Police and crime commissioner

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A police and crime commissioner (PCC; Welsh: comisiynydd yr heddlu a throseddu)[1][2] is an elected official in England and Wales responsible for generally overseeing police forces. A police, fire and crime commissioner (PFCC) is an elected official in England responsible for generally overseeing both police forces and fire services. Commissioners replaced now-abolished police authorities. The first incumbents were elected on 15 November 2012.

Background[edit]

In the 2010 general election campaign, the manifestos of the Conservatives and Liberal Democrats outlined plans, respectively, to replace or reform the existing police authorities. Following the election, the Conservative–Liberal Democrat coalition agreement of 2010 set out that:

We will introduce measures to make the police more accountable through oversight by a directly elected individual, who will be subject to strict checks and balances by locally elected representatives.[3]

Later in 2010, the government published 'Policing in the 21st Century', a consultation on its vision for policing, including the introduction of police and crime commissioners.[citation needed] This was followed by the Police Reform and Social Responsibility Act 2011. The Home Secretary, Theresa May, made the Policing Protocol Order in November 2011, which stated:

The establishment of PCCs has allowed for the Home Office to withdraw from day-to-day policing matters, giving the police greater freedom to fight crime as they see fit, and allowing local communities to hold the police to account.[4]

The Association of Police and Crime Commissioners was commissioned by the Home Office to facilitate co-ordination, representation and support for police and crime commissioners and police governance bodies from November 2012.[5] The Association of Police and Crime Commissioners (APCC) represents all 40 PCCs as of April 2021.[6]

Role and functions[edit]

The core functions of a PCC is to secure the maintenance of an efficient and effective police force within their area, and to hold the chief constable to account for the delivery of the police and crime plan.[7][8] Police and crime commissioners are charged with holding the police fund (from which all policing of the area is financed) and raising the local policing precept from council tax.[9] Police and crime commissioners are also responsible for the appointment, suspension and dismissal of the Chief Constable,[10] although the 2011 Policing Protocol Order states that the PCC "must not fetter the operational independence of the police force and the Chief Constable who leads it".[4] PCCs are able to appoint a Deputy PCC.[11]

Police and crime plans[edit]

Shortly after their election to office, a PCC must produce a "police and crime plan". That plan must include his or her objectives for policing, what resources will be provided to the chief constable and how performance will be measured.[12] Both the PCC and the chief constable must have regard to the police and crime plan in the exercise of their duties. The PCC is required to produce an annual report to the public on progress in policing.[13]

Police funding[edit]

Police and crime commissioners hold the 'police fund', from which all policing is financed. The bulk of funding for the police fund comes from the Home Office in the form of an annual grant (calculated on a proportionate basis to take into account the differences between the 43 forces in England and Wales, which vary significantly in terms of population, geographical size, crime levels and trends), though commissioners will also set a precept on the council tax to raise additional funds. If a PCC wishes to increase the precept by an amount deemed to be excessive, the Localism Act 2011 requires a referendum. It is the PCC's responsibility to set the budget for the force area, which includes allocating enough money from the overall policing budget to ensure that he or she can discharge his or her own functions effectively.

Proposed extension of powers[edit]

In September 2015, the government undertook a consultation into proposals which would bring England's fire services under the control of PCCs.[14] Currently,[when?] there are four Police, Fire and Crime Commissioners. These are for Essex, Staffordshire, North Yorkshire and Northamptonshire.[15]

Police and crime panels[edit]

The Police Reform and Social Responsibility Act 2011 established police and crime panels within each force area in England and Wales (excluding Greater London).[16] These panels consist of at least one representative from each local authority in that area, and at least two independent members co-opted by the panel.[17]

Panels are responsible for scrutinising PCC decisions and ensuring this information is available to the public. They must review the PCC's draft police and crime plan and draft annual report before publication, and the PCC must give their comments due consideration. A police and crime panel may require the attendance of the commissioner or a member of his or her staff at any time, and may suspend a PCC from office where he or she is charged with a serious criminal offence.[18] Police and crime panels will be able to veto a PCC's proposed precept or proposed candidate for Chief Constable by a two-thirds majority.[19]

A National Audit Office report published in January 2014 found that there were "few checks and balances" on the 41 PCCs between elections. It said police and crime panels, which were set up to scrutinise PCCs, "lack powers" to act on the information they receive.[20]

Oath of impartiality[edit]

On 16 August 2012, the Home Office announced that every newly elected police and crime commissioner would be required to swear an "oath of impartiality" before taking office. The oath reads:[21]

I do solemnly and sincerely promise that I will serve all the people of [Police Force Area] in the office of police and crime commissioner without fear or favour. I will act with integrity and diligence in my role and, to the best of my ability, will execute the duties of my office to ensure that the police are able to cut crime and protect the public. I will give a voice to the public, especially victims of crime and work with other services to ensure the safety of the community and effective criminal justice. I will take all steps within my power to ensure transparency of my decisions, so that I may be properly held to account by the public. I will not seek to influence or prevent any lawful and reasonable investigation or arrest, nor encourage any police action save that which is lawful and justified within the bounds of this office.

The then Minister for Policing and Criminal Justice, Nick Herbert said:[21]

Police and crime commissioners will be important public servants and it is right that they make a formal public commitment to the communities they will serve. Although police and crime commissioners may stand for a political party, the public will expect them to represent all the people in their area impartially, without fear or favour. The swearing of an oath will be an important symbol of this impartiality, emphasising both the significance of this new role in local communities and that commissioners are there to serve the people, not a political party or any one section of their electorate. An oath will also underline the particular importance of even-handedness in an office which holds to account the local chief constable and police force who themselves are bound to serve impartially.

The Association of Police and Crime Commissioners, set up to act as an "umbrella body" for the elected PCCs, revealed that it had been asked[when?] by the Home Office to "seek views from police authorities and prospective candidates on the wording of the oath".[citation needed] By the time the first police and crime commissioner had been elected, in November 2012, the original Home Office text of the "Oath of Impartiality" had been significantly modified. As an example, this is the amended oath as delivered by the police and crime commissioner for Avon and Somerset:

I Sue Mountstevens of North Somerset do hereby declare that I accept the office of Police and Crime Commissioner for Avon and Somerset. In making this declaration, I solemnly and sincerely promise that during my term in office:

I will serve all the people of Avon and Somerset in the office of Police and Crime Commissioner. I will act with integrity and diligence in my role and, to the best of my ability, will execute the duties of my office to ensure that the police are able to cut crime and protect the public. I will give a voice to the public, especially victims of crime, and work with other services to ensure the safety of the community and effective criminal justice. I will take all steps within my power to ensure transparency of my decisions, so that I may be properly held to account by the public.

I will not interfere with the operational independence of police officers.

In South Wales, the title "Oath of Impartiality" was replaced by the term "Oath of Office" on the PCC's website with no mention of "impartiality".[22] In other police areas, like Thames Valley, the PCC's website describes it simply as "The Oath".[23]

The written form of the oath which is signed by all PCCs on taking office is not headed "Oath of Impartiality" but "Declaration of Acceptance of Office".[24]

Eligibility for election[edit]

Candidates must be 18 or over and registered to vote within the police area on the date of nomination. Members of the House of Lords are not barred from standing. Members of the House of Commons are not barred from standing but, if they win, they must resign before they can take up a PCC appointment.

Those disqualified from standing or continuing to hold office include:

  • Anyone nominated as a candidate at a police and crime commissioner election taking place on the same day for a different police area.
  • Anyone who is not a British, European Union or qualifying Commonwealth citizen. (A qualifying Commonwealth citizen is a Commonwealth citizen who either does not need leave to enter or remain or has indefinite leave to remain in the UK.)[25]
  • Anyone who has ever been convicted of an imprisonable offence. This applies even if they were not actually imprisoned, or if the conviction is "spent".[26]
  • Anyone who is a police officer or is directly or indirectly employed by the police.
  • Anyone who is disqualified under certain provisions of the House of Commons Disqualification Act 1975 including civil servants, members of the regular armed forces or the holders of any judicial offices specified in Part 1 of Schedule 1 of the House of Commons Disqualification Act 1975 (as amended).
  • Anyone who is a member of the legislature of any country or territory outside the UK.
  • Anyone who is a member of staff of a local council that falls wholly or partly within the police area in which the election is to be held - including anyone employed in an organisation that is under the control of a local council in the police area for which the election is to be held.
  • Anyone who is the subject of a debt relief order or interim order, a bankruptcy restrictions order or interim order, or a debt relief restrictions undertaking.
  • Anyone who is disqualified under the Representation of the People Act 1983 (which covers corrupt or illegal electoral practices and offences relating to donations) or under the Audit Commission Act 1998.

Candidates must secure the signatures of 100 people registered to vote within the force area in which they wish to stand and must pay a deposit of £5,000. A person with an anonymous entry in the register of electors cannot nominate a candidate for election.[27][28] The appointed Deputy PCC is held to similar criteria as the PCC.[11] During the COVID-19 pandemic in the United Kingdom the Cabinet Office reduced the number of signatures candidates required (The Mayoral and Police and Crime Commissioner Elections (Coronavirus, Nomination of Candidates) (Amendment) Order 2021) on nomination forms in order to reduce social interaction.[28][29][30]

The Association of Police and Crime Commissioners published a candidate briefing prior to the 2021 elections, setting out "Guidance, advice and information for anyone interested in standing as a candidate in the 2021 Police and Crime Commissioner elections."[11]

Jonathon Seed, the Conservative Party candidate for Wiltshire Police and Crime Commissioner in the 2021 election, was barred from taking up the post when it was revealed that he had a past conviction for an imprisonable offence. ITV News had asked Seed, his campaign team and the Conservative Party, if Seed had any convictions before polling day. In footage, posted online, Seed refused to answer questions put to him by news reporters prior to the election.[31] Wiltshire Police have asked Thames Valley Police to investigate.[32] The re-run of the election is expected to cost £1 million.[33]

Electoral system[edit]

Commissioners have a set four-year term of office. There is no limit on the number of terms which a PCC can serve.[34]

Elections use the supplementary vote system: voters mark the ballot paper with their first and second choices of candidate. If no candidate gets a majority of first preference votes, all but the top two candidates are eliminated and the second preference votes of the eliminated candidates are allocated to one of the two remaining (or set aside if no second preference for either) to produce a winner.[35] The Police Reform and Social Responsibility Act 2011 directs that the voting system is first-past-the-post if there are only two candidates for a specific commissioner region.[36]

List[edit]

The following is a list of all the police and crime commissioners, as of May 2021.

England[edit]

Police and crime commissioners[edit]

Police and crime commissioners in England
Incumbent Office Ref.
Sue Mountstevens Police and Crime Commissioner for Avon and Somerset [37]
Festus Akinbusoye Police and Crime Commissioner for Bedfordshire [37]
Steve Turner Police and Crime Commissioner for Cleveland [37]
Ray Bisby Police and Crime Commissioner for Cambridgeshire [37]
David Keane Police and Crime Commissioner for Cheshire [37]
Peter McCall Police and Crime Commissioner for Cumbria [37]
Angelique Foster Police and Crime Commissioner for Derbyshire [37]
Alison Hernandez Police and Crime Commissioner for Devon, Cornwall and The Isles of Scilly [37]
Martyn Underhill Police and Crime Commissioner for Dorset [37]
Joy Allen Police and Crime Commissioner for Durham [37]
Martin Surl Police and Crime Commissioner for Gloucestershire [37]
Michael Lane Police and Crime Commissioner for Hampshire [37]
David Lloyd Police and Crime Commissioner for Hertfordshire [37]
Keith Hunter Police and Crime Commissioner for Humberside [37]
Matthew Scott Police and Crime Commissioner for Kent [37]
Andrew Snowden Police and Crime Commissioner for Lancashire [37]
The Lord Bach Police and Crime Commissioner for Leicestershire [37]
Marc Jones Police and Crime Commissioner for Lincolnshire [37]
Jane Kennedy Police and Crime Commissioner for Merseyside [37]
Lorne Green Police and Crime Commissioner for Norfolk [37]
Kim McGuinness Police and Crime Commissioner for Northumbria [37]
Caroline Henry Police and Crime Commissioner for Nottinghamshire [37]
Alan Billings Police and Crime Commissioner for South Yorkshire [37]
Tim Passmore Police and Crime Commissioner for Suffolk [37]
David Munro Police and Crime Commissioner for Surrey [37]
Katy Bourne Police and Crime Commissioner for Sussex [37]
Anthony Stansfeld Police and Crime Commissioner for Thames Valley [37]
Philip Seccombe Police and Crime Commissioner for Warwickshire [37]
John Campion Police and Crime Commissioner for West Mercia [37]
Simon Foster Police and Crime Commissioner for West Midlands [37]
Angus Macpherson Police and Crime Commissioner for Wiltshire [37]

Police, fire and crime commissioners[edit]

Police, fire and crime commissioners in England
Incumbent Office Ref.
Roger Hirst Police, Fire and Crime Commissioner for Essex [37]
Stephen Mold Police, Fire and Crime Commissioner for Northamptonshire [37]
Philip Allott Police, Fire and Crime Commissioner for North Yorkshire [38]
Matthew Ellis Police, Fire and Crime Commissioner for Staffordshire [37]

Other people who exercise police and crime commissioner functions[edit]

Incumbent Office Ref.
Andy Burnham Mayor of Greater Manchester [15]
Sadiq Khan Mayor of London [15]
Tracy Brabin Mayor of West Yorkshire[Note 1] [39]

Additionally, the City of London Police Committee oversees the City of London Police.[15]

Wales[edit]

Police and crime commissioners[edit]

Police and crime commissioners in Wales
Incumbent Office Ref.
Dafydd Llywelyn Police and Crime Commissioner for Dyfed-Powys [37]
Jeff Cuthbert Police and Crime Commissioner for Gwent [37]
Arfon Jones Police and Crime Commissioner for North Wales [37]
Alun Michael Police and Crime Commissioner for South Wales [37]

Scotland[edit]

In Scotland, the Scottish Police Authority serves in a similar capacity for Police Scotland.[40]

Northern Ireland[edit]

In Northern Ireland, the Northern Ireland Policing Board fulfils a similar role for the Police Service of Northern Ireland.[41]

Elections[edit]

2012 elections[edit]

2016 elections[edit]

2021 elections[edit]

Criticism[edit]

Issues have included conflict between PCCs and chief constables, questions over PCC expenses, the cost of elections and low voter turnout (in some cases, below 15%).[42] The Plain English Campaign described the commissioners in 2015 as "serial offenders" in "mangling of the English language" and the use of "jargon".[43] The former Home Secretary Theresa May, who introduced the directly elected commissioners, in 2014, considered the policy to have had mixed success.[44]

Possible abolition[edit]

In 2014, the Liberal Democrats indicated that they would scrap the positions. In light of this, the Liberal Democrats boycotted the 2014 South Yorkshire PCC by-election.[45]

The replacement of some PCCs with directly elected mayors is expected to occur as a result of the Cities and Local Government Devolution Act 2016.[46] In 2017, the Greater Manchester Police and Crime Commissioner was replaced by the Mayor of Greater Manchester[47] and the role of West Yorkshire Police and Crime Commissioner was absorbed by the mayor of West Yorkshire in 2021.[48][Note 1] In 2019, both the Metro Mayor of the Liverpool City Region and the Mayor of the West Midlands advocated taking over the police and crime commissioner roles in their respective areas.[49][50]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Police and crime functions have been included as part of the Mayor of West Yorkshire's overall responsibilities. The first Mayor of West Yorkshire was elected on 6 May 2021.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Language Choice - South Wales Police and Crime Commissioner". www.southwalescommissioner.org.uk.
  2. ^ "The Police and Crime Commissioner for Gwent". Gwent Police and Crime Commissioner. 24 July 2020.
  3. ^ "The Coalition: our programme for government" (PDF). UK Cabinet Office Website. Retrieved 28 September 2011.
  4. ^ a b The Policing Protocol Order 2011.
  5. ^ "Association of Police and Crime Commissioners". APCC. Retrieved 7 October 2015.
  6. ^ "About the APCC". www.apccs.police.uk.
  7. ^ "Role of the PCC". The Association of Police and Crime Commissioners. Retrieved 6 May 2021.
  8. ^ "Police Reform and Social Responsibility Act 2011 (Section 1)". UK Legislation. Retrieved 28 September 2011.
  9. ^ "Police Reform and Social Responsibility Act 2011 (Chapter 3)". UK Legislation. Retrieved 28 September 2011.
  10. ^ "Police Reform and Social Responsibility Act 2011 (Chapter 5)". UK Legislation. Retrieved 28 September 2011.
  11. ^ a b c "PCC CANDIDATE BRIEFING" (PDF). Association of Police and Crime Commissioners. 2021. Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 May 2021. Retrieved 9 May 2021.
  12. ^ "Police Reform and Social Responsibility Act 2011 (Sections 7 and 9)". UK Legislation. Retrieved 28 September 2011.
  13. ^ "Police Reform and Social Responsibility Act 2011 (Section 12)". UK Legislation. Retrieved 28 September 2011.
  14. ^ "Fire chiefs could run English police forces under plans". BBC News. 11 September 2015. Retrieved 10 October 2015.
  15. ^ a b c d "About police and crime commissioners and police, fire and crime commissioners". www.choosemypcc.org.uk. Retrieved 26 April 2021.
  16. ^ "Police Reform and Social Responsibility Act 2011 (Section 28)". UK Legislation. Retrieved 28 September 2011.
  17. ^ "Police Reform and Social Responsibility Act 2011 (Schedule 6)". UK Legislation. Retrieved 28 September 2011.
  18. ^ "Police Reform and Social Responsibility Act 2011 (Sections 28-30)". UK Legislation. Retrieved 28 September 2011.
  19. ^ "Police Reform and Social Responsibility Act 2011 (Schedules 6 and 8)". UK Legislation. Retrieved 28 September 2011.
  20. ^ "National Audit Office report". BBC News. Retrieved 31 January 2014.
  21. ^ a b "Police and crime commissioners to swear an oath of impartiality - News stories - Inside Government - GOV.UK". Homeoffice.gov.uk. 16 August 2012. Retrieved 1 April 2013.
  22. ^ "Your Police and Crime Commissioner". 6 November 2014.
  23. ^ "The Oath". Thamesvalley-pcc.gov.uk. Retrieved 1 April 2013.
  24. ^ "Oath of Impartiality". Avonandsomerset-pcc.gov.uk. Retrieved 1 April 2013.
  25. ^ "Police Reform and Social Responsibility Act 2011, Section 68". Legislation.gov.uk. Retrieved 1 April 2013.
  26. ^ "Section 66", Police Reform and Social Responsibility Act 2011, Legislation.gov.uk
  27. ^ "Notice of Election: Police & Crime Commissionerelection for the Dorset Police Area" (PDF). Bournemouth, Christchurch and Poole Council. 29 March 2021. Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 May 2021. Retrieved 9 May 2021.
  28. ^ a b "POLICE AND CRIME COMMISSIONER ELECTION 6 MAY 2021 INFORMATIONPACK FOR CANDIDATES AND AGENTS" (PDF). Stockton-on-Tees Borough Council. 6 May 2021. Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 May 2021. Retrieved 9 May 2021.
  29. ^ "May 2021 elections - note on changes to the nominations process and number of subscribers required for nominations". GOV.UK. 19 February 2021. Retrieved 9 May 2021.
  30. ^ "Police and Crime Commissioner elections - Wiltshire Council". Wiltshire Council. 2021. Archived from the original on 22 April 2021. Retrieved 11 May 2021.
  31. ^ Evelyn, Rupert (9 May 2021). "Exclusive investigation: PCC candidate disbarred over historic driving offence". ITV News. Archived from the original on 10 May 2021. Retrieved 12 May 2021.
  32. ^ "Jonathon Seed: Police investigate PCC election win". BBC News. 11 May 2021. Archived from the original on 11 May 2021. Retrieved 12 May 2021.
  33. ^ "Jonathon Seed PCC election rerun will cost more than £1m". BBC News. 11 May 2021. Archived from the original on 12 May 2021. Retrieved 12 May 2021.
  34. ^ "Lords Hansard text for 11 Jul 201111 July 2011 (pt 0003)". publications.parliament.uk. Department of the Official Report (Hansard), House of Lords, Westminster. Retrieved 1 August 2017.
  35. ^ "Police and Crime Commissioner elections in England and Wales: Guidance for candidates and agents" (PDF). The Electoral Commission. 2016.
  36. ^ Police Reform and Social Responsibility Act 2011 Legislation.gov.uk
  37. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al "PCCs across the UK". Association of Police and Crime Commissioners. Retrieved 26 April 2021.
  38. ^ Minting, Stuart (8 May 2021). "North Yorkshire's police and crime commissioner Philip Allott promises to be 'a broad church' after Conservative win". The Yorkshire Post. Retrieved 29 May 2021.
  39. ^ "Devolution/Election". Police and Crime Commissioner for West Yorkshire. Retrieved 26 April 2021.
  40. ^ "About Us - Scottish Police Authority". Spa.police.uk. 1 April 2013. Retrieved 7 September 2015.
  41. ^ "Our Work - Northern Ireland Policing Board". Northern Ireland Policing Board. Retrieved 17 April 2019.
  42. ^ "PCC elections: Watchdog to probe record low turnout". BBC News. 17 November 2012. Retrieved 16 January 2015.
  43. ^ "Northamptonshire chief constable advert 'ploddledegook'". BBC News. 7 May 2015. Retrieved 12 May 2015.
  44. ^ Morris, Nigel (21 September 2014). "Labour Party Conference: Labour would abolish PCCs to save £50m". The Independent. United Kingdom. Retrieved 16 January 2015.
  45. ^ "No Lib Dem candidate for PCC post". Southend Standard. Southend. 3 October 2014. Retrieved 16 January 2015.
  46. ^ "Queen's Speech 2015: Cities and Local Government Devolution Bill". www.gov.uk. Cabinet Office and Prime Minister's Office. Retrieved 1 June 2015. The purpose of the Bill is to fulfil the government's commitments on devolving powers and budgets to boost local growth in England.
  47. ^ "Manchester to get elected mayor". BBC News. 3 November 2014.
  48. ^ Lavigueur, Nick (14 November 2018). "Who could be the Mayor when West Yorkshire devolution happens?". YorkshireLive.
  49. ^ Thorp, Liam (22 March 2019). "Steve Rotheram: 'Scrap Police Commissioner and give me the job'". Liverpool Echo. Retrieved 6 February 2020.
  50. ^ Dare, Tom (6 January 2020). "2020 to be the biggest year in the brief history of the mayor". Birmingham Mail. Retrieved 31 January 2020.