Politics of Manchukuo

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Manchukuo Politicians-Front row, from left: Yu Zhishan (于芷山), Minister of military affairs; Xie Jieshi (谢介石), Ambassador to Japan; Xi Qia, Chief of imperial household agency; Zhang Jinghui, Prime Minister; Zang Shiyi, President of the senate; Lü Ronghuan (吕荣寰), Minister of civil affairs; Ding Jianxiu (丁鉴修), Minister of industry.
Rear row, from left: Yuan Jinkai (袁金铠), Minister of Palatine affairs; Li Shaogeng (李绍庚), Minister of traffic; Ruan Zhenduo (阮振铎), Minister of education; Zhang Yanqing (张燕卿), Minister of foreign affairs.

Manchukuo was a puppet state set up by the Empire of Japan in Manchuria which existed from 1931 to 1945. The Manchukuo regime was established four months after the Japanese withdrawal from Shanghai with Puyi as the nominal but powerless head of state[1] to add some semblance of legitimacy, as he was a former emperor and an ethnic Manchu.


Manchukuo was proclaimed a monarchy on 1 March 1934, with former Qing dynasty emperor Puyi assuming the Manchukuo throne under the reign name of Emperor Kang-de. An imperial rescript issued the same day, promulgated the organic law of the new state, establishing a Privy Council, a Legislative Council and the General Affairs State Council to "advise and assist the emperor in the discharge of his duties". The Privy Council was an appointive body consisting of Puyi's closest friends and confidants, and the Legislative Council was largely an honorary body without authority. The State Council was therefore the center of political power in Manchukuo.

Political parties and movements[edit]

During his administration, the Kangde Emperor, in an interview with foreign journalists, mentioned his interest in forming a political party with Confucian doctrines. The Japanese "native" establishment, however, organized some right-wing and nationalist parties, in the Militarism-Socialism mould. Such movements, which had official status, were:

Notable people[edit]

The Imperial Manchu Court[edit]

Puyi as Emperor of Manchukuo
  • Aisin Gioro Henry Puyi (Kangde Emperor and head of state)
  • Elizabeth Wanrong (Empress and first wife of the Kangde Emperor)
  • Prince Aisin Gioro Pujie (brother of Puyi, possible heir of Manchukuo Throne)
  • Prince Aisin Gioro Puren (brother of Puyi)
  • Prince Aisin Gioro Yuyan (nephew of Puyi)
  • Hiro Saga (Japanese sister-in-law of the Kangde Emperor)
  • Wenxiu (first concubine of the Emperor)
  • Tan Yuling (2nd Wife of the Kangde Emperor)
  • Li Yuqin (4th Wife of the Kangde Emperor)
  • Princess Aisin Gioro Huisheng (daughter of Pu-Chieh and Hiro Saga)
  • Princess Aisin Gioro Xianyu (distant relative)

Others (local)[edit]

Kwantung Army[edit]


(Chief of Staff)

Others (Japanese)[edit]



  1. ^ Taylor, Anne; Hopper, Stephen (1988). The Banksia Atlas (Australian Flora and Fauna Series Number 8). Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service. ISBN 0-644-07124-9. 
  2. ^ "Manchukuo Diplomat Puts Naive Scheme", The Straits Times, 1932-10-11, retrieved 2011-08-05 

Ebrey, Patricia Buckley (1996), The Cambridge Illustrated History of China, New York, p. 282, doi:10.2277/052166991X, ISBN 0-521-66991-X