Police of Finland
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|Police of Finland|
The sword and lion emblem is the symbol of the Police of Finland
|Parent agency||Ministry of Interior|
The Police of Finland (Finnish: Poliisi, Swedish: Polisen) is a government agency responsible for general police and law enforcement matters in Finland. The Police of Finland is subordinate to the Ministry of the Interior and consists of the National Police Board (Finnish: Poliisihallitus, Swedish: Polisstyrelsen), two national police units and 11 local police departments.
On October 1, 2003, the Public Order Act went into effect, standardizing public ordinances throughout the country.
The official insignia of the Finnish Police consists of the crowned head of the Finnish Lion placed at the place of the handle of a two-edged sword.
Local police departments
The police is divided into police departments, which encompass the area of multiple municipalities; municipalities do not have police forces of their own. The function of each police department is to maintain general law and order, prevent crime, investigate crime and other events that threaten public order and safety, to carry out traffic control and surveillance and promote traffic safety, and perform all other duties prescribed by law or otherwise assigned to the police in their area. Local police departments are organized into uniformed patrol police (Finnish: järjestyspoliisi, literally "order police") and criminal investigation police (Finnish: rikospoliisi, literally "criminal police").
Local police also processes licenses and permits such as gun licenses, national ID cards and passports, and furthermore, enforces immigration decisions by the Finnish Immigration Service. Local police must also be notified when organizing public events that may significantly influence local public security and traffic. Driving licenses have been issued by the local police, but since 2016 by Traficom (Finnish Transport and Communications Agency).
- Lapland Police Department (Rovaniemi)
- Central Finland Police Department (headquarters in Tampere)
- Eastern Finland Police Department (Kuopio)
- Eastern Uusimaa Police Department (Vantaa)
- Helsinki Police Department (Helsinki)
- Häme Police Department (Lahti)
- Ostrobothnia Police Department (Vaasa)
- Oulu Police Department (Oulu)
- Southeastern Finland Police Department (Kouvola)
- Southwestern Finland Police Department (Turku)
- Western Uusimaa Police Department (Espoo)
National police units
The National Bureau of Investigation (Finnish: Keskusrikospoliisi, KRP, Swedish: Centralkriminalpolisen, CKP) is responsible for major criminal investigations and certain types of specialist services such as fingerprint recognition. The NBI was formed in 1954 to assist the country's other police elements in efforts against crime, particularly that of a serious or deeply rooted nature. A special concern of the NBI is white-collar crime. To carry out its mission, the force has advanced technical means at its disposal, and it maintains Finland's fingerprint and identification files. The NBI is not a part of the police, instead it is a separate nationwide law enforcement agency which assists local police with investigations. .
The Finnish Security Intelligence Service (Finnish: Suojelupoliisi, Supo, Swedish: Skyddspolisen, Skypo) is responsible for national security and the investigation of related crimes. The Supo was moved directly under the Ministry of the Interior in 2016.
The National Traffic Police (Finnish: Liikkuva poliisi, Swedish: Rörliga polisen) was folded into the local police in 2013, thus local police is also responsible for highway patrol. Originally, local police districts were very small and had limited resources, so a separate mobile police organization was founded for riot control, alcohol law enforcement and reserve force duties. Political reliability and independence from local strongmen was also important because of the threat from fascists; indeed, the first task was to escort former president K.J. Ståhlberg back to his home after he was kidnapped by the Lapua Movement. The organized later evolved into a highway patrol. However, because of mergers, local police departments had become larger. Thus, the separate national organization was deemed redundant and traffic police units were subordinated to the local police departments instead, without change in the actual number of highway patrol officers.
Other nationally active formations
Police Rapid Response Unit (Finnish: Poliisin valmiusyksikkö), also known as Bear Group (Finnish: Karhu-ryhmä), is a specialized armed response unit. It is officially part of the Helsinki Police Department.
In June 2008, the Finnish police established a Police Incident Response Team tasked with improving the prevention, detection and management of serious information security incidents.
|Class||Patrol police||Criminal investigation||Supo||English||Other|
|Rank and file||Nuorempi konstaapeli||(none)||Junior, patrolman, trooper, officer Constable||Instructor (kouluttaja)|
|Vanhempi konstaapeli||Vanhempi rikoskonstaapeli||Etsivä||Senior Constable / Detective||—|
|Non-commissioned officer||Ylikonstaapeli||Rikosylikonstaapeli||Ylietsivä||Sergeant (lit. Superior Constable) / Detective Sergeant||Teacher|
|Officers||Komisario||Rikoskomisario||Tarkastaja||Inspector (lit. commissary)|
|Ylikomisario||Rikosylikomisario||Ylitarkastaja||Chief Inspector||Head of Licence Services (lupapalvelutoimiston toimistonjohtaja)|
|Poliisitarkastaja||Osastopäällikkö||Superintendent||Police Attorney (poliisilakimies), Head of Administration (hallinto-osaston johtaja)|
|Apulaispoliisipäällikkö||—||—||Assistant Police Chief||—|
|—||Poliisiylitarkastaja, apulaispoliisipäällikkö (KRP)||Apulaispäällikkö||Deputy Police Chief / Chief Superintendent||Deputy Police Chief of Helsinki|
|Poliisijohtaja||Päällikkö (KRP)||Päällikkö||Assistant/Deputy National Police Commissioner||Helsinki Police Chief, Rector of Police College|
|Poliisiylijohtaja||National Police Commissioner||—|
Criminal investigators prefix their ranks with rikos-, "Detective", literally "Criminal", e.g. rikostarkastaja.
Rank insignia on the shoulder epaulettes is all silver on blue with a silver button. The rank insignia for Senior Constable is a single bar, added with two chevrons for Sergeant. Police officers have bordered rows of oak leaves, with a Lion of Finland next to them. Additionally, on the collar there is pentagonal insignia that always has the emblem with laurel leaves and a border, but with colors slightly varying with rank; officers have a border around the pentagon.
Finnish military ranks as in the Finnish Army are also used by the Finnish Border Guard, but with some differences. The conscript rank of Private is rajajääkäri. Career border guards are NCOs that serve in the ranks of nuorempi rajavartija (~kersantti) and vanhempi rajavartija (~ylikersantti) ("Junior" and "Senior Border Guard", respectively), and there are two higher ranks, ylirajavartija and rajavartiomestari ("Supervisor Border Guard" and "Master Border Guard"), corresponding to vääpeli and sotilasmestari.
- Glock 17, (is being replaced with Walther P99Q)
- Heckler & Koch MP5, (is being replaced with CZ Scorpion Evo 3)
- Heckler & Koch G36C
- Taser X26
- FN 303
- CZ Scorpion Evo 3
- Pepper spray
- Light and heavy armor
The most common vehicle of police in Finland is Volkswagen Transporter, usually with 2.5 l diesel engines. In 2002 about one third of Finnish police cars were Transporters. Transporters are also used by border guards, customs, and sotilaspoliisi (military police). Due to the bilingualism of the country, the right side of the vehicles is marked in Finnish language (POLIISI), the left side is marked in Swedish language (POLIS). The siren used for the Finnish police cars are also used for the police of Sweden.
Current vehicles of the Finnish police
- Ford Focus (unmarked police cars)
- BMW 7 series (Used mostly as unmarked escort car for President.)
- Citroën Berlingo (Used as mobile speed camera units in Helsinki, older variants. Also in use for terrorism bombings)
- Ford Mondeo (2012–2018 models)
- Ford Ranger (Unmarked, in use in Helsinki)
- Ford Transit (Used as material transport by Espoo department and one in Kristinestad, used also by karhu squad)
- Opel Vectra (Not in use, current in storage for reserve vehicle)
- Opel Movano (Unmarked, in use by Pohjanmaa departments and karhu squad)
- Škoda Octavia (2013–2018 models)
- Škoda Superb (2017– models)
- Ford Tourneo Connect (Using as mobile speed camera cars and also in use as unmarked in Helsinki)
- Toyota Avensis
- Toyota Corolla Verso (Using as unmarked cop cars in Helsinki region)
- Mitsubishi Outlander (In use as unmarked backup car in Helsinki)
- Toyota Land Cruiser (Using by Karhu squad)
- Toyota Hilux (Using by Karhu squad and as unmarked cop cars in Rovaniemi)
- Toyota Prius (In use at Turku department)
- Nissan Navara (Unmarked cop cars, mostly in use for personnel transport in Helsinki)
- Nissan Primastar (Unmarked, not seen so much lately. Most in use as backup in emergency situations around Helsinki)
- Volkswagen Caddy (Mobile speed camera units and unmarked police cars)
- Volkswagen Tiguan (Unmarked police cars)
- Volkswagen Golf Variant (Used as unmarked cop cars in Helsinki region)
- Volkswagen E-Golf (used in helsinki)
- Volkswagen Transporter (Different variations, for example: K9, office and vehicle weighing units)
- Mercedes-Benz Sprinter (Used mostly for riot control)
- Mercedes-Benz G-Class (Used by Karhu squad)
- Mercedes-Benz G280 LAPV Enok (Ordered 15 armored cars to be delivered 2018–2019) 
- Mercedes-Benz CLS
- Volvo V70
- Ford Focus ST
- Mercedes-Benz Vito (2019–) 
Marked police motorcycles are usually either BMW K1200 RS, Yamaha FJR 1300, Yamaha FZ1, Yamaha XT660, Honda VFR1200 or KTM 1190 Adventure models. Unmarked motorcycles are Yamaha YZF1000R Thunderace- and Yamaha YZF-R1 models. Motorcycles are used in pursuit situations. The quad bikes are also used in service, mostly used are Polaris Sportsman and Can-Am.
- "Poliisi - Organisation". www.poliisi.fi. Retrieved 18 August 2017.
- Public Order Act Retrieved 19 May 2007
- "Poliisi - Ajokortti". www.poliisi.fi. Retrieved 18 August 2017.
- "Etusivu - 112 Hätäkeskuslaitos". www.hatakeskus.fi. Retrieved 18 August 2017.
- "Poliisi - Contact information". www.poliisi.fi. Retrieved 18 August 2017.
- "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-09-24. Retrieved 2016-09-25.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- Text from PD source: US Library of Congress: A Country Study: Finland, Library of Congress Call Number DL1012 .A74 1990.
- "Poliisi - Police University College". www.poliisi.fi. Retrieved 18 August 2017.
- "Government advances plan to move Supo to Interior Ministry". Retrieved 18 August 2017.
- "Finnish police sets up IRT". Blog.anta.net. 2008-06-23. ISSN 1797-1993. Retrieved 2008-06-23.
- "FINLEX ® - Säädökset alkuperäisinä: Valtioneuvoston asetus poliisista 1080/2013". www.finlex.fi. Retrieved 18 August 2017.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2015-02-17. Retrieved 2015-02-17.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2014-11-09. Retrieved 2015-02-17.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
-  Retrieved 13 April 2013
-  Retrieved 7 October 2018
- "Poliisin asearsenaali uusiksi – konepistoolit ja kiväärit menevät vaihtoon, mahdollisesti myös pistoolit". Yle Uutiset (in Finnish). Retrieved 2018-10-07.
-  Retrieved 26 March 2014
-  Pictures can be found of the vehicles
-  Retrieved 26 March 2014
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