Rich. ex Kunth
About 50; see text
Podostemaceae (riverweed family), a family in the order Malpighiales, comprise about 46 genera and ca 300 species of more or less thalloid aquatic herbs. Riverweeds adhere to hard surfaces (generally rock) in rapids and waterfalls of rivers. They are found mostly in tropical and subtropical areas worldwide. Many species are found in a very small geographic area, often even just a single river or waterfall. Because of their small range, many species are seriously threatened, especially from habitat loss (for example, due to dams flooding their habitat). Riverweeds are submerged when water levels are high, but during the dry season they live a terrestrial existence, flowering at this time. Their root anatomy is specialized for the purpose of clinging to rocks, and in fact details of the root structure are one of the ways of classifying riverweeds.
The Podostemaceae are related to the families Clusiaceae, Hypericaceae (the St. John's wort family, which is sometimes treated as a subfamily of Clusiaceae), and Bonnetiaceae. In the classification system of Dahlgren Podostemaceae were placed as a single family in the Podostemales order, which was the only order in the superorder Podostemiflorae (also called Podostemanae).
In many rivers, Podostemaceae are an important food source for a wide range of animals. For example, the tadpoles of the African goliath frog (world's largest frog) feed only on Dicraeia warmingii, and in South America several serrasalmid fish (Mylesinus, Ossubtus, Tometes and Utiaritichthys) mainly feed on Podostemaceae.
Moved to other families
- Hydrostachys from Madagascar. This genus seems to have relatively little in common with any other, and no affinity to the Podostemaceae except being aquatic; moved to its own family in the Cornales.
- Eugenius Warming, a botanist who studied the family
- Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2009). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III" (PDF). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 161 (2): 105–121. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00996.x. Retrieved 2013-07-06.
- Christenhusz, M. J. M.; Byng, J. W. (2016). "The number of known plants species in the world and its annual increase". Phytotaxa. 261 (3): 201–217. doi:10.11646/phytotaxa.261.3.1.
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- "Podostemaceae". Institute of Systematic Botany, University of Zurich. Archived from the original on 2007-07-03.
- Bove, C.P.; and C.T. Philbrick (2014). "Rediscovery of a Neotropical rheophyte (Podostemaceae) after 160 years: Implications for the location of conservation unit boundaries (Tocantins, Brazil)". Check List. 10 (5): 1170–1173. doi:10.15560/10.5.1170.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
- Hettiarachchi, K.; and S. Daniel (7 August 2011). "Now vital aquatic plants face similar fate as fish". The Sunday Times. Retrieved 4 November 2017.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
- Satoshi Koi; Rieko Fujinami; Namiko Kubo; Ikue Tsukamoto; Rie Inagawa; Ryoko Imaichi; Masahiro Kato (2006). "Comparative anatomy of root meristem and root cap in some species of Podostemaceae and the evolution of root dorsiventrality". American Journal of Botany. 93 (5): 682–692. doi:10.3732/ajb.93.5.682. PMID 21642132.
- "Macarenia clavigera" (in Spanish). El Acuario. Retrieved 4 November 2017.
- Gustafsson, Mats H. G. (2002). "Phylogeny of Clusiaceae Based on rbcL sequences". International Journal of Plant Sciences. 163 (6): 1045–1054. doi:10.1086/342521. JSTOR 3080291.
- "Malpighiales". Angiosperm Phylogeny Website.
- "Conraua goliath". AmphibiaWeb. Retrieved 4 November 2017.
- van der Sleen, P.; J.S. Albert, eds. (2017). Field Guide to the Fishes of the Amazon, Orinoco, and Guianas. Princeton University Press. pp. 173–196. ISBN 978-0691170749.
- "Lebbiea (Podostemaceae-Podostemoideae), a new, nearly extinct genus with foliose tepals, in Sierra Leone." Cheek, M. PLOS One, 5 October 2018 (retrieved December 2018)
Masahiro Kato, The vague form created by the environment: Podostemaceae, Biohistory Journal, Spring, 2004.
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