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Coordinates: 42°26′29″N 19°15′46″E / 42.44139°N 19.26278°E / 42.44139; 19.26278
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  • Glavni grad Podgorica
  • Главни град Подгорица
  • Capital City of Podgorica
Panoramic view of Podgorica
Partisans Monument
Business center Kruševac
Independence square
Municipal Building
Podgorica is located in Montenegro
Location of Podgorica in Montenegro
Podgorica is located in Europe
Podgorica (Europe)
Coordinates: 42°26′29″N 19°15′46″E / 42.44139°N 19.26278°E / 42.44139; 19.26278
Country Montenegro
Municipality Podgorica
FoundedBefore 11th century
 • TypeMayor-Assembly
 • BodyCity Assembly of Podgorica
 • MayorOlivera Injac (PES!)
 • Deputy MayorsDanilo Šaranović (DCG)
Luka Rakčević (URA)
 • Assembly PresidentJelena Borovinić Bojović [sr] (n-p; DF)
 • Ruling coalitionPES!DF/PCGDCG/
 • Capital city108 km2 (42 sq mi)
 • Metro
1,441 km2 (556 sq mi)
40 m (130 ft)
 • Rank1st in Montenegro
 • Urban
Increase 180,086
 • Rural
Increase 13,803
 • Metro
Increase 186,827
(Podgoričanin) (male)
(Podgoričanka) (female)
Time zoneUTC+01:00 (CET)
Postal code
81 000 – 81 124
Area code+382 20
License platePG
ClimateCsa, Cfa

Podgorica[a][b] (Montenegrin: Подгорица,[c] pronounced [pǒdɡoritsa]; lit.'under the hill') is the capital and largest city of Montenegro. The city is just north of Lake Skadar and close to coastal destinations on the Adriatic Sea. Historically, it was Podgorica's position at the confluence of the Ribnica and Morača rivers and at the meeting-point of the fertile Zeta Plain and Bjelopavlići Valley that encouraged settlement. The surrounding landscape is predominantly mountainous terrain.

After World War II, Podgorica was first designated as the capital of Montenegro in 1946. At that time, it was renamed Titograd in honor of Josip Broz Tito, the leader of Yugoslavia. It served as the capital of the Socialist Republic of Montenegro within the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia until Montenegro's declaration of independence in 2006, after which it was reaffirmed as the capital of an independent Montenegro. The city's original name, Podgorica, was restored in 1992 following the dissolution of Yugoslavia.

The economy of Podgorica is based on a mix of industries, including manufacturing, trade, and services. The city has seen a rise in the IT sector, with numerous startups and tech companies emerging. Podgorica serves as a central hub for Montenegro's transportation network, with an extensive road and rail system and the nearby Podgorica Airport. Tourism is also a growing sector, with the city being a gateway to Montenegro's natural and cultural attractions.

Podgorica is home to the University of Montenegro, the largest and most significant educational institution in the country. The city's cultural institutions include the Montenegrin National Theatre, the Natural History Museum of Montenegro, and several galleries and libraries. About one-third of the city's area is composed of parks, gardens, and natural landscapes, including the nearby Gorica Hill.

Prominent landmarks in Podgorica include the Millennium Bridge, the Clock Tower, and the Cathedral of the Resurrection of Christ. The city also features historical sites such as the ancient Roman settlement of Doclea and the old Ottoman town of Stara Varoš.



Podgorica is written in Cyrillic as Подгорица, pronounced [pǒdɡoritsa]; UK: /ˈpɒdɡɒrɪtsə, pɒdˈɡɔːr-/,[2] US: /ˈpɒdɡərtsə, ˈpɔːdɡɒr-/;[3][4][5] Podgorica literally means "under the hill". Gorica (Cyrillic: Горица), a diminutive of the word Gora (Cyrillic: Гора) which is another word for Mountain or Hill, means "little/small hill", is the name of one of the cypress-covered hillocks that overlooks the city center. Some three kilometres (1.9 miles) north-west of Podgorica lie the ruins of the Roman-era town of Doclea, from which the Roman Emperor Diocletian's mother hailed. In later centuries, Romans "corrected" the name to Dioclea, guessing wrongly that an i had been lost in vulgar speech. Duklja is the later South Slavic version of same word. At its foundation (some time before the 11th century), the town was called Birziminium [sr]. In the Middle Ages, it was known as Ribnica (Cyrillic: Рибница, [rîbnitsa]). The name Podgorica was used from 1326. From 1946 to 1992, the city was named Titograd (Cyrillic: Титоград, [tîtoɡraːd]) in honour of Josip Broz Tito, the President of Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia from 1953 to 1980. In 1992 the city changed its name to "Podgorica", which it remains today.



Early history

Doclea, Roman town, the seat of the Late Roman province of Praevalitana
Archeological remains of the Roman period in Doclea

Podgorica is at the crossroads of several historically important routes, near the rivers Zeta, Morača, Cijevna, Ribnica, Sitnica and Mareza in the valley of Lake Skadar and near the Adriatic Sea, in fertile lowlands with favourable climate. The earliest human settlements were in prehistory: the oldest physical remains are from the late Stone Age.

In the Iron Age, the area between the Zeta and Bjelopavlići valleys was populated by two Illyrian tribes, the Labeates and the Docleatae. The population of the town of Doclea was 8,000–10,000, in which all core urban issues were resolved. The high population density (in an area of about 10 km (6 mi) radius) was made possible by the geographical position, favorable climate, and economic conditions and by the defensive positions that were of great importance at that time.

The name Podgorica was first mentioned in 1326 in a court document of the Kotor archives. The city was economically strong: trade routes between the Republic of Ragusa and Serbia, well developed at that time, were maintained via the road that led to Podgorica through Trebinje and Nikšić. As a busy crossroads, Podgorica was a vibrant regional center of trade and communication. This boosted its development, economic power, military strength, and strategic importance.[citation needed]

Ottoman Empire

View of Ribnica fortress and Old bridge, Catholic Church (right), Debbaglar Bridge, government mansion and the Mirko Varosh Hotel (far left), before 1901

The Ottoman Empire captured Podgorica in 1474. Podgorica became a kaza of the Sanjak of Scutari (which was historically led by Albanian Pashas). In 1479, The Ottomans built a large fortress in Podgorica, and the existing settlement, with its highly developed merchant connections, became the main Ottoman defensive and attacking bastion in the region. At the beginning of 1474 the Ottoman sultan intended to rebuild Podgorica and Baleč and settle them with 5,000 Muslim families (most of them of Albanian or Slavic origin),[6] in order to stop cooperation between the Principality of Zeta and Albania Veneta.[7]

Podgorica fell again, but this time to the Ottomans in 1484, and the character of the town changed extensively. The Ottomans fortified the city, building towers, gates, and defensive ramparts that give Podgorica the appearance of an Ottoman military city.

City Clock Tower

Most of today's Montenegro and Podgorica fell under the rule of the Albanian Bushati Family of Shkodra between 1760 and 1831, which ruled independently from the Imperial authority of the Ottoman Sultan.

In 1864, Podgorica became a kaza of the Scutari Vilayet called Böğürtlen ("blackberry", also known as Burguriçe).

View of Ribnica fortress and Old bridge

On 7 October 1874, in a violent reaction over the murder of a local named Juso Mučin Krnić,[8] Ottoman forces killed at least 15 people in Podgorica.[9] The massacre was widely reported outside of Montenegro and ultimately contributed to the buildup to the Montenegrin-Ottoman War.

The end of the Montenegrin-Ottoman War in 1878 resulted in the Congress of Berlin recognizing vast territories, including that of Podgorica, as part of the newly recognized Principality of Montenegro. At that time there were about 1,500 houses in Podgorica, with more than 8,000 people living there – of Orthodox, Roman Catholic, and Muslim faiths flourishing together.

The Petrović and Karađorđević monarchies

King Nicholas I monument

After the Berlin Congress in 1878, Podgorica was annexed to the Principality of Montenegro, marking the end of four centuries of Ottoman rule, and the beginning of a new era for Podgorica and Montenegro. The first forms of capital concentration were seen in 1902 when roads were built to all neighboring towns, and tobacco became Podgorica's first significant commercial product. In 1904, a savings bank named Zetska formed the first significant financial institution; this would soon grow into Podgorička Bank.

World War I marked the end of dynamic development for Podgorica, which by then was the largest city in the newly proclaimed Kingdom of Montenegro. On 10 August 1914, nine military personnel and 13 civilians were killed in Podgorica from an aerial bombardment by Austro-Hungarian Aviation Troops.[10] The city was bombed three more times in 1915.[10] Along with the rest of the Kingdom, Podgorica was occupied by Austria-Hungary from 1916 to 1918.

After the liberation by the Allies in 1918, the controversial Podgorica Assembly marked the end of Montenegrin statehood, as Montenegro was merged with the Kingdom of Serbia and incorporated into the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes. The population of urban Podgorica during this interwar period was approximately 14,000.[11]

During the interwar period (1918–1941), Podgorica had public bathrooms as most residents did not have their own.[11] However, the Imperial hotel built in 1925 had two bathrooms, which was unprecedented at the time.[11] It was one of at least six hotels built in the city during the interwar period.[11]

World War II

Bombing of Podgorica in World War II

After the Yugoslav coup d'état on 27 March 1941, demonstrations supporting the coup took place in Podgorica.[12] As a result of the coup, Yugoslavia turned against its previous alliance with the Axis powers and was subsequently invaded. Podgorica was bombed over 80 times throughout the course of the war.[13] The city was first bombed by the Luftwaffe on 6 April 1941. On 5 May 1944, Podgorica was bombed by the USAAF in an attack against Axis forces, although the bombardment that day killed approximately 400 civilians.[14] The city was liberated on 19 December 1944. According to the Museum of Genocide Victims, a total of 1,691 people were killed in Podgorica over the course of the war.[15]

Socialist Yugoslavia


On 12 July 1946, Josip Broz Tito made one of his early visits to Podgorica from the Radovče hotel, where he spoke to a crowd.[16] It was the first of fifteen total visits made by Tito to the city after World War II.[16]

"Podgorica is destroyed. We will build her altogether because it's our responsibility, because that's what's required of us by the sacrifices which Podgorica gave! We will do it, that's what I promise you in the name of the Federal government." -Josip Broz Tito on 12 July 1946.[16]

On 25 July 1948, the vice president of the People's Parliament of Montenegro, Andrija Mugoša, along with secretary Gavron Cemović, signed a law changing the name of Podgorica into "Titovgrad".[13] The law was "retroactively" activated such that the name change applied to any records starting from 13 July 1946, when it became the capital of Montenegro within the newly formed Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.[13] However, in a contradiction, the "Službeni list" or legal code of Yugoslavia recorded the name "Titograd" without the letter "v".[13] Ultimately, "Titograd" was used over "Titovgrad".[13]

In addition to the new name, Titograd saw the establishment of new factories. The Radoje Dakić factory, built-in 1946 for the production of heavy machinery, became one of the largest employers in Titograd. In 1964, Radoje Dakić guaranteed hired workers an apartment in the city.[17] In the late 1960s, the cities of Titograd, Zadar, and Mostar competed to be selected as the location of Yugoslavia's expanding aluminum industry.[18] In a highly politicized selection process, Titograd was ultimately chosen and the Kombinat was constructed in 1969.[18] In 1974, the public Veljko Vlahović University was founded in Titograd. On 15 April 1979, the city suffered damage by a 6.9 magnitude earthquake.

Titograd was the site of massive protests during Yugoslavia's anti-bureaucratic revolution. On 10 January 1989, over 10,000 people protested in the city.[19][20] By the turn of the decade, Titograd was recognized as the city with the most greenery in Yugoslavia, along with Banja Luka.[21]

Contemporary history


As Yugoslavia began to break up, Titograd was renamed to Podgorica after a referendum on 2 April 1992.[22] On 25 May 1992, Podgorica was the site of a Serbian Radical Party rally of approximately 10,000 supporters, during which a Montenegrin Bosniak man named Adem Šabotić attempted to assassinate Vojislav Šešelj via hand bomb after his supporters chanted references to killing Muslims.[23] Šešelj, his bodyguards, and a few bystanders were injured after the bomb detonated but no one was killed.[23]

Otherwise, the Yugoslav wars largely bypassed Podgorica, but the entire country was greatly affected with severe economic stagnation and hyperinflation lasting throughout the 1990s due to international sanctions. In 1999, Podgorica was subject to airstrikes during the NATO bombing of Yugoslavia.[24][25]

On 13 July 2005, the newly constructed Millennium Bridge opened for traffic.[26] Following the results of the independence referendum in May 2006, Podgorica saw significant development as the capital of an independent state, including the reconstruction and renaming of the former Ivan Milutinović Square to Independence Square.

On 13 October 2008, at least 10,000 people protested against Kosovo's declaration of independence.[27] On 19 December 2008, the Moscow Bridge opened for pedestrians.

On 7 August 2013, the 60-year old Hotel Crna Gora was demolished to make way for the new Hilton in its place, which opened in 2016.[28] Construction of the Cathedral of Christ's Resurrection finished after 20 years on 7 October 2013.

In October 2015, protests took place in Podgorica ahead of Montenegro's accession into NATO. After a demonstration of at least 5,000 to 8,000 people,[29] the police used tear gas to disperse demonstrators from the parliament.[30] Protests in the city continued through the 2016 Montenegrin parliamentary election. On 22 February 2018, a Yugoslav Army veteran killed himself at the US embassy in Podgorica.


Podgorica urban subdivisions
Podgorica City Hall and the monument to Marko Miljanov Popović

The city administration consists of a mayor, city assembly, and a number of secretariats and administrative bodies which together act as a city local government. The city assembly has 61 members, elected directly for four-year terms. The mayor used to be directly elected for a five-year term, but since the new law was introduced in Montenegrin municipalities mayors will be elected by the city assembly and will have to maintain its support during the term. Separate elections are held for the local sub-division of Golubovci since it is part of their administrative autonomy inside Podgorica municipality. Constant questions are raised by various politicians over gaining separate municipality status for Golubovci. In 2018, Tuzi became its own municipality after a vote on the Montenegrin Parliament.[31]

On local elections held on 25 May 2014, the Democratic Party of Socialists won 29 seats in the municipal assembly, one short of 30 needed to form a majority. Democratic Front won 17 seats, SNP won 8 seats, while coalition made of Positive Montenegro and SDP won 5 seats. After lengthy negotiations, SDP dissolved coalition with Pozitivna and made an arrangement on forming a majority with DPS, similar to one they have in national government. While SDP is a longtime partner of DPS at the national level, it has been in opposition to Podgorica municipal assembly in 2010–2014 period. Since October 2014, the position of the mayor is held by DPS official, Slavoljub Stijepović, replacing Podgorica mayor od 14 years, Miomir Mugoša. Since October 2018, the position of the Mayor is held by DPS Vice president dr Ivan Vuković, replacing Slavoljub Stijepović. On 13 April 2023, Olivera Injac from PES was sworn in as mayor, thus becoming the first non-DPS mayor since 1998.

City Assembly

Party/Coalition Seats Local government
Democratic Party of Socialists
13 / 58
Europe Now
8 / 58
Democratic Front
7 / 58
Movement for Podgorica
5 / 58
Democratic Montenegro
4 / 58
Movement for Changes
3 / 58
United Reform Action
3 / 58
Social Democratic Party
2 / 58
Social Democrats
2 / 58
Civic Initiative '21 May'
2 / 58
True Montenegro
1 / 58
United Montenegro
1 / 58
1 / 58
1 / 58
Liberal Party
1 / 58
Bosniak Party
1 / 58

Local subdivisions


The municipality of Podgorica consists of Podgorica City Proper and two subdivisions (called city municipality, градске општине, gradske opštine), which are Zeta City Municipality (Golubovci) and Tuzi City Municipality (Tuzi).

The entire municipality of Podgorica is further divided into 66 local communities (мјесне заједнице, mjesne zajednice), bodies in which the citizens participate in decisions on matters of relevance to the local community.



Podgorica is located in central Montenegro. The area is crossed with rivers and the city itself is only 15 kilometres (9.3 mi) north of Lake Skadar. The Morača and Ribnica rivers flow through the city, while the Zeta, Cijevna, Sitnica and Mareza flow nearby. Morača is the largest river in the city, being 70 m or 230 ft wide near downtown, and having carved a 20 m or 66 ft deep canyon for the length of its course through the city. [citation needed] Except for the Morača and Zeta, other rivers have an appearance of small creeks. The richness in bodies of water is a major feature of the city.

In contrast to most of Montenegro, Podgorica lies in a mainly flat area at the northern end of the Zeta plain, at an elevation of 40 m (130 ft). The only exceptions are hills which overlook the city. The most significant is 130.3 m (427 ft) high Gorica Hill (pronounced [ˈɡǒrit͜sa]), city's namesake, which rises above the city centre. The other hills include Malo brdo ("little hill", 205.4 m or 674 ft), Velje brdo ("big hill", 283 m or 928 ft), Ljubović (101 m or 331 ft) and Dajbapska gora (172 m or 564 ft). Podgorica city proper has an area of 108 square kilometres (42 sq mi), while actual urbanized area is much smaller.


Independence Square.

Under the Köppen climate classification, Podgorica is transitional between a humid subtropical climate (Cfa) and a hot-summer Mediterranean climate (Csa), since the driest summer month gets slightly less than 40 millimeters (1.6 in) of precipitation,[32] with summer highs around 34 °C (93 °F) and winter highs around 11 °C (52 °F). Although the city is only some 35 km (22 mi) north of the Adriatic Sea, an arm of the Mediterranean, Mount Rumija acts as a natural barrier, separating Skadar Lake basin and Podgorica area from the sea, thus limiting temperate maritime influence on the local climate.

The mean annual rainfall is 1,659 mm (65.3 in), making Podgorica by far the wettest capital in Europe, Ljubljana being second with 1,362 mm (53.6 in). The temperature exceeds 25 °C (77 °F) on about 135 days each year.[citation needed] The number of rainy days is about 120, and those with a strong wind around 60.[citation needed] An occasional strong northerly wind influences the climate in the winter, with a wind chill effect lowering the perceived temperature by a few degrees. [citation needed]

The all-time maximum snowfall record was beaten on 11 February 2012, when 58 cm (23 in) of snowfall were measured. Before that, the biggest snowfall in Podgorica was in 1954, when 52 cm (20 in) of snowfall was recorded. Maximum temperature was recorded on 24 August 2007, at 44.8 °C (112.6 °F), while all time minimum was −9.7 °C (14.5 °F), on 4 February 1956.

Climate data for Podgorica (1991–2020, extremes 1947–present)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 21.0
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 11.0
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) 2.2
Record low °C (°F) −9.6
Average precipitation mm (inches) 165
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 12 12 12 13 10 9 5 6 7 9 14 13 122
Average relative humidity (%) 72 68 65 65 63 60 52 52 62 68 75 74 65
Mean monthly sunshine hours 122.7 126.0 170.0 193.5 250.8 276.3 339.7 314.1 251.5 201.4 126.4 108.8 2,481.2
Source 1: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration[33]
Source 2: Hydrological and Meteorological Service of Montenegro[34][35]


Historical population
Population size may be affected by changes in administrative divisions.

Although medium-sized by European standards, Podgorica is by far the largest city in Montenegro: almost a quarter of Montenegrin citizens live there. According to the 2023 census, there are 186,827 people in Podgorica Capital City, which is analogous to the metropolitan area, while 173,024 people live within the city proper.[36]

Out of the total population of Podgorica 48.73% are male and 51.27% are female. The average age of the population is 35.7.

Ethnic groups


The town's population in 2011 census was 60.25% Montenegrins, 23.98% Serbs, 3.99% Bosniaks or ethnic Muslims, and 4.67% are other ethnic minorities. A total of 4.83% of the population have not declared their ethnicity.[37]



Montenegrin, Serbian, Bosnian, and Croatian are mutually intelligible as standard varieties of the Serbo-Croatian language. Montenegrin language speaks 44.43% and it's the most spoken language in the city. The second most spoken is Serbian (42.28%). Other languages (Albanian, Romani, Bosnian, Croatian) speak 5.1% of population. A total of 4.52% of the population have not declared their language.



Religion in Podgorica (2011)[37]

  Eastern Orthodoxy (81.45%)
  Islam (9.91%)
  Irreligion (5.08%)
  Roman Catholicism (1.81%)
  Other Christians (1.64%)
  Other religions (1.05%)

Podgorica is home to three main religious groups: Orthodox Christians, Sunni Muslims and Catholic Christians.

The Orthodox Christian population mostly originates from the local Montenegrin and Serb population, which accepted Orthodox Christianity in Middle Ages after a major split during The Great Schism. They represent the major religious group. There are various Eastern Orthodox churches in the city including St. George Church which originates from the 13th century, and the Cathedral of the Resurrection of Christ which is the largest church in the city to have been recently erected.

Cathedral of the Resurrection of Christ
Osmanagić Mosque

The Muslim population mostly originates from local Bosniaks as well as Albanians. There are several mosques in Podgorica.

The Catholic population mainly consists of the local Albanian minority. The main religious site for the Catholic population located in the Konik neighbourhood is the Church of the Holy Heart of Jesus constructed in 1966, in Brutalist style which makes this object unique.



Podgorica is not only the administrative center of Montenegro but also its main economic engine. Most of Montenegro's industrial, financial, and commercial base is in Podgorica. [citation needed]

Before World War I, most of Podgorica's economy was in trade and small-scale manufacturing, which was an economic model established during the long rule of the Ottoman Empire. [citation needed] After World War II, Podgorica became Montenegro's capital and a focus of the rapid urbanization and industrialization of the SFRY era. Industries such as aluminium and tobacco processing, textiles, engineering, vehicle production, and wine production were established in and around the city. In 1981, Podgorica's GDP per capita was 87% of the Yugoslav average.[38]

Headquarters of the Central Bank of Montenegro

In the early 1990s, the dissolution of Yugoslavia, Yugoslav wars, and the UN-imposed sanctions left Podgorica's industries without traditional markets, suppliers, and available funds. This, combined with typical transition pressures, led to a decline of the industrial base, where many industries collapsed leaving thousands of citizens unemployed. [citation needed] However, some of the industries, including Plantaže, managed to survive the turmoil of the 1990s, and are still major contributors to Montenegrin export and industrial output to this day.

As Montenegro began its push for independence from Serbia in the late 1990s, Podgorica greatly benefited from the increased concentration of government and service sectors. [citation needed] In addition to almost the entire country's government, Podgorica is home to the Montenegro Stock Exchange and other major Montenegrin financial institutions, along with telecommunications carriers, media outlets, Montenegrin flag carrier airline, and other significant institutions and companies.

The large presence of government and service sectors spared the economy of Podgorica from prolonged stagnation in the late 2000s recession, which hit Montenegro hard. Although in mid-2014, some 30% of Montenegro's citizens lived in Podgorica, the municipality accounted for 44% of the country's employed. Out of the entire mass of paid net salaries in Montenegro in that year, some 47% was paid in Podgorica. The average monthly net salary in December 2021 was €537 in Podgorica municipality.[39]



Further cultural and historic monuments in and around Podgorica are Sahat kula (Clock tower) Adži-paše Osmanagića, the ruins of the Ribnica fortress, remnants of the city of Doclea, Stara Varoš, and Vezirov most (Vizier's bridge). Podgorica has excellent transit connections with other centres.

At nine kilometres from the city is the International Airport, with railway and bus stations close to one another.[40]



Podgorica is the media hub of Montenegro. It is home to the headquarters of the state-owned public television broadcaster RTCG. It has also its local TV and radio station Gradska. Commercial broadcasters in Podgorica include TV Vijesti, Prva TV, Nova M and Adria TV. All Montenegro's daily newspapers (oldest Montenegrin daily newspaper Pobjeda, Vijesti, Dnevne Novine and Dan) are published in Podgorica.



Public transport


Public transport in Podgorica consists of 11 urban and 16 suburban bus lines.[41] The city-owned AD Gradski saobraćaj public transport company used to be the sole bus operator until the 1990s, when private carriers were introduced. The company went bankrupt in 2001, and buses were since operated solely by private carriers. As of 2023 Public transport in Podgorica is done only by buses, 12 city and 16 suburban lines.

Public transport faces competition from very popular dispatched taxi services. De-regulation. Usually, taxi companies provide a high level of service, with relatively new and uniform car fleets and GPS-tracked vehicles.



Podgorica's location in central Montenegro makes it a natural hub for rail and road transport. Roads in Montenegro (especially those connecting Podgorica to northern Montenegro and Serbia) are usually inferior to modern European roads. Both major Montenegrin motorway projects, Bar-Boljare motorway and Nudo–Božaj motorway, will pass near Podgorica. The first phase of motorway A-1 (Bar-Boljare) was opened on July 13, 2022. The Sozina tunnel (4.2 km) shortened the journey from Podgorica to Bar (Montenegro's main seaport) to under 30 minutes. A new road bypass had been constructed in 2011, to remove transport routes from north to south of the country, out of the city center. A south-western bypass had also been constructed with the same goal of moving heavy transport out of the city core. Podgorica is also characteristic of its extensive network of multi-lane boulevards which make inner-city transport quick and effective. Traffic over the Morača River also goes fluently since river banks are very well connected with 6 vehicular and 3 pedestrian bridges.

The main transit connections of Podgorica are:


Podgorica Rail Station

Podgorica is a hub of the X-shaped Montenegrin rail network. The Belgrade–Bar line converges with the line to Nikšić and line to Shkodër at the Podgorica Rail Station. The station itself is located 1.5 km (0.93 mi) to the southeast of the main city square. Podgorica's main railway link (for both passenger and freight traffic) is Belgrade–Bar. The link to Nikšić was recently under reconstruction (electrification);[42] afterwards, passenger service started in October 2012. The rail link to Shkodër is used as freight-only.


Podgorica Airport near Golubovci.

Podgorica Airport is located in Zeta Plain, 11 km (6.8 mi) south of Podgorica City centre, and is Montenegro's main international airport. The airport is locally known as Golubovci Airport (Аеродром Голубовци / Aerodrom Golubovci), as it is located within the administrative boundaries of the town of Golubovci. The IATA code of the airport is still TGD because Podgorica was named Titograd, during which time the airport opened. It is the main hub for Air Montenegro and Di Air.



Most of Montenegro's higher education establishments are in Podgorica including the University of Montenegro, the country's most significant university. The university has the following faculties:

University of Montenegro

The university's scientific research institutes are also in the Podgorica: Institute of Foreign Languages, Institute of Biotechnology and the Institute of History

The Montenegrin Academy of Sciences and Arts (CANU) is in Podgorica, as well as the parallel scholars' academy DANU.

There are a number of private institutions for higher education including the Mediterranean University which was founded in 2006 as the first private university in Montenegro and the University of Donja Gorica. The municipality of Podgorica has 34 elementary schools and 10 secondary schools, including one gymnasium. The first secondary school established in Podgorica is Gymnasium "Slobodan Škerović" which first opened in 1907. The rebuilt economic high school offers new features and higher quality education. The "Radosav Ljumović National Library" is considered the most comprehensive in Montenegro.


Montenegrin National Theatre.

Podgorica is home to many Montenegrin cultural institutions and events. It hosts the Montenegrin National Theatre and a number of museums and galleries. The Montenegrin National Theatre is the most significant theatre not only in Podgorica but in all of Montenegro. Podgorica is also host to the City Theatre (Gradsko pozorište), which includes the Children's Theatre and the Puppet Theatre. Although not as rich in museums and galleries as the historic royal capital Cetinje, there are several noteworthy museums:

  • The Podgorica City Museum (Muzej grada Podgorice) preserves Podgorica's rich heritage. Founded in 1950, it has four categories: archaeological, ethnographic, historical, and cultural-historical. It houses artifacts that date back to the Roman and Illyrian eras. [citation needed]
  • The Archaeological Research Centre (Centar za arheološka istraživanja) was founded in 1961. Its mission is to gather, classify, restore and display archaeological sites.
  • The Marko Miljanov Museum (Muzej Marka Miljanova) in Medun shows life in 19th century Montenegro.
  • The Natural History Museum (Prirodnjački muzej) displays specimens of Montenegrin flora and fauna. This museum has no exhibition space of its own, despite many proposals and initiatives to build one. [citation needed]
National Museum of Montenegro.

There is a notable art gallery in the Dvorac Petrovića (Petrović Castle) complex in Podgorica's largest public park. The palace hosted the Gallery of the Non-Aligned Countries "Josip Broz Tito" between 1984 and 1995. King Nicholas's castle, Perjanički Dom (House of the Honour Guard), castle chapel and surrounding buildings were converted to an art gallery in 1984. Since 1995, it has been part of the Modern Arts Centre (Centar savremenih umjetnosti) and houses approximately 1,500 works of art. The historic Cinema of Culture (Kino Kultura), which was founded in 1949, was closed in November 2008 due to continuous financial losses it generated. It was the only cinema in the city for 6 decades. The building of the former cinema will be converted to host the Podgorica City Theatre. Shortly after its closure, a Ster-Kinekor (later acquired by Cineplexx) 6-screen multiplex cinema opened at BIG Podgorica shopping mall.

A significant cultural institution of over fifty years' standing is the Budo Tomović Cultural-Informational Centre (KIC Budo Tomović). It is a public institution that organizes various artistic events, including Podgorica Cultural Summer (Podgoričko Kulturno Ljeto), FIAT – International Alternative Theatre Festival (Festival Internacionalnog Alternativnog Teatra), DEUS – December Arts Scene (Decembarska Umjetnička Scena).



The most popular sports by far are football and basketball. Basketball became especially popular with the success in the late 20th and early 21st centuries of KK Budućnost, both in Regional and European competitions.

Football in Podgorica has a long tradition associated with Budućnost. World-famous players Predrag Mijatović and Dejan Savićević were born in Podgorica and made their debut in that team. The club FK Zeta from the Podgorica suburb of Golubovci has also reached the former first league of Serbia and Montenegro. These clubs, along with Sutjeska from Nikšić, usually compete with each other for leading position in the First League of Montenegro. Other clubs from Podgorica and its surroundings play in the Montenegrin First League e.g. OFK Titograd & Kom. One of the most popular clubs from the suburbs is FK Ribnica from Konik, FK Zabjelo from Zabjelo and FK Podgorica from Donja Gorica.

The volleyball team OK Budućnost and the women's handball team ŽRK Budućnost T-Mobile have had significant success in European competition. Budućnost Podgorica is the most important sports club in Podgorica. Its name means Future.

Chess is another popular sport and some famous global chess players, like Slavko Dedić, are born in Podgorica.

Sporting events like the annual Podgorica Marathon, Coinis no limits Triathlon, and the Morača River jumps attract international competitors. Podgorica was the host of 2009 FINA Men's Water Polo World League.



Podgorica has a number of sporting venues; some are under reconstruction and expansion. The main ones are:

Almost every football club in Podgorica has its own stadium, although these are often only fields with small stands or no stands at all. Other notable venues are the Stadion malih sportova under Gorica hill and the sport shooting range under Ljubović hill. There are many other sports facilities around the city, most notably indoor soccer fields.


Panoramic view
View from Gorica Hill

Podgorica's mixture of architectural styles reflects the turbulent history of the city and country: as one régime replaced another, the corresponding style was introduced.

As part of the Ottoman Empire until 1878, Podgorica has some examples of Ottoman architecture. [citation needed] The oldest parts of the city, Stara Varoš (Old town) and Drač is typical of this, with two mosques, a Turkish Clock Tower and narrow, winding streets.

When the city was incorporated to Montenegro, the urban core shifted to the other bank of the Ribnica River, where the town developed in a more European style: wider streets with an orthogonal layout. This part of the city is today traditionally regarded as the city center and is called Nova Varoš (New town).

During World War II, Podgorica was almost razed to the ground, being bombed over 80 times.[14] After liberation, rebuilding began as in other cities of the communist-ruled SFRY. Mass residential blocks were erected, with basic design typical of Eastern bloc countries. [citation needed] All that part of the city on the right bank of the Morača River was built this way.

The main contemporary traffic arteries were laid out during this period, which extended the orthogonal street layout of the city center, to the south and west. Residential and infrastructural developments in the SFRY era have mostly shaped the layout of today's Podgorica and accommodated the unprecedented population growth that followed World War II. [citation needed]

A major advance in Podgorica architecture began in the late 1990s and, since then, the face of the city has changed rapidly. Residential and business construction are proceeding rapidly, incorporating contemporary glass-and-steel architectural trends. In an effort to create a recognizable and modern state capital, city officials are routing significant investments in the city's public spaces. Thus, the city has gained entirely new squares and some monuments. New landmarks include the Hristovog Vaskrsenja orthodox temple and the Millennium Bridge, the main feature of the Podgorica skyline.

A panoramic view of the Moscow bridge (right) and the Millennium Bridge (left). (Swipe left or right)

Notable people


International relations


Twin towns – sister cities


Podgorica is twinned with:[43]

Partner cities


See also



  1. ^ Written identically in Bosnian, Croatian and Serbian.
  2. ^ Albanian: Podgoricë.
  3. ^ Written identically in Serbian Cyrillic
  • Milosavljević, Olivera (2003). "Antibirokratska revolucija 1987–1989. godine". In Graovac, Igor; Fleck, Hans-Georg (eds.). Dijalog povjesničara – istoričara 8, Zadar (PDF) (in Serbian). Zagreb, Croatia: Political Science Research Centre Ltd. (PSRC) for Scientific Research Work / Zaklada Friedrich-Naumann. ISBN 953-6922-06-1. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 September 2007. Retrieved 23 February 2013.
  • Morrison, Kenneth (2009). Nationalism, Identity and Statehood in Post-Yugoslav Montenegro. London: I.B. Tauris & Co Ltd. ISBN 978-1-84511-710-8.
  • Vasić, Milan (2005). Naselja na Balkanskom Poluostrvu od XVI do XVIII Vijeka (in Serbian). Banja Luka: Narodna I Univerzitetska Biblioteka Republike Srpske. ISBN 99938-0-584-X.


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