ Staff (February 2016). "Europe Plug-in Sales Q4 and Full Year 2015". EVvolumes.com. Retrieved 2016-02-19. 
  290. ^ International Council on Clean Transportation (ICCT) (2014). "European Vehicle Market Statistics Pocketbook" (PDF). ICCT. Retrieved 2016-02-21.  See page 88: EU-28 market share in 2013 was 0.42% (includes all-electric cars and plug-in hybrids). Adjusted to consider sales/registrations in Norway (5.79%) and Switzerland (0.57%) the market share rises to 0.49%.
  291. ^ Electric Drive Transportation Association (EDTA) (January 2016). "Electric Drive Sales Dashboard". EDTA. Retrieved 2016-01-21.  Sales figures sourced from HybridCars.com and direct reports submitted by EDTA member companies. Sales reported do not include the Fisker Karma
  292. ^ HybridCars.com and Baum & Associates. "HybridCars Dashboard". HybridCars.com. Retrieved 2015-07-07. 
  293. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Cobb, Jeff (2016-07-05). "June 2016 Dashboard". HybridCars.com and Baum & Associates. Retrieved 2016-07-11. 
  294. ^ Alan Ohnsman (2014-09-09). "Californians Propel Plug-In Car Sales With 40% of Market". Bloomberg News. Retrieved 2014-09-09. 
  295. ^ Cobb, Jeff (2016-03-14). "Californians Will Buy 200,000th Plug-in Car By This Month". HybridCars.com. Retrieved 2016-03-15.  Sales of plug-in electric cars in California passed the 200,000 unit milestone in March 2016, representing 47% of the 425,000 plug-in electric cars sold in the U.S. through February 2016.
  296. ^ Stacy C. Davis; Susan W. Diegel & Robert G. Boundy (July 2014). "Transportation Energy Data Book Edition 33" (PDF). Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, U.S. Department of Energy. Retrieved 2014-09-02.  See Table 6.5: Hybrid and Plug-in Vehicle Sales, 1999-2013, pp. 6-9.
  297. ^ Jeff Cobb (2014-09-09). "Americans Buy Their 250,000th Plug-In Car". HybridCars.com. Retrieved 2014-09-09.  As of August 2014, sales are led by the Chevrolet Volt plug-in hybrid with 67,698 units, followed by the Nissan Leaf electric car with 61,063 units. The total of 250,609 units sold includes 1,800 Roadsters, 1,600 Fisker Karmas, and 500 Mini Es usually not captured by most statistics.
  298. ^ a b c d e Cobb, Jeff (2016-07-26). "Top-Selling Chevy Volt Crosses 100,000 US Sales Milestone". HybridCars.com. Retrieved 2016-08-13. 
  299. ^ Jeff Cobb (2013-01-08). "December 2012 Dashboard". HybridCars.com and Baum & Associates. Retrieved 2013-01-14.  See the section: December 2012 Plug-in Electric Car Sales Numbers. A total of 53,172 plug-in electric vehicles were sold during 2012. Sales of the Fisker Karma, Coda and Wheego are not included, as these carmakers do not report monthly sales on a regular basis.
  300. ^ a b c Jeff Cobb (2014-01-06). "December 2013 Dashboard". HybridCars.com and Baum & Associates. Retrieved 2015-03-21.  Shows U.S. total sales for 2012 and 2013.
  301. ^ Cobb, Jeff (2016-02-17). "California Plug-in Sales Led The US Last Year With Nearly Five-Times Greater Market Share". HybridCars.com. Retrieved 2016-02-18.  California's plug-in electric car market share was 3.1%, ranking behind only two countries, the Netherlands (9.7%) and Norway (22.7%). The administrative territory of Hong Kong also had a higher market share of 4.8%.
  302. ^ Cole, Jay (2016-07-01). "June 2016 Plug-In Electric Vehicle Sales Report Card". InsideEVs.com. Retrieved 2016-07-04.  Since their inception in December 2010, a total of 98,558 Chevrolet Volts and 95,384 Nissan Leafs have been sold in the United States up until June 2016.
  303. ^ a b c Tesla Motors (2016-02-10). "Tesla Fourth Quarter & Full Year 2015 Update" (PDF). Tesla Motors. Retrieved 2016-02-10.  A total of 17,478 units were delivered globaly during the fourth quarter of 2015, including 206 Model X vehicles. Model S sales in the United States totaled 16,689 units in 2014 and 25,202 in 2015.
  304. ^ a b China Association of Automobile Manufacturers (CAAM) (2016-01-20). "New energy vehicles enjoyed a high-speed growth". CAAM. Retrieved 2016-01-21. 
  305. ^ a b China Association of Automobile Manufacturers (CAAM) (2015-01-14). "The sales and production of new energy vehicles boomed". CAAM. Retrieved 2015-01-14. 
  306. ^ China Association of Automobile Manufacturers (2012-01-16). "5,579 electric cars sold in China in 2011". Wind Energy and Electric Vehicle Review. Retrieved 2014-01-12. 
  307. ^ Cars21.com (2013-02-13). "EV sales increase 103.9% in China in 2012- Electric China Weekly No 17". Cars21.com. Retrieved 2014-01-12. 
  308. ^ Staff (2016-05-11). "中汽协:4月新能源汽车产销同步破3万辆 同比增长近2倍" [Automobile Association: April sales of new energy vehicles sync break 30,000, an increase of nearly 2-fold] (in Chinese). D1EV.com. Retrieved 2016-07-31.  Sales of new energy vehicles totaled 31,772 units in April 2016, consisting of 23,908 all-electric vehicles and 7,864 plug-in hybrids.
  309. ^ Choi Dong (2016-01-10). "15年新能源乘用车销17.7万增2倍" [In 2015 with 177,000 units, new energy passenger car sales increased two-fold]. Auto.sohu.com (in Chinese). Retrieved 2016-02-08.  See the monthly sales graph/table in top of the article for an accurate figure of 2015 sales: 176,627 plug-in passenger cars.
  310. ^ a b c d e Cobb, Jeff (2016-05-09). "Norway Is Fourth Country To Register 100,000 Plug-in Cars". HybridCars.com. Retrieved 2016-05-09.  As of April 2016, the United States is the leading country market with a stock of about 450,000 highway legal light-duty plug-in electric vehicles delivered since 2008. China ranks second with around 300,000 units sold since 2011, followed by Japan with about 150,000 plug-in units sold since 2009, both through March 2016. European sales are led by Norway with over 100,000 units registered by the end of April 2016.
  311. ^ a b c d e f g Staff (2015-01-14). "2014 EV Sales Ranking". China Auto Web. Retrieved 2016-02-07.  A total of 5,234 E150 EVs (EV200), and about 1,000 J3 EVs were sold in China in 2014.
  312. ^ a b c d Jeff Cobb (2015-02-11). "2014's Top-10 Global Best-Selling Plug-in Cars". HybridCars.com. Retrieved 2015-03-15. 
  313. ^ a b c d Cobb, Jeff (2016-08-01). "Renault Zoe and BMW i3 Join The 50,000 Sales Club". HybridCars.com. Retrieved 2016-08-01.  As of June 2016, cumulative global sales of the top selling plug-in electric cars were led by the Nissan Leaf (about 225,000), Tesla Model S (over 129,000), Votl/Ampera family (over 117,000), Mitsubishi Outlander PHEV (about 107,000), Toyota Prius PHV (over 75,000), BYD Qin (56,191), Renault Zoe (51,193), and BMW i3 (almost 50,000).
  314. ^ Jose, Pontes (2016-01-12). "China December 2015 (3rd Update)". EVSales.com. Retrieved 2016-02-08. 
  315. ^ a b c d e Staff (2016-01-14). "Sales Ranking of China-made Pure-electric Cars in 2015". China Auto Web. Retrieved 2016-08-16.  A total of 16,488 BAIC E-Series EVs, and over 9,000 JAC iEVs were sold in China in 2015.
  316. ^ Staff (2016-02-13). "Best-selling China-made SUVs in 2015". China Auto Web. Retrieved 2016-01-17.  A total of 18,375 Tangs were sold in China in 2015.
  317. ^ Staff (2016-01-14). "Sales Ranking of China-made Pure-electric Cars in 2015". China Auto Web. Retrieved 2016-02-10.  A total of 16,736 Kandi EVs, 16,488 BAIC E-Series EVs, and 15,467 Zotye Z100 EVs were sold in China in 2015.
  318. ^ a b Jose, Pontes (2016-07-17). "China June 2016". EVSales.com. Retrieved 2016-07-31. 
  319. ^ a b Staff (2016-07-13). "Best-selling Sedans, SUVs, and MPVs in June 2016". China Auto Web. Retrieved 2016-07-31.  A total of 3,519 BYD Tangs and 2,751 Qins were sold in China in June 2016.
  320. ^ Wanxiang, Liu (2016-04-11). "乘联会:3月新能源乘用车销量回升至1.56万辆 比亚迪北汽江淮包揽前三" [By the Federation: March passenger car sales rose to 15,600, BYD, BAIC and JAC swept the first three places] (in Chinese). D1EV.com. Retrieved 2016-04-12.  A total of 1,143 BYD Qin plug-in hybrids and 229 all-electric variants were sold in China in March 2016.
  321. ^ Gasnier, Mat (2016-03-17). "China February 2016: VW Lavida #1 but 8 in Top 12 are Chinese in market down 1.5%". Best Selling Cars Blog. Retrieved 2016-03-20.  A total of 6,110 BYD Tangs and 1,580 Qins were sold in China during the first two months of 2016.
  322. ^ Staff (May 2016). "Chinese car sales data: BYD Qin". Left-lane.com. Retrieved 2016-05-17.  A total of 1,225 BYD Qin plug-in hybrids were sold in China in April 2016.
  323. ^ Staff (2016-06-13). "Best-selling New Cars in May 2016". China Auto Web. Retrieved 2016-06-19.  A total of 2,705 BYD Qins were sold in China in May 2016.
  324. ^ "Renault-Nissan Alliance Sells Its 250,000th Electric Vehicle" (Press release). Paris/Yokohama: Renault-Nissan Alliance. 2015-06-24. Retrieved 2015-06-28.  The Nissan Leaf is the world's all-time best selling highway-capable plug-in electric car, with global sales of over 180,000 units by early June 2015.
  325. ^ International Energy Agency, Clean Energy Ministerial, and Electric Vehicles Initiative (April 2013). "Global EV Outlook 2013 - Understanding the Electric Vehicle Landscape to 2020" (PDF). International Energy Agency. Retrieved 2013-04-20.  See pp. 4, 6-8, and 11-12.
  326. ^ a b c d "Renault-Nissan Alliance Sales Rise For Fifth Straight Year In 2014 To 8.5 Million Vehicles" (Press release). Paris: Nissan Motor Corporation. 2015-02-04. Retrieved 2016-03-27.  Cumulative Leaf sales in Europe totaled 33,481 units at the end of 2014.
  327. ^ a b c d e "三菱 i-MiEVなどの2014年12月度 生産・販売実績" [Mitsubishi i-MiEV production and sales results for December 2014] (in Japanese). Electric Vehicle News. 2015-01-28. Retrieved 2015-02-18. .
  328. ^ "Toyota Is Global Hybrid Leader With Sales Of 7 Million" (Press release). Torrance, California: PR Newswire. 2014-10-13. Retrieved 2014-10-15. 
  329. ^ Mark Kane (2014-01-14). "Sales Of Mitsubishi MiEV in Japan Fell Off Sharply in 2013; Battery Production Constraints Probable Cause". InsideEVs.com. Retrieved 2014-08-16.  A total of 9,402 i MiEVs were sold between July 2009 and December 2013.
  330. ^ a b Jose Pontes (2015-01-30). "Japan December 2014". EVSales.com. Retrieved 2015-02-18. 
  331. ^ Jose Pontes (2014-01-30). "Japan December 2013". EV Sales. Retrieved 2014-02-19.  Excludes sales of Nissan NMC units (45), which is a low-speed neighborhood vehicle.
  332. ^ Mark Kane (2014-01-30). "Nissan LEAF Sales In Japan Up 17% in 2013". InsideEVs.com. Retrieved 2014-02-08. 
  333. ^ Mark Kane (2015-02-09). "Nissan LEAF Sales In Japan Up 9% To 14,000 In 2014". InsideEVs.com. Retrieved 2015-02-18.  A total of 14,177 units were sold in Japan during 2014.
  334. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Association Nationale pour le Développement de la Mobilité Electrique - AVERE France (2016-03-24). "Quelle est la place de la France sur le marché européen du véhicule électrique ?" [What is the place of France in the European electric vehicle market] (in French). AVERE. Retrieved 2016-03-27.  A total of 97,687 all-electric vehicles, including vans, were registered in the European market in 2015, up from 65,199 in 2014 (+49.8%). The top selling electric cars were the Renault Zoe (18,727), Tesla Model S (15,515), Nissan Leaf (15,455), and the Volkswagen e-Golf (11,110). The Renault Kangoo Z.E. registered 4,328 units in Europe in 2015.
  335. ^ European Automobile Manufacturers Association (ACEA) (February 2016). "New Passenger Car Registrations By Alaternative Fuel Type In The European Union Quarter 4 2015" (PDF). ACEA. Retrieved 2016-02-08.  See table Electric Vehicles: Total Europe (EU+EFTA), 186,170 registered units in 2015 (includes Norway and Switzerland). For Denmark and Romania only pure electric vehicles are included. Electric Vehicles = pure electric vehicles (BEV) + extended‐range electric vehicles (EREV) + plug‐in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) + fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEV).
  336. ^ Ida Warner (2016-02-15). "Over 100.000 ladbare biler i Norden" [Over 100,000 plug-in cars in the Nordic countries]. Insero.com (in Norwegian). Norsk Elbilforening (Norwegian Electric Vehicle Association). Retrieved 2016-02-15.  Out of over 100,000 plug-in passenger cars registered in the Nordic countries at the end of 2015, a total of 74,883 were registered in Norway, 16,187 in Sweden, 7,926 in Denmark, and 1,479 in Finland (see graph).
  337. ^ Cobb, Jeff (2016-02-16). "Nordic Countries Buy Their 100,00th Plug-in Car in 2015". HybridCars.com. Retrieved 2016-02-16. 
  338. ^ a b c European Association for Battery, Hybrid and Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles (AVERE) (2012-11-26). "AVERE Data Collection – from June to August 2012" (PDF). AVERE. Retrieved 2015-02-21.  See Figure 1.1 Electric Vehicle sales in Europe since 2010. Only pure electric cars are reported. In 2010 there were no production plug-in hybrids in sale in Europe.
  339. ^ Henk Bekker (2011-01-17). "2010 Europe: Car Sales Statistics by Country". BestSellingCars.com. Retrieved 2015-02-21.  A total of 13,785,698 new cars were registered in the European Union and EFTA countries in 2010.
  340. ^ a b c d e f g h Mat Gasnier (2013-02-10). "Europe Full Year 2012: Now with Top 350 models & Top 60 brands". Best Selling Cars Blog. Retrieved 2013-02-13.  A total of 1,728 Leafs were sold in Europe in 2011 and 5,210 in 2012. Ampera sales in Europe totaled 5,268 units in 2012 and 304 in 2011.
  341. ^ Henk Bekker (2012-01-17). "2011 Full Year Car Sales by European Country". BestSellingCars.com. Retrieved 2015-02-21.  A total of 13,768,401 new cars were registered in the European Union and EFTA countries in 2011.
  342. ^ a b c d e AVERE-France (2014-03-14). "Europe - Les ventes de véhicules électriques en hausse en 2013" [Europe - Sales of electric vehicles on the rise in 2013] (in French). AVERE-France. Retrieved 2015-01-21. 
  343. ^ a b Jose Pontes (2013-02-03). "Europe Full Year 2012". EV sales. Retrieved 2013-01-12.  During 2012 a total of 3,496 Prius PHV, 609 Chevrolet Volts and 247 Fisker Karmas were sold in Europe.
  344. ^ Henk Bekker (2013-01-16). "2012 (Full Year) Europe: Best-Selling Car Manufacturers and Brands". BestSellingCars.com. Retrieved 2015-02-21.  A total of 12,527,912 new cars were registered in the European Union and EFTA countries in 2012.
  345. ^ a b c d e European Automobile Manufacturers Association (ACEA) (February 2015). "New Electric Vehicles Registrations In The European Union" (PDF). ACEA. Retrieved 2015-02-18.  See table Total Electrically Charged Vehicles: Total Europe (EU+EFTA), 65,071 registered units for 2013 and 97,791 units for 2014. For Denmark, Ireland and Romania includes only pure electric vehicles. Total Electrically Charged Vehicles = Pure Electric Vehicles + Extended‐Range Electric Vehicles + Plug‐In Hybrid Electric Vehicles.
  346. ^ Henk Bekker (2014-01-20). "2013 (Full Year) Europe: Best-Selling Car Manufacturers, Brands and Models". BestSellingCars.com. Retrieved 2015-02-21.  A total of 12,308,215 new cars were registered in the European Union and EFTA countries in 2013.
  347. ^ a b AVERE France (2015-01-30). "En Europe, le marché du véhicule électrique a progressé de + 60,9 % en 2014" [In Europe, the electric vehicle market grew by 60.9% in 2014] (PDF) (in French). AVERE France. Retrieved 2015-11-21.  A total of 65,199 electric cars and utility vehicles were registered in Europe in 2014, up 60.9% from 2013. Passenger cars represented 87% of total all-electric registrations.
  348. ^ Henk Bekker (2015-01-21). "2014 (Full Year) Europe: Car Sales by EU Country". BestSellingCars.com. Retrieved 2015-02-21.  A total of 13,006,451 new cars were registered in the European Union and EFTA countries in 2014.
  349. ^ "Opel Ampera – a Pioneer of Green Mobility Europe's Most Successful Passenger EV". The European Financial Review. 2012-12-11. Retrieved 2013-02-11. 
  350. ^ Rijksdienst voor Ondernemend Nederland (RVO) (March 2014). "Cijfers elektrich vervoer - Aantal geregistreerde elektrische voertuigen in Nederland" [Figures electric transport - Number of registered electric vehicles in Netherlands] (in Dutch). RVO (Dutch National Office for Enterprising). Retrieved 2014-03-16. 
  351. ^ Zachary Shahan (2014-02-26). "Top European Countries For 100%-Electric Car Sales & Plug-In Hybrid Electric Car Sales (Charts)". Clean Technica. Retrieved 2014-03-16. 
  352. ^ Michaël Torregrossa (2014-08-04). "Europe – Plus de 40.000 véhicules rechargeables vendus au premier semestre 2014" [Europe - Over 40,000 plug-in vehicles sold in the first half of 2014] (in French). Association pour l'Avenir du Véhicule Electrique Méditerranéen (AVEM). Retrieved 2014-08-25. 
  353. ^ AVERE-France (2015-01-30). "Immatriculations de véhicules électriques en Europe : +60% en 2014 !" [Registrations of electric vehicles in Europe: +60% in 2014] (in French). AVERE France. Retrieved 2014-02-23. 
  354. ^ a b c Rijksdienst voor Ondernemend Nederland (RVO) (January 2015). "Special: Analyse over 2014" [Special: Analysis over 2014] (PDF) (in Dutch). RVO (Dutch National Office for Enterprising). Retrieved 2015-02-24.  See total 2014 registration by type of PEV under the heading "31-12-2014". The market share of the plug-in electric passenger car segment in 2014 was 3.86% of total new passenger car registrations.
  355. ^ a b c d Society of Motor Manufacturers and Traders(SMMT) (2015-01-07). "December 2014 – EV registrations". SMT. Retrieved 2015-01-08.  A total of 14,518 plug-in electric cars were registered during 2014, consisting of 6,697 pure electrics and 7,821 plug-in hybrids, up from 3,586 plug-in electric cars were registered in 2013. A total of 2,476,435 new cars were registered in 2014.
  356. ^ a b c d Kraftfahrt-Bundesamtes (KBA) (January 2015). "Neuzulassungsbarometer im Dezember 2014" [New Registrations Barometer December 2014] (in German). KBA. Retrieved 2015-01-27.  A total of 13,049 plug-in electric cars registered in Germany during 2014, consisting of 8,522 all-electric cars and 4,527 plug-in hybrids.
  357. ^ a b c d Mark Kane (2014-01-20). "8,197 Mitsubishi Outlander PHEV Sold In Europe In 2013; Almost All In Netherlands". InsideEVs.com. Retrieved 2014-02-08. 
  358. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Gibbs, Nick (2016-03-15). "Hybrid sales expected to triple in Europe as tougher CO2 rules loom". Automotive News Europe. Retrieved 2016-02-22.  Sales in Europe as reported by JATO Dynamics: Mitsubishi Ourlander sales totaled 19,853 units in 2014 and 31,214 in 2015; VW Golf GTE sales totaled 1,097 units in 2014 and 17,300 in 2015; Audi A3 e-tron sales totaled 1,154 units in 2014 and 11,791 in 2015; Volvo V60 sales totaled 5,441 units in 2014 and 6,349 in 2015. During 2015 a total of 5,481 all-electric BMW i3s and 6,566 i3 REx models (total 12,047). A total of 3,940 i3 REx models were sold in 2014.
  359. ^ a b Nissan Newsroom Europe (2014-02-12). "Nissan LEAF the best-selling EV in Europe in 2013". Green Car Congress. Retrieved 2014-02-13.  A total of 11,120 Leafs were sold in Europe in 2013.
  360. ^ Nikki Gordon-Bloomfield (2015-01-19). "Nissan LEAF Electric Car Still Top in Europe After Four Years. Mitsubishi Outlander PHEV Top Plug-in for 2014". Transport Evolved. Retrieved 2015-01-19. 
  361. ^ Groupe Renault (January 2015). "Ventes Mensuelles" [Monthly Sales] (in French). Renault.com. Retrieved 2015-02-22.  Includes passenger and light utility variants. Click on "+ Voir plus" to download the files "Ventes mensuelles du groupe (décembre 2011) (xls, 183 Ko)" "Ventes mensuelles (décembre 2012) (xls, 289 Ko)" - Ventes mensuelles (décembre 2013) (xlsx, 227 Ko)" - "XLSX - 220 Ko Ventes mensuelles (décembre 2014)" for 2011, 2012, 2013 and 2014 sales, and open the tab "Sales by Model".
  362. ^ a b c d e f Groupe Renault (July 2016). "Ventes Mensuelles" [Monthly Sales] (in French). Renault.com. Retrieved 2016-07-29.  Includes passenger and light utility variants. Click on "Ventes mensuelles (juin 2016)" to download the file "XLSX - 240 Ko" for CYTD sales through June 2016, and open the tab "Sales by Model". Click on "+ Voir plus" (See more) to download the files "Ventes mensuelles du groupe (décembre 2011) (xls, 183 Ko)" "Ventes mensuelles (décembre 2012) (xls, 289 Ko)" - Ventes mensuelles (décembre 2013) (xlsx, 227 Ko)" - "XLSX - 220 Ko Ventes mensuelles (décembre 2014)" - "Ventes mensuelles (décembre 2015)" to download the file "XLSX - 227 Ko" for 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014 and 2015 sales. Sales figures for 2013 were revised in the 2014 report
  363. ^ a b c d e f "Nissan LEAF is the best-selling electric car in Europe for fourth year in a row" (Press release). Rolle, Switzerland: Nissan Europe. 2015-01-19. Retrieved 2016-03-27.  A total of 14,658 Nissan Leafs, 8,734 Tesla Model S, 5,804 pure electric BMW i3s and 3,328 Volkswagen e-Golfs were sold in Europe in 2014.
  364. ^ a b Neil Winton (2014-02-06). "Electric Car Sales In Western Europe Spurt, But From Miniscule Base". Automotive Industry Data (AID). Forbes. Retrieved 2014-03-16.  AID sales figures (38,617 units) include all-electric cars and range-extenders vehicles in Germany. Sales figures based on Automotive Industry Data (AID). About 3,900 Tesla Model S cars were sold in Europe in 2013.
  365. ^ a b Mat Gasnier (2014-07-19). "World Full Year 2013: Discover the Top 1000 best-selling models!". Best Selling Cars Blog. Retrieved 2014-07-27.  A total of 1,477 i3s were registered in 2013. Includes press fleet vehicles and dealer demonstrators.
  366. ^ a b Nick Gibbs (2015-04-24). "Plug-ins poised to be Europe's top electrified drivetrain". Automotive News Europe. Retrieved 2016-03-30.  A total of 5,441 Volvo V60 PHEVs and 933 Opel Amperas were sold in Europe in 2014.
  367. ^ Graeme Roberts (2014-10-24). "Vehicle Analysis: Mitsubishi's top-selling Outlander PHEV". Just auto. Retrieved 2015-04-26.  A total of 8,066 Volvo V60 plug-in hybrids were sold in 2013.
  368. ^ a b "2012 (Full Year) Sweden: Best-Selling Electric Cars & Plug-In Hybrid Models". BestSellingCars.com. 2013-04-02. Retrieved 2013-07-05.  42 Volvo V60 plug-in hybrids were sold in Sweden in 2012.
  369. ^ Toyota Europe Press Release (2013-01-09). "Toyota Motor Europe 2012 Sales Up 2% (+15,583 Units) In A Sharply Declining Market". Toyota Europe. Retrieved 2013-04-14.  A total of 3,496 Prius PHEVs sold in Europe in 2012.
  370. ^ "Record hybrid sales push Toyota Motor Europe market share and volume gains" (Press release). Toyota Motor Europe. 2014-01-14. Retrieved 2016-03-26.  A total of 4,591 Prius PHEVs were sold in Europe 2013.
  371. ^ Autocar Pro (2015-01-16). "Record hybrid sales for Toyota In Europe". Autocar Professional. Retrieved 2015-02-22.  A total of 1,352 Prius PHV were sold in Europe in 2014.
  372. ^ Torregrossa, Michaël (2016-01-29). "Toyota a vendu 209000 voitures hybrides en Europe en 2015" [Toyota sold 209,000 hybrid cars in Europe in 2015] (in French). Automobile Propre. Retrieved 2016-03-26.  A total of 932 Prius PHEVs were sold in Europe in 2015.
  373. ^ Mike Colias (2014-07-21). "Opel will discontinue weak-selling Ampera, sources say". Automotive News Europe. Retrieved 2014-08-13.  Ampera sales in Europe totaled 3,184 units in 2013.
  374. ^ a b Staff (2014-01-08). "Over 20.000 ladbare biler på norske veier" [Over 20,000 rechargeable electric cars on Norwegian road] (in Norwegian). Grønn bil. Retrieved 2014-01-13. 
  375. ^ a b c d e Norwegian Road Federation (OFV) (January 2015). "Bilsalget i 2015" [Car sales in 2015] (in Norwegian). OFV. Retrieved 2016-03-05.  Registrations of new plug-in electric vehicles totaled 25,779 electric cars (zero emission vehicles totaled 25,788 accounting for 9 hydrogen vehicles), 7,964 plug-in hybrids and 712 all-electric vans in 2015. In addition, registrations of used imports totaled 5,122 electric cars and 55 electric vans. Plug-in electric vehicle registrations totaled 39,632 units.
  376. ^ France Mobilité Électrique - AVERE France (2016-05-17). "Dossier : A la découverte du véhicule électrique en Norvège" [Dossier: Discovering the electric vehicle in Norway] (in French). AVERE. Retrieved 2016-05-19.  In April 2016 Norway just exceeded the threshold of 100 000th registered electric vehicles, plug-in hybrids included.
  377. ^ a b c d e Norwegian Road Federation (OFV) (January 2015). "Bilsalget i 2014" [Car sales in 2014] (in Norwegian). OFV. Retrieved 2015-01-14.  A total of 10,639 plug-in electric vehicles were registered in Norway in 2013, consisting of: 7,885 new electric cars, 2,086 used imported all-electric cars, 328 new plug-in hybrid cars and 340 new all-electric vans. A total of 23,390 plug-in electric vehicles were registered in Norway in 2014, consisting of: 18,094 new electric cars, 3,063 used imported all-electric cars, 1,678 new plug-in hybrid cars and 555 new all-electric vans.
  378. ^ Bert Witkamp (2014-09-14). "Electric vehicle sales in Europe - European Electro-mobility Observatory" (PDF). AVERE. Retrieved 2015-02-22.  See pp.12: New car registration is NOT EV’s on the road - About 1,300 used electric cars were imported into Norway before 2013. By September 2014 most imports came from France, particularly Nissan Leaf cars.
  379. ^ Petter Haugneland (2015-04-20). "50.000 elbiler på norske veier!" [50,000 electric cars on Norwegian roads!] (in Norwegian). Norsk elbilforening (Norwegian Electric Vehicle Association. Retrieved 2015-04-21. 
  380. ^ Jeff Cobb (2015-04-20). "Norway Celebrates 50,000th Plug-in Car Sold; Will EV Incentives Continue?". HybridCars.com. Retrieved 2015-04-20. 
  381. ^ Figenbaum, Erik; Kolbenstvedt, Marika (June 2016). "Learning from Norwegian Battery Electric and Plug-in Hybrid Vehicle users". Institute of Transport Economics (TØI), Norwegian Centre for Transport Research. Retrieved 2016-08-17.  TØI report 1492/2016. See pp. 1.
  382. ^ Alister Doyle & Nerijus Adomaitis (2013-03-13). "Norway shows the way with electric cars, but at what cost?". Reuters. Retrieved 2013-03-15. 
  383. ^ Joly, David (2015-10-16). "Norway is A Model For Encouraging Electric Car Sales". The New York Times. Retrieved 2016-02-16. 
  384. ^ Agence France-Presse (2011-05-15). "Electric cars take off in Norway". The Independent. Retrieved 2011-10-09. 
  385. ^ AVERE (2012-06-07). "Norwegian Parliament extends electric car initiatives until 2018". AVERE. Retrieved 2012-07-20. 
  386. ^ Staff (2014-04-02). "Elbilsalget i mars slo alle rekorder" [Electric vehicle sales in March broke all records] (in Norwegian). Grønn bil. Retrieved 2014-04-06. 
  387. ^ Jeff Cobb (2015-04-17). "Norway Electric Car Incentives Will Hit Sales Cap Next Week". HybridCars.com. Retrieved 2015-04-21. 
  388. ^ Petter Haugneland (2016-02-29). "Nasjonal transportplan: Elbil er klimaløsningen" [National Transport: EV is the climate solution] (in Norwegian). Norsk Elbilforening (Norwegian Electric Vehicle Association). Retrieved 2016-03-04. 
  389. ^ "Number of electric cars worldwide climbs to 1.3 million" (PDF) (Press release). Stuttgart: Zentrum für Sonnenenergieund Wasserstoff-Forschung Baden-Württemberg (ZSW). 2016-02-26. Retrieved 2016-03-04.  Around 3% of some 2.64 million cars in Norway run on electricity by the end of 2015 (includes all-electric cars and plug-in hybrids).
  390. ^ "Over 10.000 ladbare biler på norske veier" [Over 10,000 plug-in cars in Norwegian roads] (in Norwegian). Grønn bil. 2013-01-04. Retrieved 2013-02-10.  A total of 2.298 new Leafs and 189 used-imports were registered in Norway during 2012. Total cumulative sales do not include the imports registered in 2012.
  391. ^ Neil Winton (2015-02-03). "Electric Car Sales Jump In Europe, But Likely To Stall Soon". Forbes. Retrieved 2015-02-21.  Automotive Industry Data (AID) sales figures include only all-electric cars. A total of 8,290 BMW i3s were sold in 2014.
  392. ^ a b c d e f Ståle Frydenlund (2016-07-05). "15 av 100 nye biler var elbiler" [15 out of 100 cars were electric vehicles] (in Norwegian). Norsk Elbilforening (Norwegian Electric Vehicle Association). Retrieved 2016-07-26. 
  393. ^ Grant, Alex. "PHEV boom drives 43% electric vehicle sales in Norway". EV Fleet World. 
  394. ^ Norwegian Road Federation (OFV) (April 2016). "2597 nullutslippsbiler" [2,597 zero-emission vehicles] (in Norwegian). OFV. Retrieved 2016-04-13.  A total of 2,597 new zero emission cars were registered in Norway in March 2016 (including two hydrogen cars), representing a 18.7% market share among new passenger cars registered that month. In addition, a total of 2,051 new plug-in hybrid cars were registered , representing a market share of 14.8% of the 13,875 new cars registered in March 2016.
  395. ^ Mat Gasnier (2013-10-05). "Norway September 2013: Tesla Model S in pole position!". Best Selling Cars Blog. Retrieved 2013-10-08. 
  396. ^ Mark Kane (2014-01-04). "Tesla Model S Again #1 in Overall Sales in Norway in December!". InsideEVs.com. Retrieved 2014-01-04. 
  397. ^ a b Ståle Frydenlund (2014-04-02). "Tesla knuste 28 år gammel rekord" [Tesla broke 28-year-old record] (in Norwegian). Norsk Elbilforening (Norwegian Electric Vehicle Association). Retrieved 2014-04-05. 
  398. ^ a b Ståle Frydenlund (2015-04-02). "1 av 4 biler i mars var en elbil" [1 in 4 cars in March was an electric car] (in Norwegian). Norsk Elbilforening (Norwegian Electric Vehicle Association). Retrieved 2015-04-21. 
  399. ^ a b Norwegian Road Federation (OFV) (April 2015). "Bilsalget i mars" [Car sales in March] (in Norwegian). OFV. Retrieved 2015-04-21.  A total of 14,159 new passenger cars were registered in Norway in March 2015.
  400. ^ a b Matt Gasnier (2015-04-09). "Norway March 2015: Tesla Model S back up to #2 and 8.1% share". Best Selling Car Blog. Retrieved 2015-04-21. 
  401. ^ Reuters (2013-11-01). "Nissan Leaf tops Norway Oct. car sales, beats Toyota Auris, VW Golf". Automotive News Europe. Retrieved 2013-11-02. 
  402. ^ Mat Gasnier (2013-11-02). "Norway October 2013: Nissan Leaf new leader!". Best Selling Cars Blog. Retrieved 2013-11-02. 
  403. ^ Mark Kane (2014-02-10). "Nissan LEAF Is Best Selling Car In Norway Again In January!". InsideEvs.com. Retrieved 2014-02-11. 
  404. ^ John D. Stoll (2014-04-02). "Tesla Breaks Norway's All-Time Sales Record". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2014-04-03. 
  405. ^ Jose, Pontes (2016-08-05). "Norway July 2016". EVSales.com. Retrieved 2016-08-21. 
  406. ^ a b c d e Frydenlund, Brett; Haugneland, Peter (2016-01-06). "Nesten 26.000 nye elbiler i fjor" [Nearly 26,000 new electric cars last year]. Norsk Elbilforening (in Norwegian). Retrieved 2016-02-07. 
  407. ^ a b c d OFV (January 2014). "Bilsalget i desember og hele 2013" [Car sales in December and during 2013] (in Norwegian). Opplysningsrådet for Veitrafikken AS (OFV). Retrieved 2014-08-16. 
  408. ^ a b Mat Gasnier (2013-01-09). "Norway Full Year 2012: VW Tiguan and Nissan Leaf impress". Best Selling CarsBlog. Retrieved 2013-02-15.  A total of 373 new units were sold in 2011 and 2,298 units in 2012.
  409. ^ "Nissan LEAF is one of the top three 2016 passenger cars in Norway" (Press release). Oslo: Nissan. 2016-06-27. Retrieved 2016-07-30. 
  410. ^ Jeff Cobb (2015-12-15). "Tesla Model S Crossed 100,000 Sales Milestone This Month". HybridCars.com. Retrieved 2015-12-19. 
  411. ^ Rijksdienst voor Ondernemend Nederland (RVO) (December 2015). "Cijfers elektrisch vervoer – Top 10 geregistreerde modellen volledig elektrische auto (31-12-2015)" [Figures electric transport – Aantal geregistreerde elektrische voertuigen in Nederland - Top 10 registered fully electric vehicle models (31-12-2015)] (PDF) (in Dutch). BOVBAG. Retrieved 2016-02-07. 
  412. ^ Rijksdienst voor Ondernemend Nederland (RVO) (January 2015). "Cijfers elektrisch vervoer - Aantal geregistreerde elektrische voertuigen in Nederland - Top 5 geregistreerde modellen plug-in hybride elektrische voertuigen (31-12-2014) - Top 6 geregistreerde modellen volledig elektrische voertuigen (31-12-2014)" [Figures electric transport - Number of registered electric vehicles in Netherlands, Top 5 registered plug-in electric hybrid vehicle models (12-31-2014) and Top 6 registered all-electric vehicle models (12-31-2014)] (PDF) (in Dutch). RVO (Dutch National Office for Enterprising). Retrieved 2015-04-27.  Click the url to download the file "2014-cijfers-elektrisch-vervoer-tm-december-2014.pdf.pdf" See under the heading "31-12-2014" for total registrations figures at the end of December 2014. A total of 2,645 Model S sedans were registered in the Netherlands as of December 2014, and it ranks as the top registered all-electric vehicles in the country.
  413. ^ a b Rijksdienst voor Ondernemend Nederland (RVO) (January 2013). "Cijfers elektrisch vervoer (30-12-2013)" [Figures electric transport (30-12-2013)] (PDF) (in Dutch). RVO (Dutch National Office for Enterprising). Retrieved 2014-08-23. 
  414. ^ RAI. "Verkoopstatistieken -nieuwverkoop personenautos" [Sales Statistics - New passenger car sales] (in Dutch). RAI Vereniging. Retrieved 2013-02-02.  Download pdf file for detailed sales in 2011 ("Download nieuwverkoop personenautos 201112") and 2012 ("Download nieuwverkoop personenautos 201212").
  415. ^ a b c d e Rijksdienst voor Ondernemend Nederland (RVO) (July 2016). "Cijfers elektrisch vervoer – Aantal geregistreerde elektrische voertuigen in Nederland (30-06-2016)" [Figures electric transport – Number of registered electric vehicles in the Netherlands (06-30-2016)] (in Dutch). RVO. Retrieved 2016-08-06. 
  416. ^ a b c d Jeff Cobb (2014-01-16). "Top 6 Plug-In Vehicle Adopting Countries". HybridCars.com. Retrieved 2014-01-18. 
  417. ^ Mark Rowney; Will Straw (2013-04-15). "Leading the Charge - Can Britain Develop a Global Advantage in Ultra-Low-Emission Vehicles" (PDF). Institute for Public Policy Research. Retrieved 2013-04-16.  pp.20
  418. ^ a b Nederlandse Omroep Stichting (NOS) (2013-12-24). "Forse toename elektrische auto's" [Major increase in electric car sales]. NOS (in Dutch). Retrieved 2013-12-26. 
  419. ^ Rijksdienst voor Ondernemend Nederland (RVO) (January 2016). "Special: Analyse over 2015" [Special: Analysis over 2015] (PDF) (in Dutch). RVO (Dutch National Office for Enterprising). Retrieved 2016-02-07. 
  420. ^ a b Automotive Industry Data (AID) (2013-12-17). "Mitsubishi Outlander PHEV top seller". AID. Retrieved 2013-12-25. 
  421. ^ a b Mat Gasnier (2013-12-04). "Netherlands November 2013: Mitsubishi Outlander shoots up to pole position!". Best Selling Cars Blog. Retrieved 2013-12-25. 
  422. ^ Jose Pontes (2014-01-04). "Netherlands December 2013". EV Sales. Retrieved 2014-02-27. 
  423. ^ a b Mat Gasnier (2013-12-04). "Netherlands November 2013: Mitsubishi Outlander shoots up to pole position!". Best Selling Cars Blog. Retrieved 2013-12-26. 
  424. ^ Priest, Ruben (2016-01-11). "De 5 populairste semi-elektrische en elektrische auto's van 2015" [The 5 most popular plug-in hybrids and all-electric cars in 2015] (in Dutch). Groen7.nl. Retrieved 2016-02-08. 
  425. ^ Loveday, Eric (2016-01-23). "Netherlands Shocks With Nearly 16,000 Plug-In Electric Car Sales In December!". InsideEVs.com. Retrieved 2016-02-08. 
  426. ^ Staff (2016-01-01). "Elektrische auto" [Electric car]. Auto & Fiscus (in Dutch). Retrieved 2016-02-08.  This page presents the current state of fiscal arrangements for plug-in electric cars in the Netherlands.
  427. ^ a b c d e f Autoactu.com (May 2016). "Chiffres de vente & immatriculations de voitures électriques en France" [Sales figures & electric car registrations in France] (in French). Automobile Propre. Retrieved 2016-05-14.  See "Ventes de voitures électriques en 2016/2015, 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011 and 2010" It shows all electric car registrations between 2010 and 2016.
  428. ^ a b c d e f g h AVERE-France (2014-01-08). "Baromètre AVERE-France Janvier 2014" [Barometer AVERE-France January 2014] (in French). France Mobilité Électrique - AVERE France. Retrieved 2014-01-14. 
  429. ^ a b Justin Aschard (2012-11-07). "Novembre 2012 - Ventes de véhicules électriques (CCFA)" [November 2012 - Sales of electric vehicles (CCFA)] (in French). France Mobilité Électrique. Retrieved 2013-02-16.  See table Bilan annuel des ventes de véhicules électriques (Annual sales of electric vehicles) for detailed sales by category during 2010 and 2011.
  430. ^ a b France Mobilité Électrique - AVERE France (2013-01-07). "Bilan des Immatriculations pour l'Année 2012" [Record Registrations for 2012] (in French). AVERE. Archived from the original on October 20, 2013. Retrieved 2013-02-16.  A total of 5,663 electric cars and 3,651 electric vans were registered in France in 2012.
  431. ^ a b c d e AVERE-France (2015-01-05). "Le marché du véhicule électrique maintient sa progression en 2014" [The electric vehicle market continues to grow in 2014] (in French). AVERE France. Retrieved 2015-01-14. 
  432. ^ a b France Mobilité Électrique - AVERE France (2016-01-07). "Immatriculations des voitures électriques : + 62,1% en 2015" [All-electric car registrations: + 62.1% in 2015] (in French). AVERE. Retrieved 2016-05-14.  A total of 17,779 all-electric cars were registered in France in 2015.
  433. ^ a b France Mobilité Électrique - AVERE France (2016-01-08). "Immatriculations des hybrides rechargeables : La barre des 5.000 est franchie !" [Plug-in hybrid registrations: The 5,000 barrier is achieved!] (in French). AVERE. Retrieved 2016-05-14.  A total of 5,006 plug-in hybrids were registered in France in 2015.
  434. ^ a b France Mobilité Électrique - AVERE France (2016-01-12). "Immatriculations des utilitaires électriques : + 9,6% en 2015" [All-electric utility vehicle registrations: + 9.6% in 2015] (in French). AVERE. Retrieved 2016-05-14.  A total of 4,916 all-electric utility vans were registered in France in 2015.
  435. ^ Philippe Schwoerer (2016-05-10). "Immatriculations des voitures électriques : +26% en avril 2016" [Electric car registrations: + 26% in April 2016]. Association pour l'Avenir du Véhicule Electrique Méditerranéen (AVEM) (in French). Retrieved 2016-05-14.  See graph with registrations by month between January and April 2016, for a total of 8,471 electric cars registered. The BMW i3 with range extender option is included in the count.
  436. ^ Philippe Schwoerer (2016-05-12). "Immatriculations des hybrides rechargeables. Moins d'éclat en avril 2016 !" [Plug-in hybrid registrations. Less shine in April 2016!]. Association pour l'Avenir du Véhicule Electrique Méditerranéen (AVEM) (in French). Retrieved 2016-05-14.  See graph with registrations by month between January and April 2016, for a total of 2,379 plug-in hybrid cars registered.
  437. ^ France Mobilité Électrique - AVERE France (2016-05-03). "Près de 10 000 véhicules électriques immatriculés en France depuis le début de l'année 2016" [Nearly 10,000 all-electric vehicles registered in France since the beginning of 2016] (in French). AVERE. Retrieved 2016-05-14.  A total of 1,768 all-electric utility vans were registered in France between January and April 2016.
  438. ^ Laurent Meillaud (2012-01-14). "2630 voitures électriques immatriculées en 2011" [2630 electric cars registered in 2011] (in French). MSN France. Retrieved 2012-01-14. 
  439. ^ a b Yoann Nussbaumer (2013-01-16). "+115% pour les ventes de voitures électriques en France pour 2012" [Electric car sales in France increased 115% in 2011] (in French). Automobile Propre. Retrieved 2014-01-18. 
  440. ^ Mark Kane (2014-01-15). "Sales of Battery Electric Cars In France Rose By 50% in 2013". InsideEVs.com. Retrieved 2014-01-18. 
  441. ^ Michaël Torregrossa (2013-01-15). "Voitures hybrides – Le bilan des immatriculations 2012 en France" [Hybrid Cars - The balance of 2012 registrations in France] (in French). Association pour l'Avenir du Véhicule Electrique Méditerranéen (AVEM). Retrieved 2013-01-15. 
  442. ^ Michaël Torregrossa (2014-01-19). "Hybride rechargeable – Le marché français stagne en 2013" [Rechargeable hybrids - The French market stagnated in 2013] (in French). Association pour l'Avenir du Véhicule Electrique Méditerranéen (AVEM). Retrieved 2014-01-19. 
  443. ^ Jose Pontes (2014-01-24). "France December 2013 (Updated)". EVSales.com. Retrieved 2014-01-25. 
  444. ^ Philippe Schwoerer (2015-01-09). "Quel marché espérer en 2015 pour le véhicule électrique ?" [What the market expects in 2015 for the electric vehicle] (in French). Association pour l'Avenir du Véhicule Electrique Méditerranéen (AVEM). Retrieved 2015-02-01.  The BMW i3 with range extender is often excluded of the count of all-electric cars because in France it is classified and accounted together with conventional hybrids.
  445. ^ AVERE-France (2015-01-08). "Hybride : un marché en recul en 2014, l'hybride essence tient le coup" [Hybrid: a declining market in 2014, the gasoline-electric hybrid holds up] (in French). France Mobilité Électrique - AVERE France. Retrieved 2015-02-02.  A total of 1,519 plug-in hybrids were registered in France in 2014.
  446. ^ Philippe Schwoerer (2015-01-16). "Mitsubishi mise et gagne sur l'hybride rechargeable" [Mitsubishi bets and wins with its plug-in hybrid] (in French). Association pour l'Avenir du Véhicule Electrique Méditerranéen (AVEM). Retrieved 2015-02-02. 
  447. ^ Michaël Torregrossa (2013-01-09). "Voitures électriques – Le bilan des immatriculations 2012 en France" [Electric Cars - The balance of registrations in France 2012] (in French). Association pour l'Avenir du Véhicule Electrique Méditerranéen (AVEM). Retrieved 2013-02-16. 
  448. ^ France Mobilité Électrique - AVERE France (2013-01-07). "Bilan des Immatriculations pour l'Année 2012" [Record Registrations for 2012] (in French). AVERE. Retrieved 2013-02-16. 
  449. ^ "2012, une année record pour les véhicules électriques" [2012 a record year for electric vehicles] (in French). Atlante & Cie. 2013-02-07. Retrieved 2013-02-16. 
  450. ^ a b Renault (2013-04-17). "Ventes Mensuelles" [Monthly Sales] (in French). Renault.com. Retrieved 2013-04-18.  Click on "Ventes mensuelles (décembre 2012) (xls, 294 Ko)" and "Ventes mensuelles (mars 2013) (xlsx, 223 Ko)" to download the files for 2012 and 2013 sales, and open the tab TWIZY.
  451. ^ a b Automobile Propre. "Chiffres de vente & immatriculations d'utilitaires électriques en France" [Sales figures & electric utility van registrations in France] (in French). Automobile Propre. Retrieved 2015-02-02.  See "Ventes d’utilitaires électriques en 2014" for all-electric utility van registrations in 2014. Light-duty electric vehicles reached a 1.22% market share of new van sales in the country in 2014.
  452. ^ Justin Aschard (2012-11-30). "Inmatriculations VP et VUL France à fin Oct. 2012 (2010-2012)" [Registrations of passenger cars and utility vehicles in France through October 2012 (2010-2012)] (PDF) (in French). France Mobilité Électrique. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 20, 2013. Retrieved 2012-12-13.  14 Kangoo ZEs were registered in 2010 and 768 in 2011.
  453. ^ Joseph Beretta (2013-01-09). "Les ventes de voitures électriques et hybrides décollent enfin" [Sales of electric and hybrid cars finally take off] (in French). Économie matin. Retrieved 2015-02-04.