Political parties in Ukraine

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This article lists political parties in Ukraine. Ukraine has a multi-party system with numerous political parties, in which no one party often has a chance of gaining power alone, and parties must work with each other to form coalition governments. In the (October 2014 and last) Ukrainian parliamentary election 52 political parties nominated candidates.[1]

Many parties in Ukraine have very small memberships and are unknown to the general public. Party membership in Ukraine is lower than 1% of the population eligible to vote (compared to an average 4.7% in the European Union[2]).[3][4] National parties currently not represented in Ukraine’s national parliament Verkhovna Rada do have representatives in municipal counsels.[5][6][7][8] Small parties used to join in multi-party coalitions (electoral blocks) for the purpose of participating in parliamentary elections; but on November 17, 2011 the Ukrainian Parliament approved an election law that banned the participation of blocs of political parties in parliamentary elections.[9] Ukrainian society's trust of political parties is very low overall.[10] According to an April 2014 poll by Razumkov Centre 14.7%.[11] Ukraine’s election law forbids outside financing of political parties or campaigns.[12]


Number of parties
Date Amount
January 2009 161[13]
July 2009 172[14]
May 2010 179[15][16]
July 2010 182[17]
September 2011 197[18]
November 2012 2001[13]

Even before Ukraine became independent in August 1991, political parties in Ukraine started to form around intellectuals and former Soviet dissidents.[19][not specific enough to verify] They posed the main opposition to the ruling Communist Party (Bolsheviks) of Ukraine (CP(b)U). At the first convocation of the Verkhovna Rada[when?] those parties formed the parliamentary opposition People's Council. The most noticeable parties of the parliamentary opposition included the People's Movement of Ukraine (The Movement) and the Ukrainian Republican Party. Due to the August Putsch in Moscow (19–21 August 1991), a process to prohibit communist parties in Ukraine took place. Led by Oleksandr Moroz, the parliamentary faction of the CP(b)U, Group of 239, started a process to re-form the CP(b)U into the Socialist Party of Ukraine. The restriction on the existence of communist parties in Ukraine was successfully adopted soon after the Ukrainian independence, however in the couple of years the resolution was later challenged and eventually the restriction was lifted. In 1993 in Donetsk the first congress of the reinstated Communist Party of Ukraine took place, with the Party led by Petro Symonenko.

In the hastily organized 1994 parliamentary elections the communists surprisingly achieved the highest party rating, while the main opposing party, the Movement, did not gain even a quarter of their earned[clarification needed] seats. The re-formed party of the CP(b)U, the Socialist Party of Ukraine, and its major ally, the Peasant Party of Ukraine, performed relatively strongly. About a third of the elected parliamentarians were not affiliated. The elections became a major fiasco of the Democratic forces in Ukraine. After the 1994 elections numerous independent political parties were elected to the Ukrainian parliament, leading to the formation of nine deputy groups and parliamentary factions: Communists, Socialists, Agrarians, Inter-regional Deputy Group (MDG), Unity, Center, Statehood, Reforms, and the Movement. The concept of a "situational majority" was first used during that convocation to form a parliamentary coalition. The ruling coalition in the parliament often included the Communist Party of Ukraine, the Socialist Party of Ukraine, Agrarians, MDG, and Unity.

During the Kuchma presidency (1994–2004) parties started to form around politicians who had achieved power; these parties were often a vehicle of Ukrainian oligarchs.[19][not specific enough to verify] Those parties took their root from the next ruling coalition of the third convocation of Ukrainian parliament that consisted of factions "Fatherland", "Hromada", Party of Greens of Ukraine, People's Democratic Party, the Movement (K), the Movement, Reforms and Order - Reforms-Congress, Social Democratic Party (united), Labor Party of Ukraine, Revival of Regions group, Independents group and non-affiliated deputies. It was the first parliamentary coalition which did not include the Communist Party of Ukraine and since then there was a signification decline in an explicit communist presence in the Ukrainian politics. Scholars have defined several "Clans" in Ukrainian politics grouped around businessmen and politicians from particular Ukrainian mayor cities; the "Donetsk-clan" (Rinat Akhmetov, Viktor Yanukovich and Mykola Azarov), the "Dnipropetrovsk-clan" (Yulia Tymoshenko, Leonid Kuchma, Viktor Pinchuk, Sergey Tigipko and Pavlo Lazarenko), the "Kiev-clan" (Viktor Medvedchuk and the brothers Surkis; this clan has also been linked to Zakarpattia) and the smaller "Kharkiv-clan".[20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28] Professor Paul D'Anieri has argued (in 2006) that Ukrainian parties are "elite-based rather than mass-based".[29] While former Ambassador of Germany to Ukraine (2000–2006) Dietmar Studemann believes that personalities are more important in Ukrainian politics than (ideological) platforms. "Parties in the proper meaning of this word do not exist in Ukraine so far. A party for Germans is its platform first, and its personalities later."[30]

Ukrainian parties tend not to have a clear ideology but to contain different political groups with diverging ideological outlooks.[31] Unlike in Western politics, civilizational and geostrategic orientations play a more important role than economic and socio-political agendas for parties.[32] This has led to coalition governments that would be unusual from a Western point of view; for example: the Azarov Government which included the Party of Regions with the financial backing of some Ukrainian oligarchs and the Communist Party of Ukraine and the social-democratic Batkivshchyna and the economically liberal European Party of Ukraine in the Second Tymoshenko Government.[32]

Participating parties
Election Number Threshold Winners
1998 30 4% 8
2002 33 4% 6
2006 45 3% 5
2007 20 3% 5
2012 22 5% 5
2014 29 5% 6

In 1998 there was introduced voting procedure for the party-list proportional representation where half of parliamentary seats (225) were assigned to parties that would pass an established election threshold. For that purpose each party or electoral bloc of parties (political alliance) was required to registered to be included in the ballot for the particular election.

After the 2002 elections the Ukrainian parliament saw some consolidation of democratic political parties and the establishment of the main political camps in Ukraine: a coalition of nationally oriented deputies with the pro-European vector, a coalition of left-wing parties, and the pro-Russian parties coalition of the former Soviet nomenklatura. A major change took place during the Orange revolution when finally the two opposing political camps were established after the left-wing coalition split.

Major parties and political camps[edit]

There have developed two major movements[nb 1] in the Ukrainian parliament since its independence:[25][32][34]

The first movement (mentioned above) gets its voters mainly from Western Ukraine and Central Ukraine; the latter from Eastern Ukraine and Southern Ukraine.[40] The electorate of CPU and Party of Regions is very loyal to them.[40] Since the 2012 Ukrainian parliamentary election Fatherland and UDAR cooperate with the far more radical nationalistic[41] All-Ukrainian Union "Svoboda".[42] "Svoboda" (37 seats in the Ukrainian parliament[43]) can not be placed in the above-mentioned two major movements.[32] "Svoboda" gets the lion share of its votes from Western Ukraine.[44]

After the 2007 parliamentary election the parties associated with the Our Ukraine Bloc (named Our Ukraine–People's Self-Defense Bloc in 2007) lost popular support greatly while Front of Changes (the party of former Our Ukraine politician Arseniy Yatsenyuk[45]) and Strong Ukraine achieved good results in polls for the 2012 Ukrainian parliamentary election and in the 2010 local elections; so did All-Ukrainian Union "Svoboda".[46] Till the 2009 Ternopil Oblast local election "Svoboda"'s role in Ukrainian politics had been extremely marginal.[41]

Political camps[47]
pro-Western and pro-European general liberal switching pro-Russian, latently Eurosceptic, often anti-American and partly anti-liberal
People's Movement of Ukraine
Ukrainian Republican Party
Ukrainian Social Democratic Party (before 2012)
Forward, Ukraine!
Ukrainian People's Party
Republican Christian Party
Reforms and Order Party
Congress of Ukrainian Nationalists
Our Ukraine
European Party of Ukraine
Socialist Party of Ukraine
Party of Greens of Ukraine
Social Democratic Party of Ukraine (United)
People's Democratic Party
Agrarian Party of Ukraine
Christian Democratic Union
Liberal Party of Ukraine
Youth Party of Ukraine
Solidarity (phantom party)
Motherland Defenders Party
Communist Party of Ukraine
Progressive Socialist Party of Ukraine
Peasant Party of Ukraine
Party of Regions
Labour Ukraine
Party of Industrialists and Entrepreneurs of Ukraine
Ukraine – Forward!

November 17, 2011 the Ukrainian Parliament approved an election law that banned the participation of blocs of political parties in parliamentary elections;[9] since then several parties have merged with other parties.[48][49][50] Strong Ukraine merged with the Party of Regions on 17 March 2012.[51] Front of Changes and former Our Ukraine Bloc and Bloc Yulia Tymoshenko members performed in the 2012 parliamentary elections under "umbrella" party Fatherland.[52][53][54][55][56] Front for Changes leader Yatsenyuk headed this election list; because Fatherland-leader Yulia Tymoshenko was imprisoned.[57][58]

On 15 June 2013 Reforms and Order Party and Front for Change merged into Fatherland.[59] A part of People’s Movement of Ukraine (including its former chairman Borys Tarasyuk[60]) also merged with Fatherland (the rest of this party had merged with Ukrainian People's Party in May 2013[61]).[62][63]

In preparation for the upcoming 2014 parliamentary elections, several ministers of the Fatherland party in the government of Arseniy Yatsenyuk moved to the new party People's Front, which elected as its party leader Yatsenyuk on 10 September 2014.[64][65]

Current parliamentary factions[edit]

It is possible for 15 or more deputies to form a parliamentary faction (a lawmaker can join only one faction; the chairman and his two assistants cannot head factions of deputies).[66][67][68][69][70]

Logo of the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine.png
(Shading indicates majority caucus)
Total Vacant
Petro Poroshenko Bloc People's Front Opposition Bloc Self Reliance Radical Party Fatherland Revival[a 1] People's Will[a 1][a 2] Non-affiliated[a 3]
End of previous convocation DNP[a 4] DNP[a 5] DNP[a 6] DNP 1 86 41 35 93 445 5
Seats won in 2014 election[71] 132 82 29 33 22 19 DNP DNP 96 423 27
November 27, 2014
(first session)[77][73]
145 83 40 32 19 20 38 418 32
December 2, 2014[78][73] 147 420 30
February 5, 2015[73] 150 82 31 21 18 42 422 28
June 24, 2015[73] 144 81 43 22 19 422 28
Latest voting share 34.1% 19.2% 10.2% 7.3% 5.0% 4.5% 5.5% 4.5% 10.0% 93.8% 6.2%
  1. ^ a b Deputy groups (i.e. People's Will, Revival) consist of non-partisan deputies or representatives of parties that did not pass the 5% election threshold (i.e. Svoboda, Strong Ukraine, others).
  2. ^ The People's Will deputy group in previous convocation was known as Sovereign European Ukraine.
  3. ^ Parties that did not pass the 5% threshold of the 2014 Ukrainian parliamentary election, Svoboda (7 seats), Right Sector (1 seat), Strong Ukraine (1 seat), Volia (1 seat), and Zastup (1 seat) are part of non-affiliated.[71]
  4. ^ 30% of the Petro Poroshenko Bloc election list was filled by members of the Ukrainian Democratic Alliance for Reform (UDAR), which did not participate in the 2014 election independently. UDAR participated in the 2012 election, consisting of a faction of 41 deputies in the previous convocation.[72][36][73]
  5. ^ People's Front is a September 2014 split off from Fatherland; many current members of the People's Front were members of the Fatherland faction of the previous convocation.[74][75]
  6. ^ The Opposition Bloc consists mainly of former members of former President Yanukovych's Party of Regions,[76] which formed the largest caucus after the 2012 election with 185 deputies, although after the impeachment of Yanukovych and the 2014 Ukrainian revolution, the caucus consisted of only 78 members.

Former parliamentarian parties[edit]

Individual parties years in parliament Block association (years)
People's Movement of Ukraine 1990-2014 Our Ukraine Bloc (2002-2006)
Our Ukraine–People's Self-Defense Bloc (2007-2012)
Fatherland-Unites Opposition (2012-2014)
Communist Party of Ukraine 1994-2014
Party of Regions 1997-2014 For United Ukraine (2002)
People's Party 1998-2002
For United Ukraine (2002)
Lytvyn Bloc (2006-2014)
Union Party 1998-2002
People's Self-Defense (also as Forward, Ukraine!) 2002-2014 Our Ukraine Bloc (2002-2006)
Our Ukraine–People's Self-Defense Bloc (2007-2012)
Fatherland-Unites Opposition (2012-2014)
For Ukraine! 2012-2014 Fatherland-Unites Opposition (2012-2014)
Social Christian Party 2012-2014 Fatherland-Unites Opposition (2012-2014)
Civil Position 2012-2014 Fatherland-Unites Opposition (2012-2014)
Ukrainian Social Democratic Party 2002 - 2012 Bloc of Yulia Tymoshenko (2002-2012)
Ukrainian Platform "Assembly" 2002 - 2006
2006 - 2012
Bloc of Yulia Tymoshenko (2002-2006)
Our Ukraine–People's Self-Defense Bloc (Our Ukraine) (2006-2012)
Our Ukraine 2006 - 2012 Our Ukraine–People's Self-Defense Bloc (Our Ukraine) (2006-2012)
Solidarity (Ukraine) 2002 - 2006 Bloc of Viktor Yushchenko (2002-2006)
Ukrainian People's Party 2002 - 2006
2007 - 2012
Bloc of Viktor Yushchenko (2002-2006)
Our Ukraine–People's Self-Defense Bloc (2007-2012)
Republican Christian Party 2002 - 2006 Bloc of Viktor Yushchenko (2002-2006)
Youth Party of Ukraine 2002 - 2006 Bloc of Viktor Yushchenko (2002-2006)
Motherland Defenders Party 2007 - 2012 Our Ukraine–People's Self-Defense Bloc (2007-2012)
It's time! 2007 - 2012 Our Ukraine–People's Self-Defense Bloc (2007-2012)
Congress of Ukrainian Nationalists 1994 - 2002
2002 - 2007
National Front (1998-2002)
Bloc of Viktor Yushchenko (Our Ukraine) (2002-2007)
Ukrainian Republican Party 1994 - 2002 National Front (1998-2002)
Labour Party Ukraine 2007 - 2012 Bloc of Volodymyr Lytvyn (2007-2012)
Socialist Party of Ukraine 1994 - 2007 Bloc of SPU-SelPU (1998-2002)
Peasant Party of Ukraine 1994 - 2002 Bloc of SPU-SelPU (1998-2002)
Party of Industrialists and Entrepreneurs 2002 - 2006
2006 - 2007
For United Ukraine (2002-2006)
Our Ukraine bloc (2006-2007)
People's Democratic Party 1998 - 2006 For United Ukraine (2002-2006)
Labour Ukraine 2002 - 2006 For United Ukraine (2002-2006)
Social Democratic Party of Ukraine (united) 1994 - 2006
Democratic Party of Ukraine 1994 - 2006 Bloc of DemPU-DemU (2002-2006)
Democratic Union 2002 - 2006 Bloc of DemPU-DemU (2002-2006)
Party of National Economic Development of Ukraine 2002 - 2006
Ukrainian Marine Party 2002 - 2006
Unity 2002 - 2006 Unity (2002-2006)
Social Democratic Union 2002 - 2006 Unity (2002-2006)
Young Ukraine 2002 - 2006 Unity (2002-2006)
Ukrainian Party of Justice - Union of Veterans, Handicapped, Chornobilians, Afghans 2002 - 2006 Unity (2002-2006)
Progressive Socialist Party of Ukraine 1998 - 2002
Party of Greens of Ukraine 1998 - 2002
Hromada 1998 - 2002
Party "Union" 1998 - 2002
Ukrainian National Assembly 1994 - 1998
Party of Labor 1994 - 1998
Ukrainian Conservative Republican Party 1994 - 1998
Christian Democratic Party of Ukraine 1994 - 1998
Party of Democratic Revival of Ukraine 1994 - 1998
Social Democratic Party of Ukraine 1994 - 1998
Party of Economic Revival of Crimea 1994 - 1998
Communist Party of Ukraine (Soviet Union) 1937 - 1994

A faction of nonpartisan deputies under the name Reforms for the Future existed between 16 February 2011[79] and 15 December 2012.[80][81][82][73] A faction of nonpartisan deputies under the name For Peace and Stability existed between 2 July 2014 and 27 November 2014.[83][77]

In 1998 - 2000 there was another parliamentary faction Labour Ukraine that existed without its political party until it was registered by the Ukrainian Ministry of Justice in June 2000.[84]

The Communist Party of Ukraine (Soviet Union) was prohibited in 1991, however its members were not excluded from the Ukrainian parliament. They formed a parliamentary faction of the Socialist Party of Ukraine. For the 1994 parliamentary elections however the ban on communist parties was lifted and there were two parties with similar ideologies running for parliament the Socialist Party of Ukraine and the Communist Party of Ukraine that was reestablished in 1993.

Political alliances and blocs (1998–2012)[edit]

The idea of electoral blocs as a loose association of parties was introduced in 1998, however it did not become popular right away. The real success of electoral blocks came in 2002 when the Bloc of Victor Yushchenko "Our Ukraine" gained the most parliamentary seats. The electoral blocs system was liquidated in 2011[9] forcing registration of individual parties for the next 2012 parliamentary elections. The longest existing political blocs were Our Ukraine and Bloc of Yulia Tymoshenko.

The association of parties however was transformed into a new concept of an "umbrella party" when several parties temporarily unite under such party that becomes a core party of informal electoral bloc.[36][57][85] Below is the list of official electoral blocs in 1998 - 2012 that led to creation of their own parliamentary factions.

Minor blocs[edit]

The following blocs did not form their parliamentary factions due to small number of their representatives.

Minor parties[edit]

List of parties that did not make to the parliament of Ukraine or parties that are spin offs of former parliamentary factions.

Major Regional Parties and electoral blocs[edit]

Kiev Oblast/City[edit]


Defunct parties (and electoral blocs)[edit]

This list of other alliances (on November 17, 2011 the Ukrainian Parliament approved an election law that banned the participation of blocs of political parties in parliamentary elections[9]) and defunct parties is based on the parties and alliance that did take part in parliamentary elections before the 2007 Ukrainian national election but have not taken part in any national election since then, some party's did change to different political alliances since then.



  • Toiling Ukraine (later as Unity and Yevhen Marchuk - Unity) (1998–2007)
    • Ukrainian Party of Justice (1998–2006)
    • Unity (2002–2007)
    • Slavonic Party (as Civil Congress of Ukraine)
    • Social Democratic Union (2002)
    • Young Ukraine (2002)
    • Force and Honor (as Party of Liberty) (2006)
    • Women Solidarity of Ukraine (2006)
  • National Front, bloc split into Viktor Yushchenko Bloc and Yulia Tymoshenko Bloc
  • For truth, for people, for Ukraine!
  • Party of Labor and Liberal Party - TOGETHER!, bloc split into Viktor Yushchenko Bloc and For United Ukraine
  • Forward, Ukraine, both parties merged into Christian Democratic Union
  • Bloc of Democratic parties (later as DemPU-DS) (1998–2006)
  • Social Liberal Association
  • Less Words
  • European Choice of Ukraine (later as Team of Winter Generation, People's Bloc of Lytvyn and Volodymyr Lytvyn Bloc) (1998–2012)
    • Ukrainian Peasant Democratic Party (1998–2007)
    • People's Party (2006–2012)
    • Liberal Democratic Party of Ukraine (1998–2006)
    • Constitutional Democratic Party (2002)
    • Party of Private Property (2002)
    • Justice (2006)
    • Strong Ukraine (as Labor Party of Ukraine) (2007)


  • Viktor Yushchenko Bloc "Our Ukraine" (later as Our Ukraine and Our Ukraine-People's Self-Defense) (2002–2012)
    • People's Movement of Ukraine (2002–2012)
    • Christian Democratic Union (2002–2012)
    • Congress of Ukrainian Nationalists (National Front) (2002–2007)
    • Our Ukraine (2006–2012)
    • Ukrainian Platform "Assembly" (as Ukrainian Republican Party "Assembly") (2006–2012)
    • People's Self-Defense (originally as Forward, Ukraine!) (2002–06 and 2007–12)
    • Ukrainian People's Party (originally as Ukrainian People's Movement) (2002–06 and 2007–12)
    • Liberal Party of Ukraine (Party of Labor and Liberal Party - TOGETHER)
    • Youth Party of Ukraine
    • Party of Reforms and Order
    • Solidarity
    • Republican Christian Party
    • Party of Industrialists and Entrepreneurs of Ukraine (2006)
    • Time (2007)
    • Party of Homeland Defenders (2007)
    • European Party of Ukraine (2007)
  • For United Ukraine (later as Lyudmyla Suprun Bloc and Ukrainian Regional Asset) (2002–2012)
    • People's Democratic Party (2002–2012)
    • Democratic Party of Ukraine (2006–2012)
    • People's Party (as People Agrarian Party of Ukraine) (later took over Team of Winter Generation)
    • Party of Regions (as Party of Regional Revival of Ukraine)
    • Party of Industrialists and Entrepreneurs of Ukraine
    • Toiling Ukraine
    • Christian Democratic Party of Ukraine (2006)
    • Christian Liberal Party of Ukraine (2006)
    • Republican Christian Party (2007)
  • Yulia Tymoshenko Bloc (2002–2012)
    • Fatherland (2002–2012)
    • Ukrainian Social Democratic Party (2002–2012)
    • Ukrainian Platform "Assembly" (as Ukrainian People's Party "Assembly)
    • Ukrainian Republican Party (National Front) (merged with Assembly, later reestablished)
    • Party of Reforms and Order (2007)
  • Natliya Vitrenko Bloc (later as People's Opposition) (2002–2007)
    • Progressive Socialist Party of Ukraine (2002–2007)
    • Party of Educators of Ukraine
    • Ruthenian Ukrainian Union (2006)
  • Ruthenian bloc (later as For Union and KUCMA) (2002–2017)
    • Union (2002–2012)
    • Ruthenian bloc (as For United Ruthenia) (2002-06 and 2012-17)
    • Ruthenian Ukrainian Union
    • Socialist Ukraine (2006)
    • Homeland (2006)
    • Slavonic Party (2006)
  • ZUBR
    • Union of Labor
    • Light from the East
  • People's Movement of Ukraine
    • People's Movement of Ukraine for Unity
    • All-Ukrainian Association "Center"
  • Against all (later as Patriots of Ukraine) (2002–2007)
    • Patriotic Party of Ukraine (2002–2007)
    • Political Party of Small and Middle Business
    • Ukrainian National Conservative Party (2006)
  • Ukrainian Party - New World
    • Ukrainian Party
    • New World


  • Ukrainian People's Bloc (2006–2012)
    • Ukraine Assembled (2006–2012)
    • Party of Rural Revival
    • Ukrainian People's Party
    • All-Ukrainian Chornobyl People's Party (2007)
  • Civil Bloc Time - Party of Reforms and Order (split between Our Ukraine and BYuT)
    • Time
    • Party of Reforms and Order (PRP)
  • Opposition Bloc "Ne tak!"
    • Social Democratic Party of Ukraine (united)
    • Women for the Future
    • Republican Party of Ukraine
    • All-Ukrainian Association "Center"
  • Yuriy Karmazin Bloc
    • Party of Homeland Defenders
    • National Democratic Association "Ukraine"
    • All-Ukrainian Party of Peace and Unity
  • Lazarenko Bloc
    • All-Ukrainian Association Hromada
    • Social Democratic Party of Ukraine
    • Social Democratic Union
  • State - Toiling Union
    • All-Ukrainian Party of Workers
    • State
  • Power of People (later as Bloc of Pensioners' Parties of Ukraine) (2006–2012)
  • Bloc of Borys Oliynyk and Mykhailo Syrota
    • Informative Ukraine
    • Party of Health
    • Strong Ukraine (as Labor Party of Ukraine)
  • Bloc of Independents "Sun"
    • United Family
    • Women of Ukraine


Parliamentary coalitions[edit]

First convocation[edit]

  • People's Council
  • Group of 239

Second convocation[edit]

  • Situational majority

Third convocation[edit]

  • Pro-presidential coalition
  • Left coalition

Fourth convocation[edit]

  • For United Ukraine
  • Left coalition
  • Democratic coalition

Fifth convocation[edit]

  • Coalition of democratic forces
  • Anti-crisis coalition

Sixth convocation[edit]

  • National development, stability and order
  • Stability and reforms

Ukrainian parties before 1991[edit]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Some Ukrainian parties could not be clearly classified as belonging to one of these two major movements, they were either synthesising the ideas of the two camps and/or strove to position themselves as a balancing force; examples of these parties are Socialist Party of Ukraine, Lytvyn Bloc and Labour Ukraine.[33]


  1. ^ Basic electoral statistics 2014 extraordinary parliamentary election, Central Election Commission of Ukraine
  2. ^ Research, European Union Democracy Observatory
  3. ^ Ukraine: Comprehensive Partnership for a Real Democracy, Center for International Private Enterprise, 2010
  4. ^ Poll: Ukrainians unhappy with domestic economic situation, their own lives, Kyiv Post (September 12, 2011)
  5. ^ (Ukrainian) Сергій Одарич формуватиме більшість у міськраді Черкас, Cherkasy city council website (November 8, 2010)
  6. ^ (Ukrainian) Мером Львова обрано Андрія Садового, ЛьвівNEWS (November , 2010)
  7. ^ (Ukrainian) На виборах мера Полтави переміг Олександр Мамай, Дзеркало тижня (November 6, 2010)
  8. ^ (Ukrainian) Официальные результаты голосования по выборам в Севастопольский городской совет, SevNews (November 5, 2010)
  9. ^ a b c d Parliament passes law on parliamentary elections, Kyiv Post (November 17, 2011)
  10. ^ Opinion poll: Do you trust political parties? (recurrent, 2001–2009, by Razumkov Centre)
  11. ^ (Ukrainian) Ukrainians believe the church, the army and the Ukrainian media, Ukrayinska Pravda (19 May 2014)
  12. ^ Hacked PR documents accelerate political war, Kyiv Post (11 January 2013)
  13. ^ a b Official databases of political parties in Ukraine, Ukrainian Ministry of Justice
  14. ^ Three new political parties registered in Ukraine, 172 in total, says Justice Ministry, Interfax-Ukraine (July 15, 2009)
  15. ^ a b Justice Ministry registers 179th party in Ukraine – For Fairness and Prosperity, Kyiv Post (May 14, 2010)
  16. ^ a b Justice Ministry registers Your Ukraine Party, Kyiv Post (May 5, 2010)
  17. ^ Youth into Power party registered, Kyiv Post (July 2, 2010)
  18. ^ Lavrynovych: Court cancels registration certificates of five Ukrainian parties, Kyiv Post (November 29, 2011)
  19. ^ a b Black Sea Politics:Political Culture and Civil Society in an Unstable Region, I. B. Tauris, 2005, ISBN 978-1-84511-035-2 (page 45)
  20. ^ State-Building:A Comparative Study of Ukraine, Lithuania, Belarus, and Russia by Verena Fritz, Central European University Press, 2008, ISBN 978-963-7326-99-8 (page 189)
  21. ^ Political Parties of Eastern Europe:A Guide to Politics in the Post-Communist Era by Janusz Bugajski, M.E. Sharpe, 2002, ISBN 978-1-56324-676-0 (page 829)
  22. ^ Ukraine and European Society (Chatham House Papers) by Tor Bukkvoll, Pinter, 1998, ISBN 978-1-85567-465-3 (page 36)
  23. ^ How Ukraine Became a Market Economy and Democracy by Anders Åslund, Peterson Institute for International Economics, 2009, ISBN 978-0-88132-427-3
  24. ^ The Rebirth of Europe by Elizabeth Pond, Brookings Institution Press, 2002, ISBN 978-0-8157-7159-3 (page 146)
  25. ^ a b Communist and Post-Communist Parties in Europe by Uwe Backes and Patrick Moreau, Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2008, ISBN 978-3-525-36912-8 (page 383 and 396)
  26. ^ The Crisis of Russian Democracy:The Dual State, Factionalism and the Medvedev Succession by Richard Sakwa, Cambridge University Press, 2011, ISBN 978-0-521-14522-0 (page 110)
  27. ^ To Balance or Not to Balance:Alignment Theory And the Commonwealth of Independent States by Eric A. Miller, Ashgate Publishing, ISBN 978-0-7546-4334-0 (page 129)
  28. ^ Ukraine:Challenges of the Continuing Transition, National Intelligence Council (Conference Report August 1999)
  29. ^ Understanding Ukrainian Politics:Power, Politics, And Institutional Design by Paul D'Anieri, M. E. Sharpe, 2006, ISBN 978-0-7656-1811-5 (page 189)
  30. ^ Former German Ambassador Studemann views superiority of personality factor as fundamental defect of Ukrainian politics, Kyiv Post (December 21, 2009)
  31. ^ Against All Odds:Aiding Political Parties in Georgia and Ukraine by Max Bader, Vossiuspers UvA, 2010, ISBN 978-90-5629-631-5 (page 82)
  32. ^ a b c d e Ukraine right-wing politics: is the genie out of the bottle?, openDemocracy.net (January 3, 2011)
  33. ^ a b Ukraine's Party System in Transition? The Rise of the Radically Right-Wing All-Ukrainian Association "Svoboda" by Andreas Umland, Centre for Geopolitical Studies (1 May 2011)
  34. ^ Pro-Russian bloc leads in Ukraine, BBC News (March 26, 2006)
  35. ^ Nations and Nationalism: A Global Historical Overview, ABC-CLIO, 2008, ISBN 1851099077 (page 1629)
    Ukraine on its Meandering Path Between East and West by Andrej Lushnycky and Mykola Riabchuk, Peter Lang, 2009, ISBN 303911607X (page 122)
  36. ^ a b c After the parliamentary elections in Ukraine: a tough victory for the Party of Regions, Centre for Eastern Studies (7 November 2012)
  37. ^ a b Communist and Post-Communist Parties in Europe by Uwe Backes and Patrick Moreau, Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2008, ISBN 978-3-525-36912-8 (page 396)
  38. ^ Party of Regions gets 185 seats in Ukrainian parliament, Batkivschyna 101 - CEC, Interfax-Ukraine (12 November 2012)
    UDAR submits to Rada resolution on Ukraine’s integration with EU, Interfax-Ukraine (8 January 2013)
  39. ^ (Ukrainian) Electronic Bulletin "Your Choice - 2012". Issue 4: Batkivshchyna, Ukrainian Center for Independent Political Research (24 October 2012)
  40. ^ a b Eight Reasons Why Ukraine’s Party of Regions Will Win the 2012 Elections by Taras Kuzio, The Jamestown Foundation (17 October 2012)
    UKRAINE: Yushchenko needs Tymoshenko as ally again by Taras Kuzio, Oxford Analytica (5 October 2007)
  41. ^ a b Shekhovtsov, Anton (2011)."The Creeping Resurgence of the Ukrainian Radical Right? The Case of the Freedom Party". Europe-Asia Studies Volume 63, Issue 2. pp. 203-228. doi:10.1080/09668136.2011.547696 (source also available here)
  42. ^ Batkivschyna, UDAR, Svoboda to create opposition council to coordinate activity in Rada, Kyiv Post (17 December 2012)
    Batkivschyna, UDAR, Svoboda to coordinate their actions at presidential election, Interfax-Ukraine (16 May 2013)
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External links[edit]