Pole for Freedoms

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Pole for Freedoms
Polo per le Libertà
Leader Silvio Berlusconi
Other leaders Gianfranco Fini
Pier Ferdinando Casini
Founded 1996
Dissolved 2001
Preceded by Pole of Freedoms,
Pole of Good Government
Succeeded by House of Freedoms
Political position Centre-right[1][2]

The Pole for Freedoms (Italian: Polo per le Libertà) was a centre-right political and electoral alliance in Italy, which was active from 1996 to 2001. It included Forza Italia (FI), the National Alliance (AN), Union of the Centre (UdC), Christian Democratic Centre (CCD), United Christian Democrats (UCD),[3] and Pannella–Sgarbi List.[4]

History[edit]

The Pole for Freedoms was formed as a continuation of the Pole of Freedoms and Pole of Good Government coalitions, which had both supported the leadership of Silvio Berlusconi at the 1994 general election: the Pole of Freedom was constituted by Forza Italy and Lega Nord, the Pole of Good Government by Forza Italia and the National Alliance. After that, Lega Nord left the coalition at the end of 1994, the centre-right was forced to reform itself: in 1995, in occasion of the regional elections, an organic alliance was formed. In 1996 it was officially named "Pole for Freedoms" and debuted in the 1996 general election; however, it was defeated by the centre-left alliance The Olive Tree, whose leader was Romano Prodi.

The Pole for Freedoms was in opposition to the centre-left governments (of Prodi, Massimo D'Alema and Giuliano Amato) until 2001, when, after the rapprochement with the Lega Nord, became the House of Freedoms (CdL). The new CdL coalition won the 2001 general election and remained in government until the following general election in 2006.

Composition[edit]

It was initially composed of the following political parties:

Party Ideology Leader
Forza Italia (FI) Liberal conservatism Silvio Berlusconi
National Alliance (AN) National conservatism Gianfranco Fini
Christian Democratic Centre (CCD) Christian democracy Pier Ferdinando Casini
United Christian Democrats (CDU) Christian democracy Rocco Buttiglione
Pannella–Sgarbi List Liberalism Marco Pannella

Election results[edit]

Italian Parliament[edit]

Chamber of Deputies
Election year # of
overall votes
 % of
overall vote
# of
overall seats won
+/– Leader
1996 15,095,436 (#2) 43.2
246 / 630
Silvio Berlusconi
Senate of the Republic
Election year # of
overall votes
 % of
overall vote
# of
overall seats won
+/– Leader
1996 12,185,020 (#2) 37.4
116 / 315
Silvio Berlusconi

References[edit]

  1. ^ Mario B. Mignone (2008). Italy Today: Facing the Challenges of the New Millennium. Peter Lang. p. 58. ISBN 978-1-4331-0187-8. Retrieved 24 July 2013. 
  2. ^ Vittorio Vandelli (2014). 1994-2014 Berlusconi’s new ventennio. Vittorio Vandelli. p. 189. ISBN 978-605-03-2890-5. 
  3. ^ Bernard Grofman; Daniela Giannetti (2011). "Introduction: Long-Run Consequences of Electoral Rules Change: Comparing Italy and Japan". In Daniela Giannetti; Bernard Grofman. A Natural Experiment on Electoral Law Reform: Evaluating the Long Run Consequences of 1990s Electoral Reform in Italy and Japan. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 21. ISBN 978-1-4419-7228-6. 
  4. ^ Stefan Köppl (2007). Das politische System Italiens: Eine Einführung. Springer-Verlag. p. 98. ISBN 978-3-531-14068-1.