Polish National Government (January Uprising)

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Polish-Lithuanian-Ruthenian Commonwealth (January Uprising)
Rzeczpospolita Trojga Narodów (Powstanie styczniowe)
Flag Coat of arms
Latin: Si Deus Nobiscum quis contra nos
(If God is with us, then who is against us)
Latin: Pro Fide, Lege et Rege
(For Faith, Law and King)[discuss]
Claimed borders of the Polish–Lithuanian–Ruthenian Commonwealth during the January Uprising
Capital Warsaw
Languages Polish
Old Belarusian
Religion Roman Catholic Church
Belarusian Greek Catholic Church
Ruthenian Catholic Church
Government Polish National Government (January Uprising)
Dictator of the Uprising Karol Majewski (pl)
Romuald Traugutt
Kastuś Kalinowski
Zygmunt Sierakówski (pl)
Antanas Mackevičius
Reds Jarosław Dąbrowski
Ignacy Chmieleński (pl)
Stefan Bobrowski
Legislature Sejm
 •  January Uprising January 22, 1863
 •  Disestablished 1865
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Russian Empire
Russian Empire

The Polish National Government 1863–64 was an underground Polish supreme authority during the January Uprising, a large scale insurrection during the Russian partition of the former territories of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. It had a collegial form, resided in Warsaw and was headed by Karol Majewski (pl). This was a normal administrative institution with many ministries and departments.[1]

During 1863–1864 it was a real shadow government supported by the majority of Poles who even paid taxes for it, and a significant problem for the Russian secret police (Okhrana). "It organized one of the world's earliest campaigns of urban guerrilla warfare", according to Norman Davies. It became the prototype for the Polish Secret State during World War II.[2]


  1. ^ Davies 2005, p. 261.
  2. ^ Davies 2005, pp. 260–261.