Pointed Roofs

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Pointed Roofs
Hannover Georgstraße mit Theater (um 1895).jpg
Am Kröpcke, the centre of the city of Hanover, in 1895. Richardson was there in 1891.
AuthorDorothy Richardson
Publication date
Followed byBackwater 

Pointed Roofs, published in 1915, is the first work (she called it a "chapter") in Dorothy Richardson's (1873–1957) series of 13 semi-autobiographical novels titled Pilgrimage,[1] and the first complete stream of consciousness novel published in English. The novelist May Sinclair (1863–1946) first applied the term "stream of consciousness" In a review of Pointed Roofs (The Egoist April 1918).

Miriam Henderson, the central character in Pilgrimage, is based on the author's own life between 1891 and 1915.[2] In Pointed Roofs, seventeen years old Miriam Henderson has her first adventure as an adult teaching English at a finishing school in Hanover, Germany. Richardson herself had left home in 1891, at seventeen, to take up the post of student teacher at a school in Hanover, because of her father's financial problems.[3]


  • Pointed Roofs, London: Duckworth, 1915. Online text at [2]


  1. ^ Joanne Winning (2000). The Pilgrimage of Dorothy Richardson. Univ of Wisconsin Press. ISBN 978-0-299-17034-9.
  2. ^ Goria G. Fromm, ed., Windows on Modernism: Selected Letters of Dorothy Richardson, ed. Athens, Georgia, U. of Georgia Press, 1995, xviii–xix.
  3. ^ Rebecca Bowler, "Dorothy M Richardson deserves the recognition she is finally receiving", The Guardian, 15 May 2015 [1]