Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine
|Target||23 serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae|
|Trade names||Pneumovax 23|
|(what is this?) (verify)|
Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV)—known as Pneumovax 23 (PPV-23)—is the first pneumococcal vaccine derived from a capsular polysaccharide.
The polysaccharide antigens were used to induce type-specific antibodies that enhanced opsonization, phagocytosis, and killing of Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcal) bacteria by phagocytic immune cells. The pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine is widely used in high-risk adults. As a result, there have been important reductions in the incidence, morbidity, and mortality from invasive pneumococcal disease.[medical citation needed]
First used in 1945, the tetravalent vaccine was not widely distributed, since its deployment coincided with the discovery of penicillin. In the 1970s, Robert Austrian championed the manufacture and distribution of a 14-valent PPSV. This evolved in 1983 to a 23-valent formulation (PPSV23). A significant breakthrough affecting the burden of pneumococcal disease was the licensing of a protein conjugate heptavalent vaccine (PCV7) beginning in February 2000.
In the United States, PPSV is recommended for adults 65 years of age or older, adults with serious long-term health problems, smokers, and children older than two years with serious long-term health problems, affording protection for five years or more. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations are similar. The WHO does not recommend use of PPSV in routine childhood immunization programs. The recommendations in the UK are similar, but include people with occupational hazards.
Pneumococcal vaccine may be beneficial to control exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
PPSV is important for those with HIV/AIDS. In Canadian patients infected with HIV, the vaccine has been reported to decrease the incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease from 768 per 100,000 person–years to 244 per 100,000 patient–years. Because of the low level of evidence for benefit, 2008 WHO guidelines do not recommend routine immunization with PPV-23 for HIV patients, and suggests preventing pneumococcal disease indirectly with trimethoprim–sulfamethoxazole chemoprophylaxis and antiretrovirals. While the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends immunization in all patients infected with HIV.
The most common adverse reactions (reported in more than 10% of subjects vaccinated with PPSV in clinical trials) were: pain, soreness or tenderness at the site of injection (60.0%), injection-site swelling or temporary thickening or hardening of the skin (20.3%), headache (17.6%), injection-site redness (16.4%), weakness and fatigue (13.2%), and muscle pain (11.9%).
Adults and children over two years of age
The 23-valent vaccine (for example, Pneumovax 23) is effective against 23 different pneumococcal capsular types (serotypes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6B, 7F, 8, 9N, 9V, 10A, 11A, 12F, 14, 15B, 17F, 18C, 19A, 19F, 20, 22F, 23F, and 33F), and so covers 90 percent of the types found in pneumococcal bloodstream infections.
Children under the age of two years fail to mount an adequate response to the 23-valent adult vaccine, and instead a 13-valent pneumococcal conjugated vaccine (PCV13; for example, Prevnar 13) is used instead. PCV13 replaced PCV7, adding six new serotypes to the vaccine. While this covers only thirteen strains out of more than ninety strains, these thirteen strains caused 80–90 percent of cases of severe pneumococcal disease in the U.S. before introduction of the vaccine, and it is considered to be nearly 100 percent effective against these strains.
- Special risk-groups
- Children at special risk (e.g., sickle cell disease and those without a functioning spleen) require additional protection using the PCV13, with the more extensive PPSV-23 given after the second year of life or two months after the PCV13 dose:
|Age||2–6 months||7–11 months||12–23 months|
|PCV13||3 × monthly dose||2 × monthly dose||2 doses, 2 months apart|
|Further dose in second year of life|
|PPSV-23||Single dose after second year of life, 2 months after PCV13|
- ^ "Pneumococcal 23-polyvalent vaccine (Pneumovax 23) Use During Pregnancy". Drugs.com. 7 October 2019. Retrieved 14 July 2020.
- ^ "Pneumovax 23- pneumococcal vaccine polyvalent injection, solution". DailyMed. Retrieved 11 January 2022.
- ^ a b Siemieniuk RA, Gregson DB, Gill MJ (November 2011). "The persisting burden of invasive pneumococcal disease in HIV patients: an observational cohort study". BMC Infectious Diseases. 11: 314. doi:10.1186/1471-2334-11-314. PMC 3226630. PMID 22078162.
- ^ Macleod CM, Hodges RG, Heidelberger M, Bernhard WG (1945). "Prevention of pneumococcal pneumonia by immunization with specific capsular polysaccharides". J Exp Med. 82 (6): 445–65. doi:10.1084/jem.82.6.445. PMC 2135567. PMID 19871511.
- ^ Austrian R, Douglas RM, Schiffman G, et al. (1976). "Prevention of pneumococcal pneumonia by vaccination". Trans Assoc Am Physicians. 89: 184–94. PMID 14433.
- ^ Klein JO, Plotkin SA (2007). "Robert Austrian: 1917-2007". Clin Infect Dis. 45: 2–3. doi:10.1086/520068.
- ^ Kim NH, Lee J, Lee SJ, et al. (2007). "Immunogenicity and safety of pneumococcal 7-valent conjugate vaccine (diphtheria CRM(197) protein conjugate; Prevenar ) in Korean infants: differences that are found in Asian children". Vaccine. 25 (45): 7858–65. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2007.08.022. PMID 17931753.
- ^ "Pneumococcal Vaccination - What You Should Know". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 6 December 2017. Archived from the original on 12 November 2019. Retrieved 11 November 2019.
- ^ a b World Health Organization (2008). "23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine : WHO position paper". Wkly. Epidemiol. Rec. 83 (42): 373–84. hdl:10665/241217. PMID 18927997.
- ^ "World Health Organization. Pneumococcal vaccines". Archived from the original on 6 March 2002. Retrieved 29 May 2009.
- ^ "Who should have the pneumococcal vaccine?". NHS. 2019. Retrieved 7 October 2020.
- ^ Froes F, Roche N, Blasi F (2017). "Pneumococcal vaccination and chronic respiratory diseases". Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis. 12: 3457–3468. doi:10.2147/COPD.S140378. PMC 5723118. PMID 29255353.
- ^ "Pneumococcal Vaccine Timing for Adults" (PDF). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 16 March 2020. Retrieved 14 July 2020.
- ^ a b Package Insert - Pneumovax 23. US Food and Drug Administration. 2019
- ^ Childhood Pneumococcal Disease Archived 25 October 2006 at the Wayback Machine – information on the disease and the Prevnar vaccine, from the Victoria State (Australia) government.[dead link]
- ^ "Pneumococcal: the green book, chapter 25". Immunisation against infectious disease. Public Health England. 2013. Gateway 2017624. Archived from the original on 12 November 2019.
- Moberley S, Holden J, Tatham DP, Andrews RM (2013). "Vaccines for preventing pneumococcal infection in adults". Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 1 (1): CD000422. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD000422.pub3. PMC 7045867. PMID 23440780.
- World Health Organization (September 2009). The immunological basis for immunization series: module 12: pneumococcal vaccines. World Health Organization (WHO). hdl:10665/44135. ISBN 9789241598217.
- Ramsay M, ed. (January 2018). "Chapter 25: Pneumococcal". Immunisation against infectious disease. Public Health England.
- Hamborsky J, Kroger A, Wolfe S, eds. (2015). "Chapter 17: Pneumococcal Disease". Epidemiology and Prevention of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases (13th ed.). Washington D.C.: U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). ISBN 978-0990449119.
- Roush SW, Baldy LM, Hall MA, eds. (9 January 2020). "Chapter 11: Pneumococcal". Manual for the surveillance of vaccine-preventable diseases. Atlanta GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).
- World Health Organization (2008). "23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine : WHO position paper". Wkly. Epidemiol. Rec. 83 (42): 373–84. hdl:10665/241217. PMID 18927997.
- Pneumococcal Vaccines World Health Organization (WHO)
- "Pneumovax 23 - Pneumococcal Vaccine, Polyvalent". U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). 28 October 2021. STN BLA 101094.
- PATH's Vaccine Resource Library pneumococcus resources
- "Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine Information Statement". U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). October 2019.