Police vehicles in the United States and Canada
Police vehicles in the United States and Canada are made by several manufacturers and are available in three broad vehicle types:
- Police Pursuit Vehicles (PPV) are the most common police cars and are equipped to handle the vast majority of tasks including pursuit and high-speed response calls
- Special Service Vehicles (SSV) and Special Service Package (SSP) are specialized vehicles such as SUVs and sports cars and are generally heavier-duty vehicles that may come with specialized option packages that used for specific tasks but are not recommended by the manufacturer for use as pursuit vehicles.
- 1 History
- 2 Markings and appearance
- 3 Models by manufacturer
- 4 Other police vehicles
- 4.1 Alabama
- 4.2 Alberta
- 4.3 Arkansas
- 4.4 Arizona
- 4.5 British Columbia
- 4.6 California
- 4.7 Colorado
- 4.8 Connecticut
- 4.9 Florida
- 4.10 Georgia
- 4.11 Guam
- 4.12 Hawaii
- 4.13 Idaho
- 4.14 Illinois
- 4.15 Indiana
- 4.16 Iowa
- 4.17 Kansas
- 4.18 Kentucky
- 4.19 Louisiana
- 4.20 Maine
- 4.21 Massachusetts
- 4.22 Michigan
- 4.23 Minnesota
- 4.24 Missouri
- 4.25 New Hampshire
- 4.26 New Jersey
- 4.27 New Mexico
- 4.28 New York
- 4.29 North Carolina
- 4.30 North Dakota
- 4.31 Nova Scotia
- 4.32 Ohio
- 4.33 Ontario
- 4.34 Oklahoma
- 4.35 Oregon
- 4.36 Pennsylvania
- 4.37 Prince Edward Island
- 4.38 Quebec
- 4.39 Saskatchewan
- 4.40 South Carolina
- 4.41 Texas
- 4.42 Utah
- 4.43 Virginia
- 4.44 Washington
- 4.45 Wisconsin
- 4.46 D.A.R.E.
- 5 Future
- 6 See also
- 7 References
- 8 External links
The first police car was a wagon run by electricity fielded on the streets of Akron, Ohio in 1899. Since the 1920s, the New York City Police Department has employed a fleet of Radio Motor Patrol vehicles to aid in its fight against crime in the city.
Ford's introduction of the Ford flathead V-8 in its Model B in 1932, the first low-priced, mass-marketed car with a V8 engine, gave it brand loyalty that allowed it to capture the police car market until 1968. In the 1940s and 1950s the Big Three began to offer specialized police packages with severe duty parts. Foremost among these was the Ford package of 1950, which utilized the larger and more powerful Mercury engine in the smaller, lighter Ford. This ended the practice of some state police of buying larger, more powerful, higher priced models including Buicks, Hudsons, and Chryslers. In 1969, Plymouth took first place in the police market, with Chrysler Corporation's 440 cu. in. V8s, Torqueflite transmissions, and torsion bar suspensions giving them a compelling advantage. Chrysler held their lead until the 1970s energy crisis drove buyers to smaller cars and Chrysler discontinued their rear-drive platform after the 1989 model year.
In the United States and Canada, police departments historically have used standard-size, low-price line sedans since the days of the Ford Model A. Many police departments switched to intermediates, such as the Plymouth Satellite, Ford Torino and AMC Matador, in the 1960s and 1970s. Some state highway patrols (such as California and Missouri) adopted pony cars such as the Ford Mustang, Chevrolet Camaro, and AMC Javelin as high-speed pursuit vehicles. The Ford LTD, Plymouth Gran Fury and Chevrolet Caprice were re-adopted as standard when the models were downsized in the late 1970s. Since the termination of the Chevrolet Caprice product, most police departments currently use the Ford Crown Victoria Police Interceptor as the standard patrol car. New North American Crown Victoria Police Interceptors are optionally equipped with a fire suppression system to combat the threat to highway patrol vehicles of rear-end impacts while parked on the side of highways. In September 2011, however, the Crown Victoria was discontinued, in favour of the 6th-generation Taurus. This has helped Dodge reclaim leadership in the market with the Charger.
Non-Crown Victoria police vehicles may be bought to diversify a police department's fleet, so that less disruption occurs should a recall occur.
While some departments have adopted SUVs and front-wheel drive sedans (mainly the Chevrolet Impala), the rear-wheel-drive V8 configuration is favored for being consistent with pursuit driver training as well as for better reliability. Trials with front-wheel-drive vehicles like the Ford Taurus and Chevrolet Impala have shown problems with the cost of maintenance. In 1994, for example, a Ford spokeswoman noted that "It is certainly true that any front-wheel-drive car would be more expensive and difficult to maintain if you subjected it to the kind of hard use they get in police departments." General Motors and Chrysler provide other types (front-wheel drive, smaller engine) police vehicles as well, and a few jurisdictions (primarily in Canada) use these vehicles. The Chevrolet Tahoe PPV version along with the Ford [Explorer] Police Interceptor Utility are both pursuit-rated SUV's. Many jurisdictions use the Chevrolet Impala, which in its current configuration is a front-wheel-drive V6. The Dodge Charger R/T is the most likely challenger to the Crown Victoria as a RWD V8 patrol car, though the Washington State Patrol and the North Carolina Highway Patrol are using the vehicle initially as an unmarked patrol car. The Charger has shown great promise as a police car, being faster and more fuel efficient than the commonly used Ford Crown Victoria. Some complaints about the Charger though are its limited rear visibility and smaller trunk than the Crown Victoria. There were, in the 2005 and 2006 model years, significant problems with the braking systems, which has since been revised by Dodge. At the end of 2006, multiple Dodge Chargers have been put into the NYPD fleet for citywide testing. In the summer of 2006, the Georgia State Patrol announced that it would begin using the Charger R/T for high speed chases on Interstate highways due to its additional power and speed, and the Oklahoma Highway Patrol switched to the model early as well. As of 2007[update], the Alameda County (California) Sheriff's Office has plans as well to upgrade to the Charger. Many police agencies in the metropolitan Detroit area have also adopted a fleet that includes a number of the Dodge. Dodge only rates their 6-cylinder and Hemi-engined versions as "pursuit capable" (when ordered as a police package). The R/T version is not available in a police package. Other agencies, including the California Highway Patrol and Chicago Police Department, are replacing their older cruisers with the Ford Police Interceptor Utility [Explorer] variant due to its large cargo and equipment-carrying ability, as well as its optional AWD system. In 2013, according to statistics compiled by R.L. Polk, the FPI-U (Explorer) became the most popular PPV in the U.S. The standard Ford Taurus-based PI can also be equipped with AWD.
Markings and appearance
North American police cars were once noted for being painted black and white, with the car doors and roof painted white, while the trunk, hood, front fenders and rear quarter panels were painted black. The fleet vehicles that were used typically came painted in a single color, most commonly white or black, from the factory and were used as such. The contrasting black or white color was added to make the vehicle stand out from civilian vehicles. In 2007, the Ontario Provincial Police (OPP) began converting its fleet back to a black-and-white scheme after decades of using other colors.
Beginning in the 1970s, police vehicle markings have become increasingly stylistic, with widespread use of computer-graphics and vinyl striping. While black and white designs are still in use in many jurisdictions, cars may range from being all white to completely black. Blues and greens of various hues are also frequently used. Brown, beiges and tans are favored by rural police and sheriff's offices.
Official markings also vary by jurisdiction. The side doors and sometimes the hood of a marked police car usually bear the agency's badge or the city seal, often in reflective finish. Markings such as emergency telephone numbers, generic anti-drug or anti-crime messages, or even website URLs are also common. Some agencies also have identification numbers printed on the roofs of patrol cars for tracking from aircraft, or to distinguish specialized units, such as K-9 units or supervisors.
Currently, in the United States, the paint scheme for each fleet is determined either by the individual agency or by uniform state legislation as in Minnesota. Usually, state laws exist that establish standards for police vehicle markings, and proscribe civilian vehicles from using certain markings or paint schemes as is the case in California.
Today, most fleet markings on patrol vehicles are created from reflective vinyl with an adhesive backing that is applied in a peel-and-stick manner. Colors chosen to represent the departments identity are typically chosen by the individual department, although, as noted above, some states have specific guidelines for color schemes and markings. Vinyl used to produce fleet markings comes in large rolls that are fed through a plotter (cutter) or large-format printer/cutter. The designs are created in specialized computer software and sent to the machines via cable link for production. Once the design is cut into the vinyl, the excess vinyl on the sheet is removed in a process called "weeding". Finally, a paper pre-mask is applied to the top of the vinyl design to allow easy application of multiple letters and shapes at one time.
Models by manufacturer
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Chrysler and American Motors
- AMC Ambassador PPV 1971 to 1974, State Highway Patrols and local police departments
- AMC Matador PPV 1972 to 1974, Los Angeles Police Department and other law enforcement agencies in the U.S. and Canada, as well as by military police units
- AMC Javelin 1970s, used by the Alabama State Police, the first pony-car officially used by a major police organization
- Chrysler Sebring (SSV)
- Chrysler Enforcer (Chrysler Newport) 1961-1964
- Dodge Coronet 1956-1959, 1965-1975
- Dodge Dart Seneca and 330 1960-1964
- Dodge 880 1962-1964
- Dodge Intrepid (PPV from 1997 to 2004)
- Dodge Durango (SSV)
- Dodge Charger (PPV; 2006–present)
- Dodge Magnum 2005-2008
- Dodge Dakota (PPV, SSV, SSP)
- Dodge Ram (PPV, SSV, SSP)
- Dodge St. Regis (PPV; 1979–1981)
- Dodge Aspen 1976-1980
- Dodge Diplomat 1980-1989
- Dodge Polara 1961-1973
- Dodge Monaco 1974-1978
- Jeep Cherokee (frequently used by U.S. police forces, PPV from 1992 to 2001)
- Plymouth Fury 1965-1978
- Plymouth Volare 1976-1980
- Plymouth Savoy 1956-1964
- Plymouth Belvedere 1957-1968
- Plymouth Gran Fury 1975-1977, 1980-1989
- Plymouth Satellite 1969-1974
- Plymouth Valiant Used by the Swedish Police as well as a few other US police departments.
Ford Motor Company
- Ford Torino/Ford Fairlane — 1963–1976
- Ford Galaxie/Ford CustomCustom 300/Custom 500/ — 1957–1976
- Ford Fairmont — 1978–1983
- Ford LTD II — 1977–1979 (used by the Texas Department of Public Safety and other Texas law enforcement agencies in the late 1970s (also used in Canada) right after the Mopar C-body squads were in the process of being discontinued; this was considered a consolation prize since the competing Mopar B platform squads were in high demand)
- Ford LTD — 1984–1985 Fox Body
- Ford Bronco
- Mercury Grand Marquis - 1983-2011 Panther Platform (same as Ford Crown Victoria)
- Mercury Marquis - 1984-1985 Fox body
- Mercury Monterey - 1970-1974
- Mercury Montego - 1970-1976 (used by the LAPD 1970, Tucson and Phoenix P.D., Oklahoma Highway Patrol 1975)
- Mercury Zephyr — 1978–1983 Fox Body
- Ford Crown Victoria (a large majority of the police forces in North America use the Ford Crown Victoria as the standard squad car)
- Ford Edge (2010–present)
- Ford Explorer (SSV/PPV)
- Ford Expedition (SSV)
- Ford Excursion (SSV)
- Ford Taurus (frequently used by U.S. police forces in the 1990s didn't sell very well. In addition, the mid-sized Taurus was discontinued in 1995. Ford reintroduced it in 2012 as a successor to the Crown Victoria Police Interceptor in 2013 based on the full-sized Taurus as the Police Interceptor Sedan.)
- Ford Mustang (used primarily for interstate speeding enforcement, SSP from 1982 to 1993)
- Ford Econoline (still in service with many bomb squad and SWAT units and prisoner transports)
- Chevrolet Bel Air (PPV;1959–1975, up until 1981 for Canada)
- Chevrolet Biscayne (PPV;1959–1972, up until 1975 for Canada)
- Chevrolet Camaro (B4C; 1991–2002)
- Chevrolet Caprice (PPV; 1991–1996)
- Chevrolet Celebrity (SSP; 1984–1986)
- Chevrolet Express (SSP; Prisoner Transport)
- Chevrolet Impala/Caprice (PPV; 1977–1990)
- Chevrolet Impala (PPV; 2000–2005)
- Chevrolet Impala (PPV; 2006-2013*)
- Chevrolet Lumina (PPV; 1996–1999)
- Chevrolet Malibu (PPV; 1979–1983)
- Chevrolet Nova (PPV; 1975–1979)
- Chevrolet Tahoe (PPV; 1997–1999, 2005–present)
- Chevrolet Tahoe (SSP; 2001–present)
- Chevrolet Suburban (SSP; ?-present)
- Holden Caprice (Chevrolet Caprice) (2011-present)
- Hummer H1 (PPV)
SAAB 900 - Used by Vail, and Aspen Colorado Police Departments from 1978 - 2003 
- Toyota Camry Used occasionally by some larger cities, Salt Lake City for example.
- Toyota 4Runner/Toyota Tacoma Used usually near beach areas by Los Angeles Police Department, vehicles provided by Toyota Motor Sales, U.S.A., Inc.
Other police vehicles
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Police departments also use alternative police vehicles.
- Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) and several US police forces use unmarked/marked mini-vans and marked/unmarked Honda Civic sedans/coupes and other import vehicles like Honda, Toyota, etc., meant to be more anonymous than other kinds of unmarked vehicles.
- The Police Department in Tuscaloosa uses several marked Mercedes-Benz M Class SUVs. The M Class is manufactured in nearby Vance.
- The Calgary police department utilizes unmarked GMC Canyons, Ford Econolines, Ford Excursions, Ford Expeditions, Ford Explorers, Chevrolet Suburbans, Chevrolet Express vans, Ford F-150s, Dodge Durangos, Dodge Chargers, and Ford Crown Victorias, along with a small fleet of 2009 Toyota Highlander hybrids.
- Edmonton had a "taxicab yellow" paint scheme for their police cars. Several unique undercover cars are also in the fleet such as the Chrysler 300, Buick Lacrosse, Ford Escape, Jeep Cherokee (KL), Jeep Grand Cherokee, Hyundai Sonata, Nissan Altima, Suzuki Kizashi, Volkswagen Passat and Ford Fusion. The department also has a fleet of Ford Escape Hybrid, Ford Fusion Hybrid and Toyota Camry Hybrid vehicles in full patrol colours.
- Slave Lake RCMP Detachment has a dark green Ford F-150 unmarked pickup.
- Lethbridge Regional Police Service has a Ford F-150 pickup painted in standard livery.
- Arkansas State Police utilize the Dodge Charger. As of 2012, only one Crown Vic and one Chevrolet Impala remained in the fleet.
- Northern Arizona University has a Cadillac Escalade, seized from a drug dealer.
- Gilbert, Arizona has Tahoes and an unmarked Malibu
- Arizona Highway Patrol has marked and unmarked Dodge and Ford pickups as well as marked police package Tahoes along with Crown Victorias and Impalas. At one time, Arizona had Police Package Mustangs and Volvo S90's and a Thunderbird Super Coupe as an experimental vehicle.
- Maricopa County Sheriff has marked and unmarked Chargers, Crown Victorias, and Expeditions. There are also a handful of Explorers in the fleet.
- Phoenix, Arizona utilizes Chevrolet Tahoes as primary patrol vehicles, with Ford Crown Victorias and Chevrolet Impalas being phased out, since they are no longer produced. As of 3/2013, it appears they will continue to use Tahoes. Phoenix Detectives use Ford F150 and Chevrolet Silverados with flat fiberglass tonneau covers over the beds.
- The North Vancouver regional detachment of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) use a number of impressive vehicles including Jaguars, Land Rovers, and Volkswagens.
- RCMP in Surrey have many dark unmarked Ford Fusions.
- Arcadia has a "mini-fleet" of Dodge Chargers.
- The Azusa Police Department owned the first Chevrolet Camaro police car ever built (1985–1999?).
- Beverly Hills has a Mercedes ML350 which is used by the School Resource Officers in their assignments at the Beverly Hills schools. It is the second Mercedes to have been loaned to the Department by Mercedes-Benz of Beverly Hills. They also have at least one undercover Chrysler 300.
- The Colton and Chino Police Departments each had a Chevrolet Corvette in their fleets.
- Fremont police use three Toyota Tacomas given to the city by the local NUMMI plant, which manufactured Toyota trucks.
- The Irwindale Police Department currently has five Dodge Chargers (Police Package version) and had originally planned to become the first all-Charger police force in Los Angeles County.
- The Manteca Police Department utilizes several different types of marked vehicles in their fleet. Some of these include the Ford Crown Victoria Police Interceptor, Dodge Charger, Chevrolet Tahoe, Ford Escape, Ford Taurus, Jeep Cherokee, and the Toyota Tacoma.
- The Santa Clara County Sheriff's Office has several unmarked Toyota Camrys, primarily for use by the auto-theft unit.
- The San Ramon Police possess one Dodge Magnum and at least two Dodge Chargers.
- The Riverside County Sheriff's Department has at least two Dodge Magnums
- The Colorado State Patrol uses the current Dodge Charger and Chevrolet Caprice in its fleet, alongside the Chevrolet Tahoe and Ford Crown Victoria.
- The Central City Police Department has three Hummer H3s in its fleet.
- The Eagle County Sheriffs Office used the AMC Eagle until 1987 and then began using the civilian style Jeep Cherokee prior to the police package model.
- The Fort Collins Police Services employ unmarked Dodge Durangos and Chevrolet Silverados in addition to marked Durangos, Chevrolet Tahoes, and the Ford Explorer police unit.
- The Lafayette Police Department has an unmarked Ford F-150.
- The Lone Tree Police Department purchased two Hummer H3s in 2006.
- The resort towns of Vail and Aspen used Saab sedans and hatchbacks as their standard patrol car for over 25 years. Vail started replacing them with Ford Explorers in late 2003, and Aspen began replacing them in late 2005 with Volvo XC90s. In 2008, Aspen started to replace its fleet of Volvo XC90s with Toyota Highlander Hybrids. Vail has begun ramping up their fleet with the Volvo XC90.
- The Thornton Police Department uses the Ford Crown Victoria Police Interceptors as its standard policing vehicle, although some Chevrolet Impalas have been used by officers.
- The Connecticut State Police uses several unmarked Crown Victorias and a Ford Excursion for its patrol vehicles. They also have the Ford Explorer police interceptors, the Ford Taurus police interceptors along with a couple dodge chargers
- The Montville police department uses a 1974 Chevrolet Corvette for high-speed pursuits.
- The New London police department has a marked 2002 Chevrolet Venture and a 2002 Toyota Tundra as some of its patrol vehicles.
- The Bridgeport police department use Dodge Charger as their patrol car.
- The Daytona Beach Shores Public Safety Department uses only Ford Explorers as their primary pursuit/patrol vehicle.
- The Gulf Breeze police department uses unmarked: 2011 Chevrolet Tahoe, 2009 Chevrolet Silverado and a green Jeep Cherokee for traffic. The department also uses Ford Crown Victorias, Ford 500, Ford Explorer Sport Trac, Chevrolet Camaro, Dodge Charger.
- Florida Highway Patrol has used Mercury Marauders and Mustangs for Traffic Enforcement.
- The Georgia State Patrol used BMW 3 series for patrols during the 1996 Olympics.
- The Catoosa County Sheriff's Department (under Sheriff J. D. Stewart) drove around in Pontiac LeMans and Trans Am's
- Various police departments in the state of Georgia have augmented their vehicle fleets with the Mercury Marauder; most notably the Lamar County Sheriff's Department.
- The Holly Springs Police Department uses a Porsche 944 as their Police Explorers unit.
- The Jasper County Sheriff's Office uses a Ford Expedition as its K-9 vehicle.
- The Meriwether County Sheriff's Department uses a LS2-powered Chevrolet Camaro for patrol, and as Manchester High School's resource officer.
- The Rome Police Department uses a post-2005 Ford Mustang GT for patrol.
- The Guam Police Department uses Ford Crown Victorias and Dodge Chargers. The Guam Airport Police uses Nissan Xterras.
- The Honolulu Police Department and the Hawai‘i County Police Department supplements its fleet of marked patrol cars by allowing the use of the personally owned vehicles of police officers which are partially subsidized by department funds. These include not only American cars but Japanese cars such as the Toyota 4Runner and Camry, Honda Pilot, Nissan Altima, XTerra and Murano. These cars are made distinguishable as on-duty police vehicles with the addition of a removable blue light bar.
- The Idaho State Police uses only Dodge Chargers for its primary patrol vehicle. Dodge Magnums are being used for its crash reconstruction. Ford Crown Victoria Police Interceptors are used as secondary patrol vehicles.
- The Glenview Police Department has at least two Honda Odyssey unmarked mini-vans driven by plain clothes officers.
- The Lake Forest police department uses three Chevrolet Suburban and two Chevrolet Tahoe marked police cars for the higher-rank officers of the department.
- The Cook County Sheriff Gang Task Force has a late-model black unmarked F-150 pickup
- Illinois State Police has several unmarked vehicles ranging from Monte Carlos to Mustang GTs and Camaros to combat speeding and aggressive driving. There was also an unmarked Trans Am WS-6.
- Winthrop Harbor had some unmarked Crown Victorias that were supercharged
- Oak Lawn Police Department uses a Dare H2 Hummer for patrol
- Elburn Police use 2 Ford Expeditions and 1 Ford F-150
- Illinois Conservations Officers use mainly Ford, Dodge, and Chevrolet pickup trucks
- Lakemoor Police Department has an unmarked Infiniti G35 Coupe
- The Pontoon Beach Police Department (Madison County) has an assortment of vehicles consisting of Dodge Chargers, A Dodge Durango, Chevrolet Tahoe, and various unmarked vehicles following 2005 multimillion-dollar seizure of drug related money.
- The Hawthorn Woods Police Department uses a police marked military Humvee for special emergencies and severe weather conditions.
- Barrington Police Department has Dodge Chargers, Crown Vics, an unmarked red Dodge Caravan, and a high speed marked 2014 black Corvette.
- The Bloomington, Indiana Police Department currently uses (as of 2015) marked and unmarked Ford Crown Victoria, marked and unmarked Dodge Charger, and marked and unmarked Ford Interceptor, marked Ford Escape, and several Ford utility vans. They also currently use a Polaris all-terrain vehicle. In the past the department has used Segway, unmarked Ford Tauraus for detectives, marked and unmarked Chevrolet Caprice, marked Harley-Davidson motorcycles, along with Dodge and Chrysler vehicles as well.
- The Ellettsville, Indiana Police Department currently uses marked and unmarked Dodge Charger, marked Ford Crown Victoria, marked Dodge Durango, marked and unmarked Ford Explorer. In the past it has used Chevy Caprice, Jeep Cherokee and Fort LTD.
- The Indiana Department of Natural Resources conservation officers currently use marked and unmarked Dodge Durango, marked and unmarked Ford Expedition, Ford F-250 and Dodge Ram. In the past they used Ford Crown Victoria and Dodge RamCharger.
- The Indiana State Police has utilized many marked and unmarked makes and models of vehicles over the years. Chevrolet and Ford have dominated the fleet overall since the 1930s, but Chrysler, Dodge and Jeep vehicles have also been used. Motorcycles have also been utilized. Indian was used in the early years. Harley-Davidsons are used currently. Even an Auburn Cord was once used as a safety vehicle in the 1930s. The Chevrolet Carprice was primarily utilized in the 1980s and early 1990s, but the Ford Crown Victoria Police interceptor dominated the fleet since then until 2012, when Indiana State Police started using Dodge Charger. ISP has used unmarked cars and trucks as well. The Mustang GT were the first to be used for speed enforcement in the late 1980s. They used several LS-1 powered Camaro Z28 in the 1990s and now have gone back to the Mustang GT. As of 2015 Indiana State Police uses marked and unmarked Dodge Charger, marked and unmarked Ford Crown Victoria, marked and unmarked Chevrolet Tahoe, unmarked Ford Mustang GT, and marked Harley-Davidson motorcycles.
- The Indianapolis Metropolitan Police Department has utilized many makes and models of vehicles over the years as well. It currently uses marked and unmarked Dodge Charger, marked and unmarked Ford Crown Victoria, marked and unmarked Chevrolet Impala, and marked Harley-Davidson motorcycles.
- The Indiana University Police Department currently uses marked and unmarked Dodge Charger. In the very recent past they used marked Ford Crown Victoria.
- The Monroe County, Indiana Sheriff Department currently uses marked and unmarked Dodge Charger, marked Ford Crown Victoria, marked and unmarked Ford Fusion, Ford Expedition, Chevrolet Impala and Chevrolet Blazer. In the past they have used Chevy Caprice, Jeep Cherokee, and Fort LTD.
- The Stinesville, Indiana Police Department currently uses marked Ford Crown Victoria, marked Ford Expedition and marked Jeep Cherokee. In the past they have used Chevrolet Caprice.
- The city of Urbandale Police Department utilizes a marked Ford Edge, several Crown Victoria and a Dodge Charger for patrol. They also have unmarked Ford Fusions and new sixth-generation Ford Tauruses for detectives.
- The city of Mason City Police Department utilizes several marked Chevrolet Tahoe's, several marked Chevrolet Caprices, and several Ford Crown Victoria's.
- Iowa State Patrol utilizes marked and unmarked Dodge Charger, Ford Crown Victoria and Chevrolet Tahoe for patrol duties.
- The Kansas Highway Patrol fleet is composed primarily of Dodge Chargers and Chevrolet Tahoes. There are also Ford Explorers and Ford Tauruses and a few Chevrolet Suburbans and some 75th Anniversary Ford Crown Victorias.
- The Georgetown police department had a few older Toyota Camrys that had been donated to them by Toyota Motor Manufacturing Kentucky, but these vehicles have not been seen recently.
- The Warren County, Kentucky Sheriff's Department has a fifth-generation Chevrolet Corvette it uses at events at the National Corvette Museum in Bowling Green.
- the Hopkins County - Madisonville Police Department Have a Military Humvee Converted and Upgraded. It is mainly used at events for show but also for hazard emergencys, i.e.: flooding, ice on roadways, tornados
- The Louisiana State Police has several previous-generation Chevrolet Camaros as pursuit vehicles. It also has many PPV-rated Chevrolet Tahoes
- The Gramercy Police department has 1 (unmarked) 00'-06'GMC Yukon, a (unmarked) 04'-09' Ford F-150, and has a (marked) Mercury Grand Marquis.
- The Lafourche Parish Sheriff's Office has at least 1 Dodge Avenger as a marked patrol car. It also has multiple Chevrolet Malibus and Impalas as staff cars.
- The Maine State Police use several undercover Roush Performance Ford Mustangs on the Maine Turnpike.
- The town of Amherst uses a Chevrolet Corvette as the chief's car. The department also uses a Hyundai Santa Fe as a rapid response unit. Amherst Police also once owned a Chevrolet Cavalier and a 1986 Chevrolet Celebrity
- The Belchertown Police Department uses a double decker bus as its town police bus. They also use a Volkswagen Jetta as a police squad car.
- The Warren Police Department has an unmarked 2003 Land Rover LR2 and Humvee for off road patrolling they also have two unmarked Ford Taurus, as well as two Ford Crown Vics and a Ford Expedition.
- The Massachusetts State Police use a combination of Ford Crown Victoria, Dodge Charger, Ford Taurus, Ford Super Duty, and other vehicles.
- The Greenfield, Massachusetts police use a Chevrolet Lumina APV, a Chevrolet Astro, a mobile home, Dodge Challenger, A Ford Transit Connect and a Chevrolet Camaro. They also use 2 undercover Chevrolet Caprice PPV, which are 2 new vehicles to the Police Department.
- Michigan State Police Troopers use black Dodge Chargers fitted with chrome street rims along with a gunmetal Dodge Magnum (with police interceptor rims) for I-275 Highway Patrol. Both are completely unmarked.
- The Bloomfield Hills police department has several Chevrolet Corvettes.
- Clayton Township in Genesee County has a Saturn Vue donated by Saturn of Flint.
- Dearborn, the home of Ford Motor Company, employs several different Ford vehicles, including Ford Ranger pickups for parking enforcement, and a Ford Mustang for public relations visits to local schools. In the 1970s, Ford provided the Dearborn Police Department with a number of Lincoln Town Cars equipped with early airbag systems in order to accumulate engineering data in "real world" conditions.
- The Hazel Park Police Department has a 2009 Jaguar XF (dark Jaguar blue), a 2008 Jaguar XF (silver) and a 2007 Jaguar XK Coupe (dark Jaguar blue). All were donated by Jaguar of Lakeside, Novi and Troy to commemorate fallen officers. The cars are fully marked and outfitted with police packages.
- Southgate's Police Department fleet consists primarily of older to newer models of the Ford Crown Victoria, both marked and unmarked. Despite this fact, however, the SPD also uses a newer marked Ford Explorer (for traffic patrol and responding purposes) and an unmarked (all black) Dodge Charger. More recently, marked and unmarked versions of the sixth generation Ford Taurus have also made their way into the SPD's police interceptor lineup as well.
- The Trenton Police Department has three Hemi Dodge Chargers (two all black, one black with white doors), one V6 Charger (all black), and two 2010 Chevrolet Tahoes (one black with white doors and another all black). Trenton receives vehicles to test because of manufacturing plants located in the city.
- Michigan Conservation Officers use Chevrolet Silverado and Tahoes
- The Anoka Police Department has a RHD Jeep Wrangler, used primarily for parking enforcement.
- The Mankato Department of Public Safety has a fleet of Ford F-150 pickup trucks, used primarily for traffic enforcement.
- The Police Department in St. Louis Park uses an unmarked 2001+ GMC Yukon Denali, 20" Rims, blacked out, and tinted windows all around.
- The Rochester Police Department has several Ford Escapes, as well as some Ford F-150 pickup trucks used by the "Community Service" patrol division. The city uses Jeep Wranglers for parking enforcement.
- The Olmsted County Sheriff's Department has several unmarked squad vehicles, consisting of Chevrolet Impalas, Dodge Chargers (HEMI-Equipped), Chevrolet Tahoes, and Chevrolet TrailBlazers. Additionally, the Department has a Chevrolet Silverado and a Pontiac Torrent, both seized and used for DWI Enforcement.
- Numerous unmarked vehicles have been seen in the St. Louis area ranging from unmarked and marked Dodge Chargers to an unmarked Nissan Altima specifically for pursuing aggressive drivers.
- Gerald, MO police have one Hummvee for getting into the extremely remote areas of Gerald, MO.
- Lake Saint Louis, MO has 1 or 2 Ford Five Hundred Unmarked detective units.
- The Goffstown police department uses a 1995 Chevrolet Cavalier as well as a Ford Explorer as marked police vehicles.
- The police department in South Hampton once owned a very rare Audi 4000 police car.
- The Rollinsford police department uses a Chevrolet Impala a Ford Explorer a Ford Interceptor & a Crown Victoria for their as marked police vehicles
- The Greenland, New Hampshire Police department used to use 1985 Volvo Sedans for a small period of time.
The New Jersey state police used marked and unmarked 2014 Ford Tauraus police interceptors as well as Crown Victorias, and police editions of Chevrolet Impalas. Dodge Durangos and Ford Explorers have also been spotted.
- The police department of Clifton uses 2006–2007 Jeep Grand Cherokees for the traffic division.
- The Edison Township Police Department has a marked 1995 BMW M3 that was seized from a drug dealer. This vehicle is used for D.A.R.E and other awareness and education programs. They also have Nissan GT-R as highway Patrol car.
- The Newark Police Department has a small fleet of Crown Victorias modified to look like a standard yellow city cab with rate stickers on doors and advertisement plaque on roof used for under-cover tasks; and "unmarked" everyday patrolling.
- The Paramus Police Department uses a Ford F550 as an emergency service unit and a Chrysler PT Cruiser D.A.R.E. vehicle.
- The Passaic County Sheriff's Department uses Ford Mustangs.
- The Secaucus Police Department now uses Dodge Chargers for patrolling.
- The Scotch Plains Police Department maintains a fleet of vehicles that is split almost evenly between Dodge Chargers and Ford Crown Victorias.
- The Bayonne Police Department uses 30 2011 Chevrolet Impalas, 10 2012 Ford Taurus Police Interceptors, and 3 2004 Dodge Durangos as regular patrol vehicles, a semi-marked 2010 HEMI Dodge Charger and a Chevrolet Suburban as traffic enforcement vehicles, 2 2012 Ford Explorers as Supervisor vehicles, 1 2012 Ford Explorer as a Commander vehicle, a 2007 Ford Explorer and 2 2005 Ford E-350 Club Wagons as C.O.P. (Community Oriented Policing)/D.A.R.E. vehicles, a 2010 Chevrolet Tahoe and a 2004 Dodge Durango as K-9 transport vehicles.
- Bernards Township Police Dept. uses 5 Dodge Charger 2006,2011,and 2012 (*2012 is unmarked). Ford Crown Victoria Police Interceptor 2003-2011 model unmarked and marked. 3 Ford Explorer 2005,1999 and 2011 (2005 and 1999 are unmarked),2007 Chevrolet Suburban (unmarked),3 2004 and 2000 Dodge Durango unmarked and marked,and 2 2011 Chevrolet Caprice unmarked and marked as regular patrol unit.For traffic control the department uses a 1999 Dodge Ram 1500 marked and is usually with another unit.
- Neptune City police use impalas and Ford Explorers and Taurus. They also have 2 Humvees
- The New Mexico Mounted Patrol does not have a standard vehicle, as all vehicles are trooper-owned and maintained. A wide variety of vehicles are in use, both marked and unmarked.
- The Las Cruces Police Department uses Chevrolet Camaros for intercepting fast vehicles.
- The New Mexico State University Police uses a mixture of Dodge Chargers, Chevrolet Pickups and GM SUV's.
- The New York State Police use a 2001 Toyota Sequoia as an unmarked vehicle and a few Toyota Siennas, Ford F350s, Honda Odysseys, and the recent model Toyota Tundra. At one point, they had Mustangs. The State Police also possess a fourth-generation Chevrolet Camaro for use as a high-speed intercept vehicle on Interstate 90.
- The Ithaca Police Department uses a Volkswagen Beetle as the patrol car in the downtown "Commons" area.
- The Monroe County Sheriff's Office uses a 2007 Ford Mustang for demonstrations and highway patrol.
- The New York City Police Department has Impalas and has some Crown Victorias modified to look like taxicabs, as well as hybrid Nissan Altima and Ford Fusion patrol cars in both marked and unmarked duty. They use Toyota Priuses for traffic enforcement.
- The Wake County Sheriff's office use a Corvette Z06 That was seized from drug dealers
- The Brunswick County and Columbus County Sheriffs Department(s) use a mix of Ford Crown Victorias, Dodge Chargers, Dodge Challengers, and Dodge Durangos.
- Williams County Sheriff's Office uses Ford F-150s and Chevrolet Silverados due to the rural nature of much of the county.
- The Halifax Regional Police use marked and unmarked Dodge Durangos, Ford Crown Victorias, Ford E-Series Cube Vans, Ford Explorers, and GMC Savanas. They use unmarked Chevrolet Impalas, Chevrolet Tahoes, Dodge Chargers, Ford Taurus', GMC Yukons, Honda Civics, Pontiac G5s, Toyota Camrys, and Volkswagen Jettas. The Halifax Regional Police-Emergency Response Team Unit use an Armored Ford F-550.
- The Bedford Police use a mix of Dodge Chargers and Chevrolet Tahoes for patrols.
- The Garfield Heights Police use a mixture of Ford Crown Victorias, two Ford Explorers, and five Dodge Chargers. Four will be black and white and one is an unmarked car. As of October 2009 Garfield has three black white Dodge Chargers.
- The Mariemont Police Department uses Dodge Chargers for patrol and traffic, Ford SUV and 1 Ford Focus (unmarked)
- The Parma Police use a mix of Chevrolet Caprices, Chevrolet Impalas and Chevrolet Tahoes for patrols. Parma is home to the GM Parma Stamping Plant so GM gave Parma a discount on the cars.
- The Union County Sheriff's office uses Dodge Chargers, Ford Crown Victorias, and Ford Expeditions (for use with their Public Safety Officer program, in which the officer is also a Firefighter/EMT
- The Cleveland Police Department uses Ford Taurus Black-and-White units as well as Ford Crown Victoria Black-and-White units.
- The Independence, Ohio Police use a variety of different vehicle, Including the Dodge Charger.
- The Ohio State Highway Patrol uses Dodge Chargers. They use a combination of blue lightbars and front-facing red grille lights. All Motor Carrier Enforcement vehicles use the old OSHP livery, albeit with blue trim and lettering instead of the gold livery, and only use red lights.
- The Lancaster, Ohio Police Department uses 2012-2014 black/white and 2015 white Chargers, along with black/white and white Crown Victorias. One 2015 Charger has a miniature lightbar, and the other fleet-cars have full-sized lightbars. One fleet-car is usually stationed on the retail campus on Ety Road near Highway 33, in order to take shoplifting calls.
- Ontario Provincial Police has a marked Honda Civic SI coupe in their fleet for use on highway patrol.
- Metro Toronto Police used a marked Chevrolet Camaro for highway traffic enforcement. It has since been retired from use by the Toronto Police Service. TPS uses the SmartCar for parking enforcement operations alongside Dodge Neons. TPS also operates a Honda Civic sedan for community liaison and parking enforcement.
- The Windsor Police use various unmarked Chevrolet Camaro SS and an unmarked Silver Ford F150 FX4 pickup for traffic enforcement.
- The Tulsa Police Department owns a Cadillac Escalade that reads on the back "This used to be a drug dealers car now its ours".
- The Blanchard Police Department owns a Chrysler 300 that has many D.A.R.E stickers and other misc. emblems on it. Mostly known for the lambo doors and the 22" rims. On the back of the vehicle it reads "Donated by your local Drug Dealer".
- Oklahoma Highway Patrol has two Suzuki Hayabusas.
- The Allegheny County Sheriff's Department (Pittsburgh area) has just retired their 2004 MINI Cooper from active duty.
- The Police Department in New Hope uses a Ford Focus.
- In the late 1980s through the late 1990s, the Pittsburgh Bureau of Police had one of the weirdest police fleets in North America, with the utilization of various General Motors vehicles not usually meant to be used for police work (mainly the Oldsmobile Delta 88, Oldsmobile Ninety-Eight, Pontiac Bonneville, Buick Century, Buick LeSabre and Buick Electra), with the K-9 officers relegated to Dodge Ramchargers.
- The Swatara Township (Dauphin County) Police use a Ford Taurus SHO. But it is rarely driven, let alone used as a regular patrol vehicle.
- The Lower Makefield Township (Bucks County) Police Department uses primarily Ford Crown Victoria models as patrol vehicles, however, the fleet also includes Chevrolet Tahoes for both highway and general patrol. In 2011, the department acquired both Chevrolet Caprice and Ford Taurus Police Patrol Vehicle models to determine which would replace the fleet in the coming years. A Dodge Magnum is used by one of the Township's K-9 Officers, as is a 2006 Chevrolet Tahoe along with two specially modified Crown Victorias. A 2002 Ford Explorer is used as a Crime Scene Unit. Detectives drive unmarked 2012 Dodge Charger vehicles, while the Detective Sergeant drives an unmarked 2012 Ford Explorer. The Chief drives a specially modified Chrysler 300C. The fleet also includes a number of marked and unmarked Crown Victorias for use by the Township's Police Explorers. Ford and GMC Vans are used as SERT/MIRT or prisoner transport vehicles.
Prince Edward Island
- The Charlottetown Police Department use unmarked Chevrolet Impalas, Chevrolet Ventures, Dodge Chargers, Ford Mustang with police package, and a Ford F150 for the K9 unit. Their marked vehicles include Dodge Chargers, Ford Police Interceptors, Dodge Nitro, Dodge Ram, GMC Van, also a Ford Ranger and a 1952 Dodge Regent for community policing and an International 4700 Armored Car and Ford Econoline cube van for the Emergency Response Team.
- The Summerside Police Department use Ford Taurus Police Interceptors, Dodge Chargers, and also a Ford Econoline Van.
- The Kensington Police Department use Dodge Chargers, Ford Police Interceptors, and also a Ford Taurus.
- The Prince Edward Island Highway Safety Department use a Dodge Ram and have several Chevrolet Impala and Ford Crown Victoria police interceptors.
- Puerto Rico
- The Puerto Rico Police Department (Territorial Police) uses Ford Crown Victoria, Chevrolet TrailBlazer and Ford Mustang, but regularly uses assorted seized vehicles as police cruisers for special uses. Among them, Hyundai Accent, Hyundai Sonata, Mitsubishi Lancer, Isuzu Troopers, late model Mitsubishi Montero SUV's, and small Piaggio scooters in its fleet.
- The Montreal Police employ a fleet of minivans, including the Ford Windstar, Ford Freestar and Dodge Caravan as well as the typical Ford Crown Victoria Police Interceptors and Chevrolet Impalas.
- In Regina, high school resource officers use either the Toyota Echo or its replacement, the Yaris, for transportation.
- The South Carolina Highway Patrol used three BMW M5s during the early to mid-1990s. These cars were given to South Carolina after BMW chose the state to host their first assembly plant in the U.S.
- Many sheriff's offices and police departments in West Texas utilize 4x4 pickups; Armstrong County 3 Ford F-150 Ext Cabs, Wheeler County 3 4-door and 5 extended cab Chevrolet Silverados. Shamrock PD has 2 Avalanches and one 4-door Silverado.
- The Houston Police Department used pickup trucks like the Chevrolet Silverado, Ford F150, and Dodge Ram for their "Truck Enforcement" division, which is a unit to investigate commercial truck drivers for suspicion. Former Houston Texans player Mario Williams has donated 5 white with white ghost print Chevrolet Camaro SS units and 5 black on black ghost print Hemi Dodge Chargers for the traffic enforcement duty. New Chevrolet Caprice, Tahoe, and Ford Police Interceptors (Taurus and Explorer) have joined the city fleet. The entire police fleet is undergoing a change in color from the blue and whites to black and white units. HPD has 100 squads (some of them are 2011 Crown Vics pre-ordered prior to the end of production) painted in a black and white livery although a Chevrolet Tahoe 9C1 was painted in this livery as of late 2011.
- During the mid-1980s, the Missouri City Police Department used a few Volvo 240s.
- The San Antonio Police Department uses a few Chevrolet Camaros.
- A Chevrolet Camaro (fifth generation) is part of the Kemah, Texas Police Department.
- Trinity University in San Antonio uses a fleet of several eleventh generation Ford F-150s to patrol the campus.
- Tomball, TX Police Department (as of 2015) has a fleet of Ford Escapes used as squads.
- In some places, Chevrolet Tahoe SUVs are also commonly found.
- The Utah Highway Patrol use two unmarked Subaru Impreza WRX STi's to combat street racing in the Salt Lake City area.
- The Centerville City Police Department has fifteen grey or white Ford Crown Victorias, as well as a red Chevrolet Malibu and multiple other GM undercover vehicles.
- The Virginia State Police traditionally uses Ford Crown Victoria and Chevrolet Impala sedans. In recent years, the force introduced Chevrolet Camaro sports cars, Chevrolet Tahoe SUVs, and Dodge Charger sedans. The Virginia State Police makes limited use of the Chevrolet Caprice PPV sedan for unmarked traffic control and pursuit purposes.
- For many years, the Town of Smithfield used Ford Mustang SSV as daily police vehicles. The last of these were retired in the late 1990s.
- In 2011, the Fairfax County Police Department started using a black Nissan R35 GT-R as an undercover pursuit vehicle.
- The Richmond City Police Department provides Dodge Charger sedans and Ford Mustang GT coupes in addition to their standard fleet of marked Ford Taurus and Ford Crown Victoria sedans and Ford Explorers. Richmond Police use Chevrolet Impala sedans for unmarked and detective purposes. Richmond Police are slowly phasing out their fleet of Ford Crown Victorias following the discontinuation of this model by Ford.
- The Washington State Patrol purchased 52 Dodge Chargers, using them as unmarked patrol cars.
- The Columbia County Sheriff's office utilizes the four-wheel-drive Jeep Liberty as the patrol vehicle of choice. This six-cylinder vehicle provides the right balance of fuel economy and performance necessary to effectively patrol the 872 miles of roadways within the county.
- The Kitsap County Sheriff's Office uses an unmarked 2006 Subaru Legacy GT sedan for traffic enforcement.
- Seattle police utilize six Dodge Chargers for high-speed pursuits.
- The Tumwater Police Department regularly uses two undercover newer year Ford Explorers alongside a 2013 Dodge Charger undercover police car.
- The Washington State Patrol uses late model unmarked Nissan Xterras.
- The Grand Rapids police force uses a black 2008 Dodge Charger Daytona. On the side of the car, instead of it saying "Daytona", it says "Police", and under that it says "Grand Rapids".
- Manitowoc has an unmarked Ford Taurus they use for patrol.
- The sheriff's department in Outagamie County tested an unmarked 2005 Toyota Prius hybrid vehicle for non-patrol use in 2005.
A number of Drug Abuse Resistance Education (DARE) programs in local police departments have some notable vehicles marked as police cars to promote the program. The DARE cars appear at schools and in parades. Typically these cars are high-end or performance cars that have been seized in a drug raid. They are used to send the message that drug dealers forfeit all their glamorous trappings when they get caught. Cars include the Chevrolet Corvette, Ford Mustang, and Humvee.
- The Edmonton, Alberta, D.A.R.E units are Hyundai Tiburons and Dodge Challengers.
- The Monrovia, California, Police Department has a 2000 Mazda MPV minivan used not just for DARE functions but for the Police Activities League.
- The South San Francisco, California, Police Department has a 1981 White Motor Company RoadXpeditor refuse truck and a Chevrolet Camaro (police package) as their D.A.R.E. vehicles.
- The Golden, Colorado Police Department has an old GTO that they use as their DARE car. It is often seen at Bandimere Speedway.
- The Camden County Sheriff's Office, Georgia has a Dodge Viper that it uses for DARE. The car is also part of a tenured program known as Project R.O.A.D. Runner (Reach Out Against Drugs) created by the department before DARE was created. The car talks and educates kids about the dangers of drugs, very similar to the famous Knight Rider car, KITT.
- The Westmont, Illinois police department uses a silver Jaguar X type for DARE.
- The Ipswich, Massachusetts, Police Department operates a silver Toyota Celica Supra Mark II.
- The Dearborn, Michigan police department utilizes a yellow Ford Mustang GT for DARE activities and for use by School Resource Officers.
- The Flushing, Michigan Police department used a powder blue Chevrolet Astro minivan as their D.A.R.E. Vehicle.
- Missoula County Transit (Missoula, Montana) had an Orion II transit bus on its active fleet, painted all in black with DARE logos on the hood and sides. It was used in support of the Missoula Police and Sheriff's Departments until its retirement a few years ago.
- The Westfield, New Jersey Police Department uses a seized Chevrolet Tahoe with scissor doors and 24-inch chrome wheels for D.A.R.E.
- Parma, Ohio, has a Chevrolet Blazer offroader and a Toyota Sera with scissor doors.
- Chester County, Pennsylvania Sheriff's Department uses a PT Cruiser as a DARE vehicle.
- The Caroline County Sheriff's Office in Bowling Green, Virginia uses a Dodge Magnum as their D.A.R.E vehicle.
- The Harrison County Sheriff's Department in West Virginia uses a 1988 Trans Am for its D.A.R.E car.
- The Dodge County, Wisconsin Sheriff's Department uses a Ford F-150 Harley-Davidson for DARE.
- The Superior, Wisconsin Police Department has a Chevrolet Corvette that was seized in a drug bust, and is used for DARE.
- The Harrisonburg Police Department in Virginia has a Ford Mustang that was seized in a drug bust, and is now being used for DARE.
- The Goffstown, New Hampshire police department uses a 2011 Chevrolet Camaro that was seized in New Hampshire's largest cocaine bust.
Ford ceased production of the ubiquitous Ford Crown Victoria Police Interceptor in 2011, it was replaced by both the Ford Police Interceptor Sedan & Ford Police Interceptor Utility. On March 12, 2010, a prototype Ford Police Interceptor Sedan based on the sixth generation Taurus's platform was demonstrated at the Las Vegas Motor Speedway and Ford assured law enforcement agencies that it would be in production when the last Crown Victorias are built in September 2011. The car was also displayed to fleet managers from Canada and the United States at the National Association of Fleet Administrators (NAFA) exposition in Detroit in April. Months after the Sedan was unveiled a prototype Ford Police Interceptor Utility based on the fifth generation Ford Explorer was unveiled at Ford's Chicago plant in front of its work force by then VP of U.S. Marketing, Sales and Service Ken Czubay. The production of the Police Interceptor Sedan began in 2012 as a 2013 model along with the Utility counterpart while in 2013 Ford also announced a Special Service Sedan based on the sixth generation Taurus.
Another viable contender, based on the Holden Caprice and badged as a Chevrolet Caprice, was displayed in October 2009 to North American law enforcement agencies, who have been advised that orders will be taken in 2010 for delivery in 2011.
- Policing in Canada
- Policing in the United States
- Black and white (slang)
- Jam sandwich (slang)
- Black Maria
- Panda Car
- Sanow, Edwin J. (1998-01-16). Ford Police Cars, 1932–1997. p. 7. ISBN 0-7603-0372-X.
- Baker, Al (2006-08-21). "A Police Car With Plenty of Muscle". The New York Times.
- "For city police, a disaster on wheels". The Baltimore Sun. 24 April 1994. p. 1.
- Missouri State Highway Patrol (2006). "History of the Motor Equipment Division" (pdf). Retrieved 2008-05-16..
- 1971 Greenfield Police patrol Ambassador, retrieved on 2008-05-16.
- AMC Police Cars retrieved on 2009-10-25.
- "The National AMC Police Car Registry" Archived June 20, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. retrieved on 2009-10-25.
- "Highway Patrol troopers say sports cars faster but not better". The Item. 6 June 1992. p. 5A.
-  retrieved on 2016-04-20
- Cop Car Dot Com retrieved on 2009-10-25.
- Car Dot Com retrieved on 2009-10-25.
- Gallery: Edmonton police cars retrieved on 2014-01-20.
- Nicholson, Kieran. "Hummer-dinger of police car joins force". Denver Post.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on October 5, 2006. Retrieved February 20, 2007.
- "Vail police switch from Saab to Ford". USA Today. 2003-09-23. Retrieved 2010-05-22.
- Sullivan, Jennifer (2007-05-04). "Seattle officers' hot cars zero in on hot drivers". The Seattle Times.