Poland–Serbia relations

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Polish-Serbian relations
Map indicating locations of Poland and Serbia

Poland

Serbia

Polish-Serbian relations are foreign relations between Poland and Serbia. Diplomatic relations have been maintained since Poland and Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes established them in 1919. Poland has an embassy in Belgrade. Serbia has an embassy in Warsaw. Poland and Serbia in the past have had traditionally friendly relations.

History[edit]

The Poles and Serbs are Slavs. The Poles belong to the West Slavic group, the Serbs to the South Slavic. As having origin in the Proto-Slavs, the two were pagan (Slavic religion) until forming of Christianity as state-religion; 867–886 in Serbia with the baptism of Mutimir (possibly by Eastern Christian Cyril and Methodius), and 966 in Poland with the baptism of Mieszko I (by Western Christian Jordan).

The cultural ties and common origin are predominate factors in the relations.

Middle Ages[edit]

White Serbs[edit]

According to Eastern Roman Emperor Constantine Porphyrogenitus, Serbs "came from White Serbia". The location of White Serbia has not precisely been determined, however, the most likely - a eponymous connection with the Sorbs (Serby) of Lusatia (a region of Poland, Czech Republic and Germany).

Royal connections[edit]

Jadwiga of Poland was part Serbian, having descendance of the Nemanjić dynasty, through Stephen Dragutin of Serbia.

Wars against the Ottoman Empire[edit]

In the Battle of Kosovo in 1389, the Christian army led by Prince Lazar included a number of Polish and Hungarian knights.[1]

There were Serbian guslars (players of gusle) in the year 1415 at the royal court of the Polish king Władysław Jagiełło.[2]

Polish knight Zawisza Czarny was captured by Turkish commander Sinan Bey near the Golubac fortress, in Serbia, around April 1428.[citation needed]

In the Battle of Niš in 1443, Władysław III of Poland fought alongside Đurađ Branković.[citation needed]

Hussars[edit]

The Hussars was a light cavalry of European armies, originating in the Serbian concept; of exiled Serbian warriors leaving Ottoman occupied Serbia. The Polish Hussars, first mentioned in 1500 (Racowie, of Raška) were Serbs.[3][4]

Revolutions and Principality of Serbia[edit]

After the Polish November Uprising in 1830-31, Polish revolutionaries fled to Serbia. Ilija Garašanin contacted the Polish emigrees. It was a Pole, Adam Czartoryski, who initiated the Načertanije project (precursor to Greater Serbia).[5]

The great Polish poet Adam Mickiewicz (1798–1855) thought highly of Serb epic poetry, and chose it as a theme of lectures at Collège de France.[6]

The Serbians and Poles were part of the Pan-Slavic Sokol organizations, along with other Slavic nations.[7]

World War I[edit]

In March 1914, Serbian, French, Polish and Greek allied troops landed at Odessa.[8]

In the early fall of 1918, an allied account said that Serbs and Poles in a region from Urals to Volga had been recruited by a French officer.[8]

In 1918, Serbs and Poles together with Chinese, were part of the "Officer's Corps", a unit of the Russian Consul at Harbin.[9]

World War II[edit]

Poles joined the Yugoslav Partisans with the beginning of the War. Yugoslav Partisans were often compared to the Polish Underground State and the Polish Resistance Movement which was the largest anti-nazi guerrilla movement in the whole Europe. In the mountains of Serbia in the years 1942–1943 there were three other Polish partisan companies attached to the Chetnik Corps. The word Chetnik itself comes from Polish,[dubious ] meaning a guerrilla warrior. The word was first mentioned in Serbia in the middle of 19th century.[10] The Rules of Chetnik Warfare was first published in Polish, then translated into Serbian.[11]

On June 1, 1944, a Balkan Air Force was established by the British. It had mostly British, but also Italian, a Yugoslav squadron, and a Polish flight.[12]

Politics[edit]

Kosovo[edit]

Boris Tadić meeting with Lech Kaczyński, at the 63rd UN General Assembly session in September 2008
Main articles: Kosovo War and Status of Kosovo

Polish opinion on the NATO operations in Kosovo was mixed: 37% favoured involvement while 43% were against. The government decided in favor of a NATO-led operation to bring cease-fire in the conflict.

Kosovo declared its independence from Serbia in 17 February 2008 and Poland recognized it on 26 February 2008.[13] Poland was the first Slavic country to do so.

In September 2008, President of Poland, Lech Kaczyński, stated that the original cause of the 2008 South Ossetia war was not the Georgian operation, but the recognition of Kosovo's independence[14] and that he would block attempts to establish diplomatic relations of Poland with Kosovo at ambassadorial level; however, the government has not proposed to send an ambassador to Pristina.[15]

The recognition of Kosovo Albanian independence has been criticized in Poland. Dozens of protests and demonstrations have been organized by various groups in Poland in support of the Serbian cause in Kosovo, with some attracting up to 1,500 to 2,000 people. An organization called "Poles for Serbian Kosovo" was formed in order to provide and support for Serbs in Kosovo.

Peacekeeping[edit]

Poland had (as of July 2009) 274 troops serving in Kosovo as peacekeepers in the NATO-led Kosovo Force. Originally there were 800 Polish troops in KFOR.[16]

Cultural[edit]

Music[edit]

The Kayah i Bregović-album by Polish singer-songwriter Kayah and Serbian musician Goran Bregović became a bestseller after its release in 1999.[17]

Gusle[edit]

Polish poets of the 17th century mentioned the gusle in their works. In a poem published in 1612, Kasper Miaskowski wrote that "the Serbian gusle and gaidas will overwhelm Shrove Tuesday" (Serbskie skrzypki i dudy ostatek zagluszą).[18] In the idyll named Śpiewacy, published in 1663, Józef Bartłomiej Zimorowic used the phrase "to sing to the Serbian gusle" (przy Serbskich gęślach śpiewać).[18][19] In some older Serbian books on literature it was stated that a Serbian guslar performed at the court of Władysław II Jagiełło in 1415, but this is not confirmed in Polish sources.[18]

Serbian people of Polish descent[edit]

Aviator Tadija Sondermajer and Stanislav Sondermajor, the youngest fighter in the Battle of Cer, were of paternal Polish descent.[20] Stanislav Krakov, the Serbian officer and writer, had a father of Polish origin.[21]

See also[edit]

External links[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Military history of Hungary (Magyarország hadtörténete), Ed.: Ervin Liptai, Zrínyi Military Publisher, 1985 Budapest ISBN 963-05-0929-6[page needed]
  2. ^ Petar Vlahović. Serbia: the country, people, life, customs. Ethnographic Museum. 2004. p. 340.
  3. ^ Brzezinski, Richard and Velimir Vukšić, Polish Winged Hussar 1576–1775, (Osprey Publishing Ltd., 2006), 6.
  4. ^ Researched and Written by Margaret Odrowaz-Sypniewska, B.F.A. SOURCES: Brzezinski, Richard. Polish Armies 1569–1600. (volume 1) #184 in the Osprey Men-at-Arms Series. London: Osprey Publishing, 6, 16. Brzezinski, Richard. Polish Winged Hussar 1576–1775. Warrior Series. Oxford: Osprey Publishing Ltd., 2006. Hollins, David. Hungarian Hussars 1756–1815. Osprey Warrior Series. Oxford: Osprey Publishing, Ltd., 2003. Klucina, Petr. (Illustrations by Pavol Pevny) Armor: From Ancient To Modern Times. Reprinted by New York: Barnes & Noble Books, 1992, (by permission of Slovart Publishing Ltd, Bratislava). Ostrowski, Jan K., et al. Art in Poland: Land of the Winged Horsemen 1572–1764. Baltimore: Art Services International, 1999. Wasilkowska, Anna. The Winged Horsemen. Warsaw: Wydawnictwo Interpress, 1998. Zamoyski, Adam. The Polish Way. New York: Hippocrene Books, 1996. Also see http://www.warfareeast.co.uk/main/Hungarian_Composition.htm#HussarsGusars
  5. ^ Balazs Trencsenyi; Michal Kopecek (1 November 2006). National Romanticism: The Formation of National Movements. Central European University Press. pp. 240–. ISBN 978-963-7326-60-8. 
  6. ^ Kosta St Pavlović (1943). The struggle of the Serbs. The Standard art book co. [page needed]
  7. ^ Pieter M. Judson; Marsha L. Rozenblit (1 January 2005). Constructing Nationalities in East Central Europe. Berghahn Books. ISBN 978-1-57181-176-9. [page needed]
  8. ^ a b White terror: Cossack warlords of the Trans-Siberian, p. 151: "Serbian mercenaries and Slavic legions"
  9. ^ White terror: Cossack warlords of the Trans-Siberian, page 79
  10. ^ Stanisław Okęcki (1987). Polacy W Ruchu Oporu Narodów Europy. PWN--Polish Scientific Publishers. p. 301. ISBN 978-83-01-06860-8. 
  11. ^ Tomislav Dulić (2005). Utopias of Nation: Local Mass Killing in Bosnia and Herzegovina, 1941-42. Uppsala University Libarary. p. 102. ISBN 978-91-554-6302-1. 
  12. ^ Walter R. Roberts (1987). Tito, Mihailović, and the Allies, 1941-1945. Duke University Press. pp. 230–. ISBN 0-8223-0773-1. 
  13. ^ Poland Recognizes Kosovo
  14. ^ Let's First Help Georgia, Then Talk about Russia
  15. ^ Poland won't open embassy in Priština
  16. ^ "Kosovo Force (KFOR)" www.nato.int Link accessed 21-07-09
  17. ^ Wprost 24 - Trzeszcząca płyta (Polish)
  18. ^ a b c Krešimir Georgijević (2003). Српскохрватска народна песма у пољској књижевности (in Serbian). Project Rastko.
  19. ^ Józef Bartłomiej Zimorowic (1857). "Śpiewacy" (Polish). Kazimierz Józef Turowski, ed. Sielanki Józefa Bartłomieja i Syzmona Zimorowiczów. The Internet Archive. p.39
  20. ^ "Rodom Poljaci, ali srcem Srbi". 
  21. ^ Vremeplov: Umro Stanislav Krakov, RTV, 15 December 2012

Sources[edit]