Political parties in the United States
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|Politics of the
United States of America
Throughout most of its history, American politics have been dominated by a two-party system. However, the United States Constitution has always been silent on the issue of political parties; at the time it was signed in 1787, there were no parties in the nation. Indeed, no nation in the world had voter-based political parties. The need to win popular support in a republic led to the American invention of voter-based political parties in the 1790s. Americans were especially innovative in devising new campaign techniques that linked public opinion with public policy through the party.
Political scientists and historians have divided the development of America's two-party system into five eras. The first two-party system consisted of the Federalist Party, who supported the ratification of the Constitution, and the Democratic-Republican Party or the Anti-Federalists, who opposed the powerful central government, among others, that the Constitution established when it took effect in 1789. The modern two-party system consists of the Democratic Party and the Republican Party. Several third parties also operate in the U.S., and from time to time elect someone to local office. The largest third party since the 1980s is the Libertarian Party.
- 1 History and early political parties
- 2 Modern U.S. political party system
- 3 References
- 4 Further reading
History and early political parties
The United States Constitution has never formally addressed the issue of political parties. The Founding Fathers did not originally intend for American politics to be partisan. In Federalist Papers No. 9 and No. 10, Alexander Hamilton and James Madison, respectively, wrote specifically about the dangers of domestic political factions. In addition, the first President of the United States, George Washington, was not a member of any political party at the time of his election or throughout his tenure as president. Furthermore, he hoped that political parties would not be formed, fearing conflict and stagnation, as outlined in his Farewell Address. Nevertheless, the beginnings of the American two-party system emerged from his immediate circle of advisers. Hamilton and Madison, who wrote the aforementioned Federalist Papers against political factions, ended up being the core leaders in this emerging party system. It was the split camps of Federalists, given rise with Hamilton as a leader, and Democratic-Republicans, with Madison and Thomas Jefferson helming this political faction, that created the environment in which partisanship, once distasteful, came to being.
First Party System: 1792–1824
The First Party System of the United States featured the Federalist Party and the Republican Party (also called "Democratic-Republican" or "Jeffersonian Republican"). The Federalist Party grew from the national network of Washington's Secretary of the Treasury, Alexander Hamilton, who favored a strong united central government, close ties to Britain, a centralized banking system, and close links between the government and men of wealth. The Republican Party was founded by Madison and Thomas Jefferson, who strongly opposed Hamilton's agenda. The Jeffersonians came to power in 1800 and the Federalists were too elitist to compete effectively. They survived in the Northeast, but their refusal to support the War of 1812 verged on secession and was a devastating blow when the war ended well.
Second Party System: 1828–1854
In 1829, the Second Party System saw a split of the Democratic-Republican Party into the Jacksonian Democrats, who grew into the modern Democratic Party, led by Andrew Jackson, and the Whig Party, led by Henry Clay. The Democrats supported the primacy of the Presidency over the other branches of government, and opposed the Bank of the United States as well as modernizing programs that they felt would build up industry at the expense of the taxpayer. The Whigs, on the other hand, advocated the primacy of Congress over the executive branch as well as policies of modernization and economic protectionism. Central political battles of this era were the Bank War and the Spoils system of federal patronage.
The 1850s saw the collapse of the Whig party, largely as a result of decline in its leadership and a major intra-party split over slavery as a result of the Compromise of 1850. In addition, the fading of old economic issues removed many of the unifying forces holding the party together.
Third Party System: 1854-1890s
The Third Party System stretched from 1854 to the mid-1890s, and was characterized by the emergence of the anti-slavery Republican Party, which adopted many of the economic policies of the Whigs, such as national banks, railroads, high tariffs, homesteads and aid to land grant colleges. Civil war and Reconstruction issues polarized the parties until the Compromise of 1877, which ended the latter. Thus, both parties became broad-based voting coalitions. The race issue pulled newly enfranchised African Americans (Freedmen) into the Republican party while white southerners (Redeemers) joined the Democratic Party. The Democratic coalition also had conservative pro-business Bourbon Democrats, traditional Democrats in the North (many of them former Copperheads), and Catholic immigrants, among others. The Republican coalition also consisted of businessmen, shop owners, skilled craftsmen, clerks, and professionals who were attracted to the party's modernization policies.
Fourth Party System: 1896–1932
The Fourth Party System, 1896 to 1932, retained the same primary parties as the Third Party System, but saw major shifts in the central issues of debate. This period also corresponded to the Progressive Era, and was dominated by the Republican Party. It began after the Republicans blamed the Democrats for the Panic of 1893, which later resulted in William McKinley's victory over William Jennings Bryan in the 1896 presidential election. The central domestic issues changed to government regulation of railroads and large corporations ("trusts"), the protective tariff, the role of labor unions, child labor, the need for a new banking system, corruption in party politics, primary elections, direct election of senators, racial segregation, efficiency in government, women's suffrage, and control of immigration. Most voting blocs continued unchanged, but some realignment took place, giving Republicans dominance in the industrial Northeast and new strength in the border states. Historians[who?] have long debated why no Labor Party emerged in the United States, in contrast to Western Europe.
Fifth and Sixth Party Systems: 1933-present
The Fifth Party System emerged with the New Deal Coalition beginning in 1933. The Republicans began losing support after the Great Depression, giving rise to Democratic President Franklin D. Roosevelt and the activist New Deal. They promoted American Liberalism, anchored in a coalition of specific liberal groups, especially ethno-religious constituencies (Catholics, Jews, African Americans), white Southerners, well-organized labor unions, urban machines, progressive intellectuals, and populist farm groups. Opposition Republicans were split between a conservative wing, led by Ohio Senator Robert A. Taft, and a more successful moderate wing exemplified by the politics of Northeastern leaders such as Nelson Rockefeller, Jacob Javits, and Henry Cabot Lodge. The latter steadily lost influence inside the GOP after 1964.
Experts debate whether this era ended (and a Sixth Party System subsequently emerged) in the mid-1960s when the New Deal coalition died, the early 1980s when the Moral Majority and the Reagan coalition were formed, the early 1990s when Third Way emerged among Democrats, the mid-1990s during the Republican Revolution, or if the Fifth system continues in some form to the present. Since the 1930s, the Democrats positioned themselves more towards Liberalism while the Conservatives increasingly dominated the GOP. But new voter coalitions emerged during the latter half of the 20th Century, with Conservatives and the Republicans becoming dominant in the South, rural areas, and suburbs; while Liberals and the Democrats increasingly started to rely on a coalition of African-Americans, Hispanics and white urban Progressives.
Minor parties and independents
Although American politics have been dominated by the two-party system, several other political parties have also emerged throughout the country's history. The oldest third party was the Anti-Masonic Party and was formed in upstate New York in 1828; the party's creators feared the Freemasons, believing they were a powerful secret society that was trying to rule the country in defiance of republican principles.
Modern U.S. political party system
The modern political party system in the U.S. is a two-party system dominated by the Democratic Party and the Republican Party. These two parties have won every United States presidential election since 1852 and have controlled the United States Congress to some extent since at least 1856.
The Democratic Party at its founding supported a different set of issues than it presently supports. From its founding until the New Deal Era, the Democratic Party was generally a classically liberal or libertarian party; it favored small government and states' rights. From its founding until the mid-20th century, the Democratic Party was the dominant party among white Southerners, and as such, was then the party most associated with the defense of slavery. However, following the Great Society under Lyndon B. Johnson, the Democratic Party became the more progressive party on issues of civil rights, while losing dominance in the Southern states to the Republicans.
The Democratic Party since 1912 has positioned itself as the liberal party on domestic issues. The economic philosophy of Franklin D. Roosevelt, which has strongly influenced modern American liberalism, has shaped much of the party's agenda since 1932. Roosevelt's New Deal coalition controlled the White House until 1968 with the exception of Eisenhower 1953–1961. Since the mid-20th century, Democrats have generally been in the center-left and currently support social justice, social liberalism, a mixed economy, and the welfare state, although Bill Clinton and other New Democrats have pushed for free trade and neoliberalism, which is seen to have shifted the party rightwards. Democrats are currently strongest on the East and West Coasts and in major American urban centers. African-Americans and Latinos tend to be disproportionately Democratic, as do trade unions.
In 2004, it was the largest political party, with 72 million registered voters (42.6% of 169 million registered) claiming affiliation. The president of the United States, Barack Obama, is the 15th Democrat to hold the office, and from the 2006 midterm elections until the 2014 midterm elections, the Democratic Party was the majority party in the United States Senate.
A 2011 USA Today review of state voter rolls indicates that the number of registered Democrats declined in 25 of 28 states (some states do not register voters by party). During this time, Republican registration also declined, as independent or no preference voting was on the rise. Democrats were still the largest political party with more than 42 million voters (compared with 30 million Republicans and 24 million independents). But in 2011 Democrats numbers shrank 800,000, and from 2008 they were down by 1.7 million, or 3.9%.
The Republican Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States of America. Since the 1880s it has been nicknamed (by the media) the "Grand Old Party" or GOP, although it is younger than the Democratic Party.
Founded in 1854 by Northern anti-slavery activists and modernizers, the Republican Party rose to prominence in 1860 with the election of Abraham Lincoln, who used the party machinery to support victory in the American Civil War. The GOP dominated national politics during the Third Party System, from 1854 to 1896, and the Fourth Party System from 1896 to 1932.
Since its founding, the Republican Party has been the more corporatist of the two American political parties, often favoring policies that aid American business interests. As a party whose power was once based on the voting clout of Union Army veterans, this party has traditionally supported more aggressive defense measures and more lavish veteran's benefits. Though initially founded to oppose slavery, following Richard Nixon's "Southern Strategy" in 1968, the Republican Party has become the less progressive party in areas of racial, gender and identity politics-motivated social justice. Today, the Republican Party supports an American conservative platform, with further foundations in economic liberalism, fiscal conservatism, and social conservatism. The Republican Party tends to be strongest in the Southern United States and the "flyover states", as well as suburban and rural areas in other states. One significant base of support for the Republican Party are Evangelical Christians, who have wielded significant clout in the party since the early 1970s.
Former President George W. Bush is the 19th and most recent Republican to hold that office. The party's nominee for President of the United States in the 2012 presidential election was Mitt Romney, former Governor of Massachusetts, and their 2016 presidential nominee is businessman Donald Trump. Since the 2010 midterm elections, the Republicans have held a majority in the United States House of Representatives, and since the 2014 elections, the Senate.
Major third parties
The Libertarian Party was founded on December 11, 1971. It is one of the largest continuing third parties in the United States, claiming more than 331,000 registered voters across all 50 states. They currently have about 144 elected officials, more than any of the other minor parties, including 4 state legislators.
The 2012 Libertarian Party nominee for United States President was former New Mexico governor, Gary Johnson. He achieved ballot access in every state except for Michigan (only as a write-in candidate) and Oklahoma. He received over one million votes in the election, the highest for any candidate since the founding of the party in 1971.
The Libertarian Party's core mission is to reduce the size, influence and expenditures of all levels of government. To this effect, the party supports minimally regulated markets, a less powerful federal government, strong civil liberties, drug liberalization, separation of church and state, open immigration, non-interventionism and neutrality in diplomatic relations, free trade and free movement to all foreign countries, and a more representative republic.
In the United States, the Green Party has been active as a third party since the 1980s. The party first gained widespread public attention during Ralph Nader's second presidential run in 2000. Currently, the primary national Green Party organization in the U.S. is the Green Party of the United States, which has eclipsed the earlier Greens/Green Party USA.
The Green Party in the United States has won elected office mostly at the local level; most winners of public office in the United States who are considered Greens have won nonpartisan-ballot elections (that is, elections in which the candidates' party affiliations were not printed on the ballot). In 2005, the Party had 305,000 registered members in the District of Columbia and 20 states that allow party registration. During the 2006 elections the party had ballot access in 31 states.
The United States Green Party generally holds a left-wing ideology on most important issues. Greens emphasize environmentalism, non-hierarchical participatory democracy, social justice, respect for diversity, peace and nonviolence.
The Constitution Party is a national political, ultra-conservative party in the United States. It was founded as the U.S. Taxpayers Party in 1992 by Howard Phillips. The party's official name was changed to the Constitution Party in 1999; however, some state affiliate parties are known under different names.
The Constitution Party advocates a platform that they believe reflects the Founding Fathers' original intent of the U.S. Constitution, principles found in the U.S. Declaration of Independence, and morals taken from the Bible. The Constitution Party is strongly Pro-Life, Pro-Gun Rights, Pro-Immigration control and enforcement and supports protectionist trade policies that protect American jobs and industry.
In 2006, Rick Jore of Montana became the first Constitution Party candidate elected to a state-level office, though the Constitution Party of Montana had disaffiliated itself from the national party a short time before the election.
In 2010 former Congressman Tom Tancredo was the Constitution Party candidate for governor of Colorado coming in second with 617,030 votes, 36.43% and ahead of the Republican candidate, Dan Maes, with 11.13%.
The Constitution Party's 2012 presidential nominee was former Congressmen Virgil Goode of Virginia.
Tennessee Attorney Darrell Castle is the 2016 Constitution Party nominee for President of the United States and Scott Bradley of Utah is the nominee for Vice President.
Besides the Constitution, Green, and Libertarian parties, there are many other political parties that receive only minimal support and only appear on the ballot in one or a few states.
Some political candidates, and many voters, choose not to identify with a particular political party. In some states, independents are not allowed to vote in primary elections, but in others, they can vote in any primary election of their choice.
Although the term "independent" often is used as a synonym for "moderate," "centrist," or "swing voter," to refer to a politician or voter who holds views that incorporate facets of both liberal and conservative ideologies, an independent can be of any ideological or political persuasion.
The following table lists some political ideologies most often associated with the five U.S. political parties with the most members, as well the tendencies of the official party positions on a number of reformist issues where positions diverge. Nuances may be found in the parties' respective platforms. Because American political parties are more loosely organized than those in other countries, not all members of a party subscribe to all of its officially held positions, the usual degree of variation generally being higher for the larger parties. Party members may hold different views on legislation to be enacted at the state or federal levels. And elected officials once in office may act contradictory to many of his or her party's positions (this had led to terms such as "Republican In Name Only"). Furthermore, the modern American political spectrum, and the usage of left–right politics, differs from the rest of the world. For example, the Democratic Party, the primary left-of-center party in the country, generally supports a social liberal position rather than a social democratic one.
|Issues||Green Party||Democratic Party||Libertarian Party||Republican Party||Constitution Party|
|Primary related subjects|
|Issues[note 1]||Abortion restrictions||No||No||No||Yes||Yes|
|Limiting private financing of campaigns||Yes||Yes||No||No||No|
|Legalization of same-sex marriages||Yes||Yes||Yes||No||No|
|Universal health care||Yes||Yes||No||No||No|
|Civilian gun control||Yes||Yes||No||No||No|
|Non-interventionist foreign policy||Yes||No||Yes||No||Yes|
- The top issues in the country are selected for this table.
- Roy Franklin Nichols (1967). The invention of the American political parties. Macmillan.
- Robert J. Dinkin, Campaigning in America: A History of Election Practices. (Greenwood 1989) online version
- Paul Kleppner, et al. The Evolution of American Electoral Systems (1983),
- "The First Political Parties: Federalists and Anti-Federalists". Boundless Political Science. Boundless.com. May 26, 2016. Retrieved July 27, 2016.
- William B. Hesseltine, Third-Party Movements in the United States (1962)
- Washington's Farewell Address
- Richard Hofstadter, The Idea of a Party System: The Rise of Legitimate Opposition in the United States, 1780–1840 (1970)
- Gordon S. Wood, Empire of Liberty: A History of the Early Republic, 1789–1815 (Oxford History of the United States)
- William Nisbet Chambers, ed. The First Party System (1972)
- George Dangerfield, The Era of Good Feelings (1952)
- Daniel Feller, "Politics and Society: Toward a Jacksonian Synthesis," Journal of the Early Republic (1990) 10#2 pp. 135-161 in JSTOR
- Paul Kleppner; Paul. The Third Electoral System 1853-1892: Parties, Voters, and Political Cultures (1979), online edition
- Robin Archer, Why Is There No Labor Party in the United States? (Princeton University Press, 2007)
- Richard Jensen, "The Last Party System: Decay of Consensus, 1932–1980," in Paul Kleppner et al., The Evolution of American Electoral Systems (Greenwood, 1981), pp 205–206.
- Nicol C. Rae, The Decline and Fall of the Liberal Republicans: From 1952 to the Present (1989)
- Matthew Levendusky, The Partisan Sort: How Liberals Became Democrats and Conservatives Became Republicans (U Chicago Press, 2009)
- Richard B. Morris, Encyclopedia of American History, revised edition, Harper & Row (New York), 1961, pages 170–171
- Witcover, Jules (2003). "1". Party of the People: A History of the Democrats. p. 3. "The Democratic Party of the United States, the oldest existing in the world...."
- Micklethwait, John; Wooldridge, Adrian (2004). The Right Nation: Conservative Power in America. p. 15. "The country possesses the world's oldest written constitution (1787); the Democratic Party has a good claim to being the world's oldest political party."
- Neuhart, Al (January 22, 2004). "Why politics is fun from catbirds' seats". USA Today. Retrieved 2007-07-11.
- Wolf, Richard (December 22, 2011). "Voters leaving Republican, Democratic parties in droves". USA Today. Retrieved June 20, 2012.
- Libertarian Party:Our History, LP.org
- "Frequently asked questions about the Libertarian Party", Official Website of the Libertarian National Committee. Retrieved on July 25, 2006.
- "Elected Officials". Retrieved 6 July 2015.
- "The Libertarian Option". The Libertarian Party. Libertarian National Committee, Inc. Retrieved 5 July 2014.
- Green elected officials
- "Green Party Ballot Status and Voter Registration Totals (United States)". Greens.org. Retrieved April 12, 2006.
- "Greens Win Ballot Access in 31 States, Up From 17 in January". Green Party press release, September 5, 2006.
- http://constitutionparty.com/party_platform.php "Constitution Party Preamble"
- "State Legislature results", Missoulian, November 8, 2006, retrieved November 8, 2006
- Control of state Legislature unclear, Helena Independent Record
- "Green Party 2004 Platform" (PDF). Green Party. 2004. Retrieved 2011-05-12.
- "The 2012 Democratic Party Platform: Moving America forward". Democratic Party. 2012. Retrieved 2012-09-14.
- "Libertarian Party Platform". Libertarian Party. 2010. Retrieved 2011-05-12.
- "2004 Republican Party Platform: on Abortion". United States Republican Party. 2004. Retrieved 2007-02-12.
- "Constitution Party Platform (Sanctity of Life)". Archived from the original on 2012-07-17. Retrieved 2008-03-25.
- "Republican Platform: Protecting the Right to Vote in Fair Elections". United States Republican Party. 2008. Retrieved 2011-05-12.
- "Constitution Party Platform (Election Reform)". Archived from the original on 2012-07-17. Retrieved 2008-03-25.
- "Libertarians press Congress on DOMA, 'don't' ask, don't tell'". Libertarian Party. 2009-08-17. Retrieved 2009-08-26.
Libertarians are the only party committed to equal justice under the law, whether it is protection from violence, marriage equality or the ability of a qualified person to serve in the military
- Republican Platform: Values
- "Constitution Party Platform (Family)". Archived from the original on 2012-07-17. Retrieved 2008-03-25.
- "2008 Republican Platform: Health Care". Archived from the original on 6 January 2012. Retrieved 6 July 2015.
- "Constitution Party Platform (Health Care and Government)". Archived from the original on 2012-07-17. Retrieved 2008-03-25.
- Republican 2008 Platform: Government Reform
- "Constitution Party Platform (Taxes)". Archived from the original on 2012-07-17. Retrieved 2008-03-25.
- "Immigration". Libertarian Party. Retrieved 6 July 2015.
- Republican 2008 Platform: National Security
- "Constitution Party Platform (Immigration)". Archived from the original on 2012-07-17. Retrieved 2008-03-25.
- Republican 2008 Platform: Crime
- "Constitution Party Platform (Crime)". Archived from the original on 2012-07-17. Retrieved 2012-02-12.
We favor the right of states and localities to execute criminals convicted of capital crimes and to require restitution for the victims of criminals.
- "II. SOCIAL JUSTICE". Retrieved 6 July 2015.
- lp.org - LP Monday Message: 20 Obama problems, 20 Libertarian solutions
- "Constitution Party Platform (Drug Abuse)". Archived from the original on 2012-07-17. Retrieved 2012-02-12.
- "Constitution Party Platform (Gun Control)". Archived from the original on 2012-07-17. Retrieved 2012-02-12.
- "Constitution Party Platform (Foreign Policy)". Archived from the original on 2012-07-17. Retrieved 2012-02-12.
- Critchlow, Donald T. American Political History: A Very Short Introduction (2015)
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- Foley, Edward B. Ballot Battles: The History of Disputed Elections in the United States ( Oxford University Press, 2016). xiv, 479 pp.
- Kleppner, Paul, ed. The evolution of American electoral systems (1981) experts review the 1st to 5th party systems..
- Schlozman, Daniel. When Movements Anchor Parties: Electoral Alignments in American History (Princeton University Press, 2015) xiv, 267 pp.
- Schlesinger, Jr., Arthur Meier ed. History of American Presidential Elections, 1789–2000 (various multivolume editions, latest is 2001). For each election includes history and selection of primary documents. Essays on some elections are reprinted in Schlesinger, The Coming to Power: Critical presidential elections in American history (1972)
- Schlesinger, Arthur Meier, Jr. ed. History of U.S. Political Parties (1973) multivolume
- Shafer, Byron E. and Anthony J. Badger, eds. Contesting Democracy: Substance and Structure in American Political History, 1775–2000 (2001), collection of new essays by specialists on each time period:
- includes: "State Development in the Early Republic: 1775–1840" by Ronald P. Formisano; "The Nationalization and Racialization of American Politics: 1790–1840" by David Waldstreicher; "'To One or Another of These Parties Every Man Belongs;": 1820–1865 by Joel H. Silbey; "Change and Continuity in the Party Period: 1835–1885" by Michael F. Holt; "The Transformation of American Politics: 1865–1910" by Peter H. Argersinger; "Democracy, Republicanism, and Efficiency: 1885–1930" by Richard Jensen; "The Limits of Federal Power and Social Policy: 1910–1955" by Anthony J. Badger; "The Rise of Rights and Rights Consciousness: 1930–1980" by James T. Patterson, Brown University; and "Economic Growth, Issue Evolution, and Divided Government: 1955–2000" by Byron E. Shafer