Political censorship exists when a government attempts to conceal, fake, distort, or falsify information that its citizens receive by suppressing or crowding out political news that the public might receive through news outlets. In the absence of neutral and objective information, people will be unable to dissent with the government or political party in charge. The term also extends to the systematic suppression of views that are contrary to those of the government in power. The government often possesses the power of the army and the secret police, to enforce the compliance of journalists with the will of the authorities to spread the story that the ruling authorities want people to believe. At times this involves bribery, defamation, imprisonment, and even assassination.
Journalist prison census
Overview of political censorship
Over the course of history, many nations and political organisations have utilised political censorship and propaganda in order to manipulate the public. The Ancien régime, for example, is well known for having implemented censorship.
In 1851, Napoleon III declared himself emperor. The wealthier citizens immediately saw in him a way to protect their privileges, that were put in danger by the French Revolution of 1848, which threatened to re-organise the social hierarchy. This was a time when all sorts of cultural productions was censored, from newspapers to plays.
Independent journalism did not exist in the Soviet Union until Mikhail Gorbachev became its leader; all reporting was directed by the Communist Party. Pravda, the predominant newspaper in the Soviet Union, had a near-monopoly. Foreign newspapers were available only if they were published by communist parties sympathetic to the Soviet Union.
In 1973, a military coup took power in Uruguay, and the state employed censorship. For example, writer Eduardo Galeano was imprisoned and later was forced to flee. His book Open Veins of Latin America was banned by the right-wing military government, not only in Uruguay, but also in Chile and Argentina.
Many countries' campaign finance laws restrict speech on candidates and political issues. In Citizens United v. FEC, the United States Supreme Court found that many such restrictions are an unconstitutional form of censorship.
In 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine war strategic uses of censorship In tune with the spirit of a return to hard power advocated by High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy Josep Borrell, the European Union has blocked the Russian government-owned media outlets Sputnik and Russia Today at multiple levels and platforms. As many studies show, these two channels have been a disinformation tool at the discretion of the Kremlin for years. But being such a partial and specific censorship, it is clear that it is not a thoughtful, audited and coordinated measure with a general plan to fight disinformation. In turn, Putin has blocked foreign and domestic press as well as Twitter and Facebook through legislation that can punish what the government labels as disinformation with long prison sentences. 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine is an emergency that calls for drastic measures. But it is important to highlight the danger that censorship poses to freedom of expression and warn of the ease with which the term “disinformation” can be used to legitimize the suppression of dissent in a similar way to what has happened with “terrorism”. Mass disinformation in its various manifestations, as a means.
In the Republic of Singapore, Section 33 of the Films Act bans of the making, distribution and exhibition of "party political films", at pain of a fine not exceeding $100,000 or to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 2 years. The Act further defines a "party political film" as any film or video
- (a) which is an advertisement made by or on behalf of any political party in Singapore or any body whose objects relate wholly or mainly to politics in Singapore, or any branch of such party or body; or
- (b) which is made by any person and directed towards any political end in Singapore
In 2001, the short documentary called A Vision of Persistence on opposition politician J. B. Jeyaretnam was also banned for being a "party political film". The makers of the documentary, all lecturers at the Ngee Ann Polytechnic, later submitted written apologies and withdrew the documentary from being screened at the 2001 Singapore International Film Festival in April, having been told they could be charged in court. Another short documentary called Singapore Rebel by Martyn See, which documented Singapore Democratic Party leader Dr Chee Soon Juan's acts of civil disobedience, was banned from the 2005 Singapore International Film Festival on the same grounds and See is being investigated for possible violations of the Films Act.
This law, however, is often disregarded when such political films are made supporting the ruling People's Action Party (PAP). Channel NewsAsia's five-part documentary series on Singapore's PAP ministers in 2005, for example, was not considered a party political film.
- "2015 prison census: 199 journalists jailed worldwide".
- The Commissar vanishes (The Newseum)
- Costa, Iná Camargo (2001). "Teatro político no Brasil". Trans/Form/Ação. 24: 113–120. doi:10.1590/S0101-31732001000100008.
- "10 most censored countries". The Committee to Protect Journalists.
- "Fresh Off Worldwide Attention for Joining Obama's Book Collection, Uruguayan Author Eduardo Galeano Returns with "Mirrors: Stories of Almost Everyone"". Democracy Now!. Retrieved 2020-11-25.
- Troianovski, Anton (2022-03-04). "Russia Takes Censorship to New Extremes, Stifling War Coverage". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2022-04-29.
- Wagner, Astrid; Navarro, Oriol. "Desinformación y censura, dos herramientas clave de la guerra en Ucrania". The Conversation. Retrieved 2022-04-29.