Temporal range: Chadronian–Recent 
|Botta's pocket gopher (Thomomys bottae)|
Pocket gophers, commonly referred to as gophers, are burrowing rodents of the family Geomyidae. About 35 species of gophers live in Central and North America. They are commonly known for their extensive tunneling activities. Gophers are endemic to North and Central America.
The name "pocket gopher" on its own may be used to refer to any of a number of genera within the family. These are the "true" gophers, but several ground squirrels in the distantly related family Sciuridae are often called gophers, as well. The origin of the word "gopher" is uncertain. French gaufre, meaning waffle, has been suggested, on account of the gopher's tunnels resembling the honeycomb-like pattern of holes in a waffle. Another suggestion is that the word is of Muskogean origin.
Gophers weigh around 0.5 lb (230 g), and are about 6–8 in (150–200 mm) in body length, with a tail 1–2 in (25–51 mm) long. A few species reach weights approaching 1 kg (2.2 lb). Within any species, the males are larger than the females and can be nearly double their weight.
Their lifespans are normally one to three years assuming no diseases or predation. The maximum lifespan for the pocket gopher is about five years. Some gophers, such as those in the genus Geomys, have lifespans that have been documented as up to seven years in the wild.
Most gophers have brown fur that often closely matches the color of the soil in which they live. Their most characteristic features are their large cheek pouches, from which the word "pocket" in their name derives. These pouches are fur-lined, can be turned inside out, and extend from the side of the mouth well back onto the shoulders. Gophers have small eyes and a short, hairy tail, which they use to feel around tunnels when they walk backwards.
All pocket gophers create a network of tunnel systems that provide protection and a means of collecting food. They are larder hoarders, and their cheek pouches are used for transporting food back to their burrows. Gophers can collect large hoards. Unlike ground squirrels, gophers do not live in large communities and seldom find themselves above ground. Tunnel entrances can be identified by small piles of loose soil covering the opening. Their burrows can be found in many areas where the soil is softer and easily tunneled. They often appear in vegetable gardens, lawns, or farms, as gophers like moist soil (see Soil biomantle). This has led to their frequent treatment as pests.
Gophers eat plant roots, shrubs, and other vegetables such as carrots, lettuce, radishes, and any other vegetables with juice. Some species are considered agricultural pests. The resulting destruction of plant life then leaves the area a stretch of denuded soil. At the same time, the soil disturbance created by turning it over can lead to the establishment of early successional communities of r-selected and other ruderal plant species. The stashing and subsequent decomposition of plant material in the gophers' larder can produce deep fertilization of the soil.
Pocket gophers are solitary outside of the breeding season, aggressively maintaining territories that vary in size depending on the resources available. Males and females may share some burrows and nesting chambers if their territories border each other, but in general, each pocket gopher inhabits its own individual tunnel system. Although they attempt to flee when threatened, they may attack other animals, including cats and humans, and can inflict serious bites with their long, sharp teeth.
Depending on the species and local conditions, pocket gophers may have a specific annual breeding season, or may breed repeatedly through the year. Each litter typically consists of two to five young, although this may be much higher in some species. The young are born blind and helpless, and are weaned around 40 days old.
Much debate exists among taxonomists about which races of pocket gophers should be recognised as full species, and the following list cannot be regarded as definitive.
- Family Geomyidae
- Genus Cratogeomys; some authors treat this genus as a subgenus of Pappogeomys.
- Genus Geomys - eastern pocket gophers; principally found in the southwestern United States, east of the Sierra Nevada mountains
- Geomys arenarius; two subspecies, the desert and White Sands pocket gophers
- Attwater's pocket gopher (G. attwateri)
- Plains pocket gopher (G. bursarius); two subspecies
- Knox Jones's pocket gopher (G. knoxjonesi)
- Geomys personatus; five subspecies including the Texas, Davis, maritime, and Carrizo Springs pocket gophers
- Geomys pinetis; four subspecies, the southeastern, Cumberland Island, Sherman's, and Goff's pocket gophers
- Geomys texensis; two subspecies, including the llano pocket gopher
- Genus Orthogeomys - giant pocket gophers or taltuzas; found in Mexico, Central America, and Colombia
- Chiriqui pocket gopher (Orthogeomys cavator)
- Cherrie's pocket gopher (O. cherriei)
- Oaxacan pocket gopher (O. cuniculus)
- Darien pocket gopher (O. dariensis)
- Giant pocket gopher (O. grandis)
- Variable pocket gopher (O. heterodus)
- Hispid pocket gopher (O. hispidus)
- Big pocket gopher (O. lanius)
- Nicaraguan pocket gopher (O. matagalpae)
- Thaeler's pocket gopher (O. thaeleri)
- Underwood's pocket gopher (O. underwoodi)
- Genus Pappogeomys; found in Mexico
- Genus Thomomys - western pocket gophers; widely distributed in North America, extending into the northwestern US, Canada, and the southeastern US.
- Thomomys bottae; many subspecies, including Botta's, Fish Spring, Bonneville, Clear Lake, San Antonio, Pistol River, Mount Ellen, Guadalupe, Limpia, Mearns', Stansbury Island, Antelope Island, Cebolleta, Salinas, Skull Valley, Swasey Springs, Harquahala, and Limpia Greek pocket gophers
- Camas pocket gopher (T. bulbivorus)
- Wyoming pocket gopher (T. clusius)
- Idaho pocket gopher (T. idahoensis)
- Mazama pocket gopher (T. mazama); several subspecies including the western, Gold Beach, Olympic, and Tacoma pocket gophers
- Mountain pocket gopher (T. monticola)
- Northern pocket gopher (T. talpoides); very widely distributed; several subspecies including the Cheyenne northern pocket gopher
- Townsend's pocket gopher (T. townsendii)
- Southern pocket gopher (T. umbrinus)
- Genus Zygogeomys
- Michoacan pocket gopher or tuza (Zygogeomys trichopus)
In popular culture
- Minnesota is nicknamed the "Gopher State", and the University of Minnesota's athletics teams are collectively known as the Golden Gophers, led by mascot Goldy Gopher.
- Internet Gopher protocol was created at the University of Minnesota.
- Gainer the Gopher is the mascot of the Saskatchewan Roughriders in the Canadian Football League.
- A gopher also plays a key role in the film Caddyshack.
- The mascot of the Go programming language is the Go Gopher.
- Gordon the Gopher is an English puppet gopher which appeared on Children's BBC (CBBC) between 1985 and 1987.
- Gophers! was a British children's programme that ran on Channel 4 between 1988 and 1990.
- Eduardo Jiménez-Hidalgo; Rosalía Guerrero-Arenas; Krister T. Smith (2017). "Gregorymys veloxikua, The Oldest Pocket Gopher (Rodentia: Geomyidae), and The Early Diversification of Geomyoidea". Journal of Mammalian Evolution. in press. doi:10.1007/s10914-017-9383-z.
- "ODFW, Oregon Wildlife Species: Gophers". Dfw.state.or.us. 2014-08-25. Retrieved 2017-05-27.
- "Outwit Critters:". Retrieved 16 January 2014.
There are 35 species of gophers living in both North and Central America.
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- Macdonald, David W., ed. (2006). The Encyclopedia of Mammals. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-920608-2.
- Hygnstrom, Scott E. (2010). Prevention and Control of Wildlife Damage. DIANE Publishing Inc. p. B–21. ISBN 1-4379-3688-1.
- Whisson, Delsey. Small Grain Production Pt 8: Pest Management -- Vertebrates. UCANR Publications. p. 5. ISBN 1-60107-411-5.
- "Pocket Gophers". National Wildlife Federation. Retrieved 19 January 2014.
- "Gopher". A-Z Animals. Retrieved 19 January 2014.
- Patton, James (1984). Macdonald, D., ed. The Encyclopedia of Mammals. New York: Facts on File. pp. 628–631. ISBN 0-87196-871-1.
- Hazardous Substances and New Organisms Act 2003 - Schedule 2 Prohibited new organisms, New Zealand Government, retrieved 26 January 2012
- [dead link]
- Martin, Scott (25 March 2007). "The Book of Caddyshack: Everything You Ever Wanted to Know About the Greatest Movie Ever Made". Taylor Trade Publishing – via Google Books.
- "The Go Gopher - The Go Blog".
- "Archive - The CBBC Broom Cupboard - 25 Years of live Children's BBC presentation". BBC. Retrieved 2017-05-27.
- TV, Guardian (6 August 2015). "Gordon's alive! Phillip Schofield's puppet sidekick is back". The Guardian.
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