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contrasting and categorisation of emotions describes how emotions are thought to relate to each other. Various recent proposals of such groupings are described in the following sections.
Contrasting basic emotions [ edit ]
The following table,
based on a wide review of current theories, identifies and contrasts the fundamental emotions according to a set of definite criteria. The three key criteria used include mental experiences that: [1 ]
have a strongly motivating subjective quality like pleasure or pain;
are in response to some event or object that is either real or imagined;
motivate particular kinds of behaviour.
The combination of these attributes distinguish the emotions from sensations, feelings and moods.
Kind of Emotion
Related to Object Properties
Attraction, desire, admiration
Aversion, disgust, revulsion
Indifference, familiarity, habituation
Joy, elation, triumph, jubilation
Frustration, disappointment, dreadfulness
Pride in achievement, self-confidence, sociability
Embarrassment, shame, guilt, remorse
HUMAINE's proposal for EARL (Emotion Annotation and Representation Language) [ edit ]
emotion annotation and representation language (EARL) proposed by the Human-Machine Interaction Network on Emotion (HUMAINE) classifies 48 emotions. [2 ]
Parrott's emotions by groups [ edit ]
tree-structured list of emotions was described in Shaver et al. (1987), and also featured in Parrott (2001). [3 ] [4 ] [5 ]
Plutchik's wheel of emotions [ edit ]
Plutchik's Wheel of Emotions
Robert Plutchik constructed a wheel-like diagram of emotions visualising eight basic emotions, plus eight derivative emotions each composed of two basic ones. [6 ]
See also [ edit ]
References [ edit ]
^ Robinson, D. L. (2009). "Brain function, mental experience and personality" 64. The Netherlands Journal of Psychology. pp. 152–167.
^ "HUMAINE Emotion Annotation and Representation Language". Emotion-research.net . Retrieved . June 30, 2006
^ Shaver, P., Schwartz, J., Kirson, D., & O'connor, C. (1987). Emotion knowledge: further exploration of a prototype approach. Journal of personality and social psychology, 52(6), 1061.
^ "Basic Emotions". Changingminds.org . Retrieved . 2015-02-26
^ Parrott, W. (2001), "Emotions in Social Psychology", Psychology Press, Philadelphia.
^ Plutchik, R. "The Nature of Emotions". American Scientist . Retrieved . 14 April 2011
External links [ edit ]