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Skeletal formula of plumbagin
Ball-and-stick model of plumbagin
IUPAC name
3D model (JSmol)
ECHA InfoCard 100.006.882
Molar mass 188.17942 g/mol
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Infobox references

Plumbagin or 5-hydroxy-2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone is an organic compound with the chemical formula C
. It is regarded as a toxin[1] and it is genotoxic[2] and mutagenic.[3]

Plumbagin is a yellow dye,[1] formally derived from naphthoquinone.

It is named after the plant genus Plumbago, from which it was originally isolated.[4] It is also commonly found in the carnivorous plant genera Drosera and Nepenthes.[5][6] It is also a component of the black walnut drupe.

Pharmacologic properties[edit]

The following properties were described in various cellular and animal models:

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b Black Walnut.
  2. ^ Jemal Demma; Karl Hallberg; Björn Hellman (2009). "Genotoxicity of plumbagin and its effects on catechol and NQNO-induced DNA damage in mouse lymphoma cells". Toxicology in Vitro. 23 (2): 266–271. doi:10.1016/j.tiv.2008.12.007. PMID 19124069.
  3. ^ S B Farr; D O Natvig & T Kogoma (1985). "Toxicity and mutagenicity of plumbagin and the induction of a possible new DNA repair pathway in Escherichia coli". J Bacteriol. 164 (3): 1309–1316. PMC 219331. PMID 2933393.
  4. ^ van der Vijver; L. M. (1972). "Distribution of Plumbagin in the Plumbaginaceae". Phytochemistry. 11 (11): 3247–3248. doi:10.1016/S0031-9422(00)86380-3.
  5. ^ Wang, W.; Luo, X.; Li, H. (2010). "Terahertz and Infrared Spectra of Plumbagin, Juglone, and Menadione". Carnivorous Plant Newsletter. 39 (3): 82–88.
  6. ^ Rischer, H.; Hamm, A.; Bringmann, G. (2002). "Nepenthes insignis Uses a C2-Portion of the Carbon Skeleton of L-Alanine Acquired via its Carnivorous Organs, to Build up the Allelochemical Plumbagin". Phytochemistry. 59 (6): 603–609. doi:10.1016/S0031-9422(02)00003-1.
  7. ^ Didry, N.; Dubrevil, L.; Pinkas, M. (1994). "Activity of anthraquinonic and naphthoquinonic compounds on oral bacteria". Die Pharmazie. 49 (9): 681–683. PMID 7972313.
  8. ^ de Paiva, S. R.; Figueiredo, M. R.; Aragão, T. V.; Kaplan, M. A. C. (2003). "Antimicrobial Activity in Vitro of Plumbagin Isolated from Plumbago Species" (PDF). Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz. 98 (7): 959–961. doi:10.1590/S0074-02762003000700017. PMID 14762525.
  9. ^ Dama L.B., Poul B.N.and Jadhav B.V. (1998). Antimicrobial activity of Napthoquinonic compounds. J. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Monit. 8:213-215
  10. ^ Likhitwitayawuid, K.; Kaewamatawong, R.; Ruangrungsi, N.; Krungkrai, J. (1998). "Antimalarial Naphthoquinones from Nepenthes thorelii". Planta Medica. 64 (3): 237–241. doi:10.1055/s-2006-957417. PMID 9581522.
  11. ^ Checker R.; Sharma D.; Sandur, S. K.; Subrahmanyam, G.; Krishnan, S.; Poduval, T. B.; Sainis, K. B. (2010). "Plumbagin inhibits proliferative and inflammatory responses of T cells independent of ROS generation but by modulating intracellular thiols". Journal of Cellular Biochemistry. 110 (5): 1082–1093. doi:10.1002/jcb.22620. PMC 3065107. PMID 20564204.
  12. ^ Parimala, R.; Sachdanandam, P. (1993). "Effect of plumbagin on some glucose metabolizing enzymes studied in rats in experimental hepatoma". Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry. 125 (1): 59–63. doi:10.1007/BF00926835. PMID 8264573.
  13. ^ Hsu, Y.-L.; Cho,, C.-Y.; Kuo, P.-L.; Huang, Y.-T.; Lin, C.-C. (2006). "Plumbagin (5-Hydroxy-2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone) Induces Apoptosis and Cell Cycle Arrest in A549 Cells through p53 Accumulation via c-Jun NH2-Terminal Kinase-Mediated Phosphorylation at Serine 15 in vitro and in vivo". Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. 318 (2): 484–494. doi:10.1124/jpet.105.098863. PMID 16632641.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  14. ^ Subramaniya, B. R.; Srinivasan, G.; Sadullah, S. S.; Davis, N.; Subhadara, L. B.; Halagowder, D.; Sivasitambaram, N. D. (2011). Navarro, Alfons (ed.). "Apoptosis Inducing Effect of Plumbagin on Colonic Cancer Cells Depends on Expression of COX-2". PLoS ONE. 6 (4): e18695. Bibcode:2011PLoSO...618695S. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0018695. PMC 3084694. PMID 21559086.
  15. ^ Itoigawa, M.; Takeya, K.; Furukawa, H. (1991). "Cardiotonic action of plumbagin on guinea-pig papillary muscle". Planta Medica. 57 (4): 317–319. doi:10.1055/s-2006-960106. PMID 1775570.
  16. ^ McKallip, R. J.; Lombard, C.; Sun, J.; Ramakrishnan, R. (2010). "Plumbagin-induced apoptosis in lymphocytes is mediated through increased reactive oxygen species production, upregulation of Fas, and activation of the caspase cascade". Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. 247 (1): 41–52. doi:10.1016/j.taap.2010.05.013. PMID 20576514.
  17. ^ Bhargava, S. K. (1984). "Effects of plumbagin on reproductive function of male dog". Indian Journal of Experimental Biology. 22 (3): 153–156. PMID 6083981.
  18. ^ Son, T. G.; Camandola, S.; Arumugam, T. V.; Cutler, R. G.; Telljohann, R. S.; Mughal, M. R.; Moore, T. A.; Luo, W.; Yu, Q. S.; Johnson, D. A.; Johnson, J. A.; Greig, N. H.; Mattson, M. P. (2010). "Plumbagin, a novel Nrf2/ARE Activator, Protects against Cerebral Ischemia". Journal of Neurochemistry. 112 (5): 1316–1326. doi:10.1111/j.1471-4159.2009.06552.x. PMC 2819586. PMID 20028456.
  19. ^ Ding, Y.; Chen, Z.-J.; Liu, S.; Che, D.; Vetter, M.; Chang, C.-H. (2005). "Inhibition of Nox-4 activity by plumbagin, a plant-derived bioactive naphthoquinone". Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology. 57 (1): 111–116. doi:10.1211/0022357055119. PMID 15638999.
  20. ^ Poul B.N, Dama L.B.,and Jadhav B.V. (1999). Positive inotropic activity of Plumbagin. D. E. I. J. Sci. Engineering Res. 11: 26-29
  21. ^ Poul B. N., Dama L.B. and Jadhav B. V. (1999). Enzymatic spectrum of herbal Plants Plumbago Linn. Asian J. Chem. 11(1):273-275
  22. ^ Poul B. N., DamaL.B. and Jadhav B. V. (1999). Bioactive spectra of Plumbagin. Asian J. Chem. 11 (1):144-148
  23. ^ Dama L.B. (2002). Effect of naturally occurring napthoquinones on root- knot nematode Meloidogyne spp. Indian Phytopathology. 55 (1): 67-69