Plug-in hybrids in California
California has been a leader in the promotion of plug-in hybrids (PHEVs), and plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) in general, including all-electric vehicles (BEVs) and other zero-emission vehicles. California is the largest U.S. car market and also the leading plug-in electric vehicle market in the country with over 200,000 plug-in electric vehicles registered by March 2016, representing 47% of all plug-in cars sold in the American market since 2008, while the state represents about 10% of all new car sales in the country. The Governor of California, Jerry Brown, issued an executive order in March 2012 that established the goal of getting 1.5 million zero-emission vehicles (ZEVs) on California roads by 2025. In September 2014, the Charge Ahead California Initiative set the additional goal to have at least 1 million zero-emission vehicles and near-zero-emission vehicles in California by January 1, 2023.
As part of the state's government incentives, in addition to the existing federal tax credit, plug-in hybrids are eligible for a US$1,500 purchase rebate. Also applicants that purchase or lease a PHEV meeting California’s Enhanced Advanced Technology Partial Zero Emission Vehicle (Enhanced AT PZEV) are entitled to a green clean air sticker that allows the vehicle to be operated by a single occupant in California's carpool or high-occupancy vehicle lanes (HOV). The limit to the number of green stickers was raised several times, and in September 2016, the cap to the number of Green Clean Air Vehicle Decals was removed. The expiration date for the green stickers is January 1, 2019.
As of September 2016[update], a total of 118,028 plug-in hybrids have been registered in California since 2010. The market share of PHEVs in the state climbed from 0.1% of new car sales in 2011 to 0.9% in 2012 to 1.2% in 2013, and reached 1.6% during 2014. During 2015 the plug-in hybrid segment share fell to 1.4%, and then increased to 1.5% during the first nine months of 2016. As of early June 2015, a total of 45,829 plug-in hybrid owners have benefited with the state's Clean Vehicle Rebate Project (CVRP), representing 42.5% of all clean vehicle rebates issued since January 2011. By early March 2014, and based on CVRP's databse, the counties with the highest adoption of plug-in hybrids in the state are Los Angeles (8,015), Orange (3,622) and Santa Clara (3,080). As of January 2014[update], California leads the country with 5,749 public charging points, representing 26.7% of the U.S total.
- 1 Charging infrastructure
- 2 Government incentives
- 3 Market outlook
- 4 Organizations
- 5 Electric utilities
- 6 PHEV Research Center
- 7 In the San Francisco Bay Area
- 8 Plug-in Conference
- 9 See also
- 10 References
- 11 External links
As of March 2013[update], the United States had 5,678 charging stations across the country, a third of which were located in the three westernmost continental states. Deployments are led by California with 1,207 stations (21.3%), Texas with 432 stations (7.6%), Florida with 352 (6.2%), Washington with 326 (5.7%), and Oregon with 310 stations (5.5%). As of October 2013[update], there were 378 DC quick charging stations across the country. As of 21 January 2014[update], the United States had 21,548 public charging points available across the country, with California leading with 5,749 charging points (26.7%), followed by Texas with 1,704 (7.9%), Washington state with 1,412 (6.6%), and Florida with 1,064 (4.9%).
Governor Jerry Brown issued an executive order in March 2012 that established the goal of getting 1.5 million zero-emission vehicles (ZEVs) in California by 2025. In addition, in September 2014, Governor Brown signed a bill, the Charge Ahead California Initiative, that sets a goal of placing at least 1 million zero-emission vehicles and near-zero-emission vehicles on the road in California by January 1, 2023. He expects the initiative will help the state to reach the initial goal set for 2025.
California's ZEV regulation was first adopted in 1990 as part of the Low Emission Vehicle Program, and it has been modified several times over the years. The ZEV program is under the responsibility of the California Air Resources Board (CARB). The program goal is to reduce the pervasive air pollution affecting the main metropolitan areas in the state, particularly in Los Angeles, where prolonged pollution episodes are frequent.
In addition to the federal tax credit of up to US$7,500 depending on battery size, California established the Clean Vehicle Rebate Project (CVRP) in order to promote the production and use of zero-emission vehicles (ZEVs), including plug-in electric and fuel cell vehicles. The program was created from Assembly Bill 118 that was signed by Governor Schwarzenegger in October 2007. The funding is provided on a first-come, first-served basis, and the project is expected to go through 2015.
Eligible vehicles include only new California Air Resources Board-certified or approved zero-emission or plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. A list of eligible vehicles can be found on the California Center for Sustainable Energy web site. Among the eligible vehicles are neighborhood electric vehicles, battery electric, plug-in hybrid electric, and fuel cell vehicles including cars, trucks, medium- and heavy-duty commercial vehicles, and zero-emission motorcycles. Vehicles must be purchased or leased on or after March 15, 2010. Initially, the CVRP offered rebates of up to US$5,000 per light-duty vehicle, available for individuals and business owners who purchase or lease new eligible vehicles. Once the initial funding was exhausted, the program offered a lower rebate of up to US$2,500.
As of March 2014[update], the following six plug-in hybrids are eligible for a US$1,500 rebate in California: Cadillac ELR, Chevrolet Volt, Ford C-Max Energi, Ford Fusion Energi, Honda Accord Plug-in Hybrid, and Toyota Prius Plug-in Hybrid. Only 2012 Volts manufactured after February 6, 2012, and later model year, are fitted with the low emission package that qualifies the plug-in hybrid as qualify as a California AT-PZEV.
As of early March 2013, the California Air Resources Board (CARB) reported that 9,559 all-electric vehicle and 8,842 plug-in hybrid owners had applied for the state's Clean Vehicle Rebate since January 2011. However, about 2,300 Chevrolet Volts were sold in California before the Volt became eligible for the rebate in February 2012, and therefore, are not accounted in the CVRP database. According to these figures plug-in hybrid electric vehicles were outselling pure electric vehicles in California by early 2013.
As of 10 March 2014[update], a total of 52,264 clean vehicle rebates had been issued, for a total of US$110,222,866 disbursed, with only US$3.8 million remaining for fiscal year 2013-2014. The distribution of the rebates issued correspond to 27,210 zero-emission vehicles (ZEVs), including both battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and fuel cell vehicles (FCVs); 24,657 plug-in hybrids (PHEVs); 49 commercial zero-emission vehicles (CZEVs); 210 zero-emission motorcycles (ZEMs); and 138 neighborhood electric vehicles (NEVs). Not all plug-in electric vehicles sold in California are captured in the CVRP database because not every PEV owner applies for the rebate. As of 8 June 2015[update], and without accounting for the 2,300 Volts sold before February 2012, plug-in hybrids represented 42.5% of the 107,855 clean vehicle rebates issued, while BEVs represented 56.9% of all rebates, and fuel cell vehicles represented 0.1% of the rebates issued. In terms of funding, plug-in hybrids have captured 30.1% of the total US$227,972,074 funded by early June 2015.
As of April 2014[update], the CVRP was facing an estimated US$30 million funding shortfall for the 2013-14 fiscal year, and uncertainty about increases for the 2014-15 fiscal year. CARB staff presented a proposal to the board to overcome the funding shortage and also to facilitate the rebates to benefit buyers in disadvantaged communities who live in areas with bad air quality or who can’t afford high-end electric cars. The options being considered were to reduce the rebate by US$500 and to set a US$60,000 cap to the manufacturer’s suggested retail price of the vehicles, which would exclude the Cadillac ELR and the Tesla Model S from benefiting from the rebate. A bill signed into law in September 2014, mandated the California Air Resources Board to draft a financial plan to meet California's goal of putting 1 million vehicles on the road while making sure that disadvantaged communities can participate. For this purpose CARB has to change the Clean Vehicle Rebate program to provide an extra credit for low-income drivers who wish to purchase or lease an electric car. CARB also should provide assistance to carsharing programs in low-income neighborhoods and install charging stations in apartment buildings in those communities. Under bill SB 1275, low-income residents who agree to scrap older, polluting cars will also get a clean vehicle rebate on top of existing payments for junking smog-producing vehicles.
According to the Center for Sustainable Energy, the following are the top five brands receiving the rebates between 2010 and 2015: Chevrolet (21%), Nissan (20%), Tesla Motors (15%), Toyota (14%), and Ford Motor Company (12%). The following table presents the geographical distribution of the rebates by county and by type of vehicle (ZEV or PHEV) for the top 15 counties. Based on the CVRP database, Southern California is the leading region in plug-in hybrid adoption, with over 15,200 rebates issued for PHEVs, while the San Francisco Bay Area has benefited with over 7,200 rebates. The top five counties in the state by early March 2014 are Los Angeles (8,015), Orange (3,622), Santa Clara (3,080), San Diego (1,563), and Alameda (1,552).
|California Clean Vehicle Rebate Project (CVRP)
beneficiaries by county with over 500 rebates issued as of 10 March 2014[update]
|Top counties Southern California|
|Top counties SoCal||28,595||13,200||15,201||$58,562,638||54.7%|
|Top counties San Francisco Bay Area|
|Top counties Bay Area||18,387||10,992||7,249||$40,364,866||35.2%|
|Other top counties|
|Total Top 15 counties||48,586||25,156||23,081||$102,394,013||93.0%|
(1) Total includes ZEVs (both BEVs and FCVs), PHEVs, CZEVs, ZEMs and NEVs. (2) About 2,300 Chevrolet Volts sold in
California before the car became eligible for the rebate in February 2012 are not included. (3) Not all plug-in electric vehicles
sold in California are captured in the CVRP database as not every PEV owner applies for the rebate.
In California a vehicle that meets specified emissions standards may be issued Clean Air Vehicle (CAV) decals that allow the vehicle to be operated by a single occupant in California's high-occupancy vehicle lanes (HOV), or carpool or diamond lanes. All-electric vehicles are classified as Federal Inherently Low Emission Vehicles (ILEVs), and as zero emissions vehicles are entitled to an unlimited number of white CAV stickers. The green CAV stickers are available to the first 70,000 applicants that purchased or leased cars meeting California’s Enhanced Advanced Technology Partial Zero Emission Vehicle (Enhanced AT PZEV) or Transitional Zero-Emission Vehicle (TZEV) requirements. Plug-in hybrids qualify as Enhanced AT PZEV. The number of green stickers available was increased from 40,000 to 55,000 in July 2014, and raised again in September 2014 to 70,000. Initially, the green and white clean air sticker were set to expire on January 1, 2015, but in 2013 the expiration date for both stickers was extended to January 1, 2019.
The number of green clean air stickers issued grew from about 10,900 in March 2013 to 28,739 by the end of 2013. As a result, by mid March 2014 the California Department of Motor Vehicles (DMV) suspended the program allowing new car dealers to purchase and install green CAV stickers on eligible vehicles before they are sold. The DMV decided to reserve all remaining green stickers from the original 40,000 limit for individual consumer applications. As of 9 May 2014[update], the initial 40,000 green stickers were issued. The green sticker limit was increased by 15,000 beginning July 1, 2014, through the budget trailer bill SB 853. In September 2014 Governor Jerry Brown signed the bill AB 2013 that raised the cap for the green stickers from 55,000 to 70,000 new plug-in hybrids. As of June 2015[update], a total of 68,343 green stickers had been issued by the California Department of Motor Vehicles (DMV). In June 2015, the bill AB 95 was approved by the State Legislature raising the upper limit from 70,000 to 85,000 green stickers. By December 2015, the 85,000 limited was reached. The DMV continued to accept applications without payment to establish a queue for requesters should an additional amount of green decals be authorized. In September 2016, the budget trailer bill SB-838, effective from September 13, 2016, removed the limit imposed to the Green Clean Air Vehicle Decal. As of September 2016[update], both the white and green stickers have the same expiration date, January 1, 2019.
The San Francisco Bay Area Metropolitan Transportation Commission opposed the 2014 bill to expand the green stickers on the grounds that they "are concerned about further erosion of HOV lane capacity to vehicles that are neither reducing the number of trips on the road nor paying a toll. With congestion levels shooting up again, especially in the prosperous South Bay of the region where the purchase of such vehicles is more likely, we do not believe it is appropriate to give access to the region’s HOV lanes or express lanes away for free."
Research performed by the UCLA Luskin Center for Innovation in 2015 found that access to HOV lanes has a significant impact on plug-in car sales. Researchers linked automobile sales to a sample of more than 7,000 of the 8,057 census tracts in California for the study, including Los Angeles, Sacramento, San Diego and San Francisco. They looked at the number of plug-in car sales and the miles of carpool lanes within a 30 mi (48 km) radius of each census tract. The study concluded that the ability to use potentially time-saving HOV lanes prompted the purchase of more than 24,000 plug-in electric cars and hybrids in the four urban areas from 2010 to 2013, or about 40% of the total of such vehicles. The UCLA researcher concluded that without the policy giving plug-in vehicles access to HOV lanes, total plug-in sales in the same study areas would have been only 36,692 for the three-year period.
California, the largest American car market, is also the leading plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) market in the country. Sales of plug-in electric cars passed the 200,000 unit milestone in March 2016, representing 47% of all plug-in cars sold in the U.S. since 2008, while the state represents about 10% of all new car sales in the country. As of September 2015[update], a total of 85,476 plug-in hybrids have been sold in California, representing 49.2% of the 173,811 plug-in electric cars sold in the state since 2010. Sales increased from 97 units in 2010, to 1,662 in 2011 to 14,103 in 2012, and reached 20,633 in 2013. Sales during 2014 totaled 29,949 plug-in hybrids, and 19,032 units during the first nine months of 2015. The market share of PHEVs in the state climbed from 0.1% of new car sales in 2011 to 0.9% in 2012 to 1.2% in 2013, and reached 1.6% in 2014. During the first nine months of 2015 the PHEV market share fell to 1.2%. In 2013 all-electric cars outsold plug-in hybrids. The market share of all-electric vehicles in 2013 was 1.3%, up from 0.4% in 2012. However, this trend reverted in 2014, with plug-in hybrids slightly outsolding all-electrics, but both segments achieved the same market share (1.6%). During the firs nine months of 2015, all-electrics (1.6%) outsold plug-in hybrids (1.2%).
As of mid 2013, 52% of American plug-in electric car registrations are concentrated in five metropolitan areas, two of which are in California: San Francisco and Los Angeles. The others are Seattle, New York and Atlanta. California is the leading Chevrolet Volt market and accounted for almost 23% of Volt sales during the second quarter of 2012, followed by Michigan with 6.3% of national sales. The leading regional markets in California are San Francisco, Los Angeles, and San Diego, all metropolitan areas notorious for their high congestion levels and where free access to high-occupancy lanes for solo drivers has been a strong incentive to boost Volt sales in the state.
The following table presents annual registrations and market share of new car sales for all-electric and plug-in hybrids sold in California since 2010 through September 2016.
|Year||California||United States||CA share
|Notes: (1) Market share of total new car registrations in California. (2) U.S. market share of total nationwide sales. (3) California's market share of total nationwide registrations.|
According to Navigant Research, the Los Angeles metropolitan area was the world's largest plug-in electric car city market in 2014. A study from the International Council on Clean Transportation (ICCT) published in 2016 found that in 2015 there were 30 cities in California with a plug-in electric car market share between 6% to 18% of new vehicle sales in the state, representing 8 to 25 times that of the U.S. average plug-in market share in 2015. The study found these cities tend to be smaller, and the following twelve have a plug-in market share of 10% or more: Saratoga, Los Altos, Los Gatos, Palo Alto, Menlo Park, Cupertino, Fremont, Manhattan Beach, Campbell, Morgan Hill, Mountain View, and Berkeley. With the exception of Manhattan Beach, the other eleven cities are located in the San Francisco Bay Area.
The ICCT study found that the 30 cities with the highest plug-in electric vehicle uptake underwent the implementation of abundant, wide-ranging electric vehicle promotion programs involving parking, permitting, fleets, utilities, education, and workplace charging. These cities on average have 5 times the public charging infrastructure per capita than the national average. In addition, workplace charging availability in the San Jose metropolitan area is far higher than elsewhere in the U.S. Also, major California public electric power utilities and workplaces are expanding the public charging network to further address consumer confidence and convenience.
According to the ICCT study, higher income is found to be among the factors that are linked to higher electric vehicle uptake, with some cities where the Tesla Model S was the top-selling plug-in electric car with more than a third of overall plug-in sales. As of April 2016[update], out of the fourteen plug-in hybrid models available in the American market, nine are upscale models affordable only for high income customers, namely the BMW X5 xDrive, Audi A3 e-tron, Porsche Cayenne and Panamera, Volvo XC90, Mercedes S500, BMW i8 and 3 Series, and the Cadillac ELR, all priced above US$40,000. Nevertheless, cities with median incomes below US$85,000, such as Berkeley, Alameda, San Jose, Santa Cruz, and Oakland might be more indicative of the growing mainstream plug-in electric vehicle market. These cities have a broader mix of plug-in car sales, such as the Nissan Leaf, Ford C-Max and Fusion Energi, Chevrolet Volt, and Volkswagen e-Golf.
According to a 2011 study by Pike Research, annual sales of plug-in electric vehicles in the U.S. were predicted to reach 360,000 vehicles by 2017. The study projected that the highest sales between 2011 and 2017 would take place in California, New York and Florida. In 2012, and as sales have fallen short of projections, Pike Research projected that annual sales of plug-in electric vehicles in the U.S. will reach 400,073 units in 2020, with California as the state with the highest PEV sales over the remainder of this decade, with nearly 25% of all PEVs sold in the United States between 2012 and 2020. In terms of market share, California will be followed by New York, Florida, Texas, and Washington, but Hawaii is expected by 2020 to have the highest penetration rate of PEVs as a percentage of all light duty vehicle sales. California is predicted to have four of the top ten metropolitan areas for PEV sales: Los Angeles–Long Beach, San Francisco Bay Area, Silicon Valley, and Greater Sacramento. Pike Research forecasts that cumulative sales of PEVs in the largest 102 American cities will reach more than 1.8 million from 2012 through 2020, with a share of more than 25% of all annual sales concentrated in the top five metropolitan areas for PEV sales: New York, Los Angeles, San Francisco, Seattle, and Portland.
In a report published in April 2014, Navigant Research forecasts that the Los Angeles metropolitan area, the largest PEV city market in the world, will have over 15,000 PEV sales in 2014, and its PEV stock will grow from over 36,000 in 2014 to over 250,000 by 2023. Navigant predicts annual PEV sales in the Greater Tokyo Area will surpass Los Angeles by 2020, and Tokyo is expected to become the world's largest PEV city market with a PEV stock of around 260,000 in 2023.
CalCars (also known as The California Cars Initiative) is a charitable, non-profit organization founded in 2002 to promote plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) as a key to addressing global warming both nationally and internationally. CalCars envisions millions of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, charged by off-peak electricity from renewable energy sources, and with their internal combustion engines powered by low-carbon alternative fuels, as a way to significantly reduce greenhouse gases that come from transportation.
In September 2004, the California Cars Initiative (CalCars) converted a 2004 Toyota Prius into a prototype of what it called the PRIUS+. With the addition of 130 kg (300 lb) of lead-acid batteries, the PRIUS+ achieved roughly double the fuel economy of a standard Prius and could make trips of up to 15 km (9 mi) using only electric power. The vehicle, which is owned by CalCars technical lead Ron Gremban, is used in daily driving, as well as a test bed for various improvements to the system.
RechargeIT is an effort within Google.org, the charitable arm of Google, that aims to reduce CO2 emissions, cut oil use, and stabilize the electrical grid by accelerating the adoption of plug-in electric vehicles.
The program began in 2007, and by 2010 Google's Mountain View campus has 100 available charging stations for its share-use fleet of converted plug-ins available to its employees through a free car-sharing program. Solar panels are used to generate the electricity, and this pilot program is being monitored on a daily basis and performance results are published in RechargeIT website. In addition to the data collected for two years when the converted plug-ins were driven by Google employees, RechargeIT set up a controlled test using plug-in converted Ford Escape Hybrids and Toyota Prius. The results of the seven-week driving experiment showed an average fuel economy of 93 mpg average across all trips, and 115 mpg for city trips. Consistently the converted Prius obtained a higher mileage than the Ford Escape.
Southern California Edison
Ford Motor Company CEO Alan Mulally said he expects Ford to sell plug-in hybrids in five to ten years, the launch date depending on advances in lithium-ion battery technology. Ford will provide Southern California Edison with 20 Ford Escape Hybrid sport utility vehicles reconfigured to work as plug-ins by 2009, with the first by the end of 2007.
PHEV Research Center
The PHEV Research Center in the University of California, Davis, administered by ITS-Davis, was launched in 2007 with fundings from the California Air Resources Board and the California Energy Commission’s Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) Program.
Its goals are to provide technology and policy guidance to the state, and to help solve research questions and address commercialization issues for PHEVs.
In the San Francisco Bay Area
San Francisco Mayor Gavin Newsom, San Jose Mayor Chuck Reed and Oakland, California Mayor Ron Dellums announced a nine-step policy plan for transforming the Bay Area into the "Electric Vehicle (EV) Capital of the U.S." and of the world.
By early 2010, San Francisco and other cities in the San Francisco Bay Area and Silicon Valley, as well as some local private firms such as Google and Adobe Systems, already have deployed charging stations and have expansion plans to attend both plug-ins and all-electric cars.
- Better Place
- Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Research Center
- Government incentives for plug-in electric vehicles
- Plug In America
- Plug-in hybrids in the Netherlands
- Plug-in electric vehicles in the United States
- Plug-in hybrids in New York
- Cobb, Jeff (2016-03-14). "Californians Will Buy 200,000th Plug-in Car By This Month". HybridCars.com. Retrieved 2016-03-15. Sales of plug-in electric cars in California passed the 200,000 unit milestone in March 2016, , representing 47% of the 425,000 plug-in electric cars sold in the U.S. through February 2016.
- California Energy Commission (2013-03-01). "California Energy Commission awards $4.5M to ARB for more clean vehicle rebates". Green Car Congress. Retrieved 2013-03-03.
- Staff (2012-03-23). "Governor Brown Announces $120 Million Settlement To Fund Electric Car Charging Stations Across California". Office of Governor Edmund G. Brown Jr. Retrieved 2014-09-22.
- Marisa Lagos (2014-09-22). "Brown signs several clean-air vehicle bills". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved 2014-09-22.
- "Office of Governor Edmund G. Brown Jr. - Newsroom". www.gov.ca.gov. Retrieved 2016-01-29.
- Melanie Mason and Patrick McGreevy (2014-09-21). "Gov. Jerry Brown signs bills to boost purchases of electric cars". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2014-09-21.
- Clean Vehicle Rebate Project (CVRP) (March 2014). "Eligible Vehicles". California Center for Sustainable Energy. Retrieved 2014-03-26. The Fisker Karma is not eligible for the rebate. The BMW i3 with range extender option has not been certified by the ARB as of March 26, 2014. Only after it is certified the ARB will evaluate its eligibility to participate in CVRP.
- California Air Resources Board (CARB) (2016-09-19). "Eligible vehicle list: Single ocuupant carpool lane stickers". CARB. Retrieved 2016-09-19.
- Cobb, Jeff (2016-09-19). "California Removes ‘Green Sticker’ Cap For Unlimited PHEV Solo-HOV Lane Access". HybridCars.com. Retrieved 2016-09-19.
- California New Car Dealers Association (CNCDA) (February 2015). "California Auto Outlook Covering Fourth Quarter 2014: New Light Vehicle Registrations Likely to Exceed 1.9 million units in 2015" (PDF). CNCDA. Retrieved 2015-03-15. Registrations through December 2014.
- California New Car Dealers Association (CNCDA) (February 2016). "California New Vehicle Registrations Expected to Remain Above 2 Million Units in 2016" (PDF). CNCDA. Retrieved 2016-02-17. Registrations through December 2015 since 2011. Revised figures for 2014.
- California New Car Dealers Association (CNCDA) (2016-11-23). "California New Vehicle Market Has Small Gain During First Nine Months of This Year" (PDF). CNCDA. Retrieved 2016-11-23. Registrations through September 2016 since 2012. Revised figures for 2015.
- Clean Vehicle Rebate Project (2015-06-08). "Clean Vehicle Rebate Project Statistics". California Center for Sustainable Energy. Retrieved 2015-06-22. Use the filter for application date to show figures for March 2014 and June 2015.
- U.S. Department of Energy (2014-01-21). "Total Alternative Fueling Station Counts (Public and Private Stations)". Alternative Fuels Data Center (AFDC). Retrieved 2014-03-23. The AFDC counts electric charging units or points, or EVSE, as one for each outlet available, and does not include residential electric charging infrastructure.
- Danny King (2013-04-10). "US public charging stations increase by 9% in first quarter". Autoblog Green. Retrieved 2013-09-02.
- Antony Ingram (2013-10-26). "Where Are Electric-Car Charging Stations? Infographic Shows It All". Green Car Reports. Retrieved 2013-10-26.
- "Zero-Emission Vehicle Legal and Regulatory Activities: The ZEV Program Timeline". California Air Resources Board. 2011-10-14. Retrieved 2014-09-22.
- Sperling, Daniel and Deborah Gordon (2009). Two billion cars: driving toward sustainability. Oxford University Press, New York. pp. 22–26 and 114–139. ISBN 978-0-19-537664-7.
- "Notice 2009-89: New Qualified Plug-in Electric Drive Motor Vehicle Credit". Internal Revenue Service. 2009-11-30. Retrieved 2010-04-01.
- "Clean Vehicle Rebate Project". Center for Sustainable Energy. Retrieved 2010-04-01.
- "CVRP Eligible Vehicles". Center for Sustainable Energy California. Retrieved 2013-01-21.
- "CVRP Eligible Vehicles". Center for Sustainable Energy California. Retrieved 2010-06-08.
- "Clean Vehicle Rebate Project FAQ: Changes in CVRP FY 2011-2012". Center for Sustainable Energy California. Retrieved 2011-05-22.
- Nikki Gordon-Bloomfield (2012-01-19). "Can Your 2012 Chevy Volt Use California HOV Lanes? It Depends". Green Car Reports. Retrieved 2012-01-20.
- "Clean Vehicle Rebate Project Statistics". California Center for Sustainable Energy. March 2013. Retrieved 2013-03-03.
- Danny King (2012-12-17). "Plug-in hybrids outselling pure EVs in California". Autoblog Green. Retrieved 2013-02-12.
- Sebastian Blanco (2012-07-25). "Ford C-Max Energi plug-in hybrid priced at $33,745; or $29,995 after tax credit *UPDATED". Autoblog Green. Retrieved 2012-07-24.
- John Howard (2014-04-10). "ARB, Tesla at odds over rebate cuts for electric vehicles". Capitol Weekly. Retrieved 2014-04-12.
- Hansen, Louis (2016-04-15). "New state rules cap income levels for low-emission vehicle rebates". San Jose Mercury News. Retrieved 2016-04-21.
- California Department of Motor Vehicles (March 2014). "Clean Air Vehicle (CAV) Decals - High Occupancy Vehicle HOV Lane Usage". DMV California. Retrieved 2014-07-12.
- "Chevy Volt gets a Low Emissions Package for California; HOV lanes access". Green Car Congress. 2011-11-17. Retrieved 2011-11-17.
- David Herron (2013-09-04). "California legislature extends HOV sticker access for plug-in vehicles". Torque News. Retrieved 2014-03-23.
- John Voelcker (2014-02-27). "CA Carpool-Lane Stickers For Plug-In Hybrids Run Out By May--Or Sooner". Green Car Reports. Retrieved 2014-03-23.
- Eric Loveday (2014-03-19). "As Green HOV Stickers Dry Up, California DMV Reacts By Denying Dealer Pre-Registrations of Plug-Ins". InsideEVs.com. Retrieved 2014-03-23.
- Jay Cole (2014-06-23). "California Ups HOV Green Sticker Program By 15,000 to 55,000 Total". InsideEVs.com. Retrieved 2014-07-12.
- Jeff Cobb (2015-06-18). "California Legislature Approves 15,000 More Green HOV Stickers". HybridCars.com. Retrieved 2015-06-21.
- Brian Ro (2015-12-21). "Max Limit For California Green HOV Stickers Reached Once Again". HybridCars.com. Retrieved 2015-12-22.
- Metropolitan Transportation Commission (San Francisco Bay Area) (2014-03-07). "MTC Memorandum to Legislation Committee - AB 2013 (Muratsuchi): Expansion of Access to High-Occupancy Vehicle Lanes by Low-Emission Vehicles" (PDF). Metropolitan Transportation Commission. Retrieved 2014-03-23.
- Dan Weikel (2015-11-10). "Law expanding HOV access to plug-in cars drives higher sales, UCLA study says". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2015-11-22.
- HybridCars.com and Baum & Associates. "HybridCars Dashboard". HybridCars.com. Retrieved 2016-02-17.
- State New Vehicle Registrations Predicted to Remain Above 2 Million Units in 2017
- California New Car Dealers Association (CNCDA) (November 2015). "California New Vehicle Registrations Predicted to Exceed 2 Million Units in 2015" (PDF). CNCDA. Retrieved 2015-11-22. Registrations through September 2015 since 2011. Revised figures for 2014.
- David C. Smith (2013-08-07). "Scrappage Rate Hits Historic High, Bodes Well for Future". Wards Auto. Retrieved 2013-08-14.
- Nathan Bomey (2012-06-05). "California can't get enough of the Chevy Volt as sales surge". Detroit Free Press. Retrieved 2012-06-06.
- Brad Berman (2011-01-07). "December 2010 Dashboard: Year End Tally". HybridCARS.com. Retrieved 2014-09-20.
- Jeff Cobb (2013-01-08). "December 2012 Dashboard". HybridCars.com and Baum & Associates. Retrieved 2013-01-14. See the section: U.S. Plug-in Electric sales for December 2012. A total of 53,172 plug-in electric vehicles were sold during 2012. Sales of the Fisker Karma, Coda and Wheego are not included in this figure, because these carmakers does not report monthly sales on a regular basis. Tesla Model S sales are estimated.
- Jeff Cobb (2014-01-06). "December 2013 Dashboard". HybridCars.com and Baum & Associates. Retrieved 2014-01-07.
- Jeff Cobb (2015-01-06). "December 2014 Dashboard". HybridCars.com and Baum & Associates. Retrieved 2015-01-06.
- Cobb, Jeff (2016-01-06). "December 2015 Dashboard". HybridCars.com and Baum & Associates. Retrieved 2016-03-14. Plug-in electric car sales in the U.S. totaled 114,248 units in 2015, consisting of 71,105 all-electric cars and 43,143 plug-in hybrids, with corresponding market shares of 0.25% and 0.41%. Sales in 2014 totaled 123,347 units.
- Cobb, Jeff (2016-02-17). "California Plug-in Sales Led The US Last Year With Nearly Five-Times Greater Market Share". HybridCars.com. Retrieved 2016-02-18. California's plug-in electric car market share was 3.1%, ranking behind only two countries, the Netherlands (9.7%) and Norway (22.7%). The administrative territory of Hong Kong also had a higher market share of 4.8%.
- Cobb, Jeff (2016-11-02). "October 2016 Dashboard". HybridCars.com and Baum & Associates. Retrieved 2016-11-04. Tesla sales for 3Q 2016 have been restated based upon information provided from the company corresponding to U.S. sales during 3Q 2016. Tesla reported 9,156 Model S and 5,428 Model X sold during the third quarter of 2016. The combined effect of both models totaled 1,116 less units than originally estimated, so the revised current-year-to-date figure for sales through September is 108,397 units. The revised CYTD figure for Model S is 20,856 and 12,328 for the Model X. October sales figures already reflect this adjustment.
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