Contrasting and categorization of emotions
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The contrasting and categorization of emotions describes how emotions are thought to relate to each other. Various recent proposals of such groupings are described in the following sections.
- 1 Lists of emotions
- 2 See also
- 3 References
- 4 External links
Lists of emotions
Humans experience emotion, with evidence used that they influence action, thoughts and behavior. Emotions are categorized into various affects, which correspond to the current situation. An affect is a term used to describe the range of feeling experienced.
Modelling basic emotions
William James proposed four basic emotions: fear, grief, love, and rage, based on bodily involvement. Paul Ekman devised six basic emotions: anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness and surprise. Wallace V. Friesen and Phoebe C. Ellsworth worked with him and agreed on the same structure of emotions. In the book Passion and Reason Richard and Bernice Lazarus list fifteen different emotions: aesthetic experience, anger, anxiety, compassion, depression, envy, fright, gratitude, guilt, happiness, hope, jealousy, love, pride, relief, sadness, and shame. Psychologists identify twenty-seven categories of emotion: admiration, adoration, aesthetic appreciation, amusement, anger, anxiety, awe, awkwardness, boredom, calmness, confusion, contempt, craving, disappointment, disgust, empathic pain, entrancement, envy, excitement, fear, guilt, horror, interest, joy, nostalgia, pride, relief, romance, sadness, satisfaction, sexual desire, surprise, sympathy and triumph. This was based on 2185 short videos intended to elicit a certain emotion. These were then modelled onto a "map" of emotions.
Contrasting basic emotions
The following table, based on a wide review of current theories, identifies and contrasts the fundamental emotions according to a set of definite criteria. The three key criteria used include mental experiences that:
- have a strongly motivating subjective quality like pleasure or pain;
- are in response to some event or object that is either real or imagined;
- motivate particular kinds of behavior.
The combination of these attributes distinguish the emotions from sensations, feelings and moods.
|Kind of emotion||Positive emotions||Negative emotions|
|Related to object properties||Interest, curiosity, enthusiasm||Indifference, habituation, boredom|
|Attraction, desire, admiration||Aversion, disgust, revulsion|
|Surprise, amusement||Alarm, panic|
|Future appraisal||Hope, excitement||Fear, anxiety, dread|
|Event-related||Gratitude, thankfulness||Anger, rage|
|Joy, elation, triumph, jubilation||Sorrow, grief|
|Self-appraisal||Humility, modesty||Pride, thinking or acting in a way above others|
|Social||Charity||Avarice, greed, miserliness, envy, jealousy|
HUMAINE's proposal for EARL
The emotion annotation and representation language (EARL) proposed by the Human-Machine Interaction Network on Emotion (HUMAINE) classifies 48 emotions.
- Negative and forceful
- Negative and not in control
- Negative thoughts
- Negative and passive
- Positive and lively
- Positive thoughts
- Quiet positive
Parrott's emotions by groups
Plutchik's wheel of emotions
In 1980, Robert Plutchik constructed a wheel-like diagram of emotions visualising eight basic emotions: joy, trust, fear, surprise, sadness, disgust, anger and anticipation. The wheel was inspired by Plutchik's Ten Postulates, a list of postulates which include some of the emotions listed below. Plutchik also theorized twenty-four "Primary", "Secondary", and "Tertiary" dyads (a feeling composed of two emotions). The ways the emotions can be paired up are listed here:
- Primary dyad = one petal apart = Love = Joy + Trust
- Secondary dyad = two petals apart = Envy = Sadness + Anger
- Tertiary dyad = three petals apart = Shame = Fear + Disgust
- Opposite emotions = four petals apart = Anticipation ≠ Surprise
Emotions also come in a variety of intensities; for example, distraction is a mild form of surprise, and rage is an intense form of anger. The kinds of relation between each pair of emotions follow below:
|Mild emotion||Mild opposite||Basic emotion||Basic opposite||Intense emotion||Intense opposite|
|Human feelings||Emotions||Opposite feelings||Emotions|
|Optimism||Anticipation + Joy||Disapproval||Surprise + Sadness|
|Hope||Anticipation + Trust||Unbelief||Surprise + Disgust|
|Anxiety||Anticipation + Fear||Outrage||Surprise + Anger|
|Love||Joy + Trust||Remorse||Sadness + Disgust|
|Guilt||Joy + Fear||Envy||Sadness + Anger|
|Delight||Joy + Surprise||Pessimism||Sadness + Anticipation|
|Submission||Trust + Fear||Contempt||Disgust + Anger|
|Curiosity||Trust + Surprise||Cynicism||Disgust + Anticipation|
|Sentimentality||Trust + Sadness||Morbidness||Disgust + Joy|
|Awe||Fear + Surprise||Aggressiveness||Anger + Anticipation|
|Despair||Fear + Sadness||Pride||Anger + Joy|
|Shame||Fear + Disgust||Dominance||Anger + Trust|
Plutchik's wheel in Venn format
Jessica Hagy wrote on her blog that Plutchik's wheel of emotions gave a demonstration on emotions, but needed more levels of intensity in the emotion combinations. She observed that the wheel was a Venn diagram format, and expanded the primary dyads.
|Human feelings||Emotions||Opposite feelings||Emotions|
|Bemusement||Interest + Serenity||Dismay||Distraction + Pensiveness|
|Zeal||Vigilance + Ecstasy||Horror||Amazement + Grief|
|Acknowledgement||Serenity + Acceptance||Listlessness||Pensiveness + Boredom|
|Devotion||Ecstasy + Admiration||Shame||Grief + Loathing|
|Acquiescence||Acceptance + Apprehension||Impatience||Boredom + Annoyance|
|Subservience||Admiration + Terror||Hatred||Loathing + Rage|
|Wariness||Apprehension + Distraction||Disfavor||Annoyance + Interest|
|Petrification||Terror + Amazement||Domination||Rage + Vigilance|
The Hourglass of Emotions
In 2012, a scientific research book called The Hourglass of Emotions was largely based on Robert Plutchik's model, but categorised his emotions into four sentic dimensions. It contrasted anger, anticipation, joy, and trust as positive emotions, and fear, surprise, sadness and disgust as negative.
|Dimensions||High Sensitivity||Low Sensitivity||High Pleasantness||Low Pleasantness|
The Book of Human Emotions
Tiffany Watt Smith listed 154 different emotions and feelings, including foreign ones.
Mapping facial expressions
- Affect (psychology)
- Basic emotions
- Emotion and memory
- Emotion classification
- Emotional mood
- List of virtues
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- [dead link]
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- "6 basic emotions".