Political party strength in Illinois

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Illinois is a Democratic stronghold in presidential elections and one of the "big three" Democratic states alongside California and New York. It is considered one of the most Democratic states in the nation in presidential contests.[1] For most of its history, Illinois was widely considered to be a swing state, voting for the winner of all but two presidential elections in the 20th century. Political party strength in Illinois is highly dependent upon Cook County, and the state's reputation as a blue state rests upon the fact that the majority of its population and political power is concentrated in Chicago, Cook County, and the Chicago metropolitan area. Outside of Chicago, the suburban collar counties continue to trend Democratic while downstate Illinois can be considered more conservative.

Illinois' electoral college votes have gone towards the Democratic presidential candidate for the past seven elections, and its congressional makeup tilts heavily Democratic. However, it has a long history of competitive statewide elections and has elected a number of Republicans in recent years, including Governors Jim Edgar, George Ryan, and Bruce Rauner, Senators Peter Fitzgerald and Mark Kirk, and other state executive officeholders such as Judy Baar Topinka and Dan Rutherford.

The following table indicates the party of elected officials in the U.S. state of Illinois:

The table also indicates the historical party composition in the:

Table[edit]

The parties are as follows:   Adams (A),   Democratic (D),   Democratic-Republican (DR),   Independent (I),   Jacksonian (J),   National Union (NU),   Republican (R), and   a tie or coalition within a group of elected officials.

Year Executive offices General Assembly United States Congress Electoral College votes
Governor Lieutenant Governor Sec. of State Attorney General Comptroller/
Auditor[2]
Treasurer State Senate State House U.S. Senator (Class 2) U.S. Senator (Class 3) U.S. House
1809 Ninian Edwards (DR)[3]
1810
1811
1812
1813
1814
1815
1816
1817
1818
Shadrach Bond (DR) Pierre Menard (DR) Elias Kane (DR) DR Majority DR Majority Jesse B. Thomas (DR) Ninian Edwards (DR) John McLean (DR)
1819 DR Majority DR Majority Daniel P. Cook (DR)
1820 James Monroe and Daniel D. Tompkins (DR) Green tickY
1821 DR Majority DR Majority
1822 Samuel D. Lockwood (DR)
1823 Edward Coles (DR) Adolphus Hubbard (DR) David Blackwell (DR) DR Majority DR Majority
1824 Andrew Jackson/John Q. Adams and John C. Calhoun (DR) Red XN[4]
Morris Birkbeck (DR) John McLean (DR)
1825 George Forquer (DR) DR Majority DR Majority Jesse B. Thomas (A) Elias Kane (J) Daniel P. Cook (A)
1826 D Majority D Majority
1827 Ninian Edwards (DR) William Kinney (DR) D Majority D Majority Joseph Duncan (J)
1828 Andrew Jackson and John C. Calhoun (D) Green tickY
1829 Alexander P. Field (D) D Majority D Majority John McLean (J)
1830
David J. Baker (J)
1831 John Reynolds (D)[5] Zadok Casey (D)[5] D Majority D Majority John M. Robinson (J)
1832 Andrew Jackson and Martin Van Buren (D) Green tickY
1833 D Majority D Majority 3J
William Lee D. Ewing (D)
1834
William Lee D. Ewing (D)[6] vacant
1835 Joseph Duncan (D) Alexander Jenkins (D)[7] D Majority D Majority
1836 William Lee D. Ewing (J) Martin Van Buren and Richard M. Johnson (D) Green tickY
1837 William H. Davidson (D) 22D, 18W 57D, 24W, 10? Richard M. Young (D) 3D
1838
1839 Thomas Carlin (D) Stinson Anderson (D) 20D, 20W[8] 46W, 40D, 5I[9] 2D, 1W
1840 Martin Van Buren and Richard M. Johnson (D) Red XN
Stephen A. Douglas (D)
1841 Lyman Trumbull (D) 26D, 14W 51D, 40W Samuel McRoberts (D) 1D, 1ID, 1W
1842
1843 Thomas Ford (D) John Moore (D) Thompson Campbell (D) 30D, 12W 84D, 37W Sidney Breese (D) 6D, 1W
James Semple (D)
1844 James K. Polk and George M. Dallas (D) Green tickY
1845 26D, 15W 78D, 40W, 3?
1846
1847 Augustus C. French (D) Joseph Wells (D) Horace S. Cooley (D) 29D, 12W 76D, 44W, 3? Stephen A. Douglas (D)
1848 office abolished 1848–1867 John Moore (D) Lewis Cass and William O. Butler (D) Red XN
1849 William McMurtry (D) 17D, 7W, 1? 54D, 21W James Shields (D)
1850 David L. Gregg (D)
1851 17D, 8W 46D, 29W
1852 Franklin Pierce and William R. King (D) Green tickY
1853 Joel Aldrich Matteson (D) Gustav Koerner (D) Alexander Starne (D) 20D, 5W 56D, 18W, 1FS 5D, 4W
1854
1855 14D, 11W 41W, 34D[10] Lyman Trumbull (D) 5D, 2O, 2R
1856 James Buchanan and John C. Breckinridge (D) Green tickY
1857 William Henry Bissell (R)[11] John Wood (R) Ozias M. Hatch (R) Jesse K. Dubois (R) James Miller (R) 13D, 12R 55D, 30R Lyman Trumbull (R) 5D, 4R
1858
1859 14D, 11R 40D, 35R
1860 Abraham Lincoln and Hannibal Hamlin (R) Green tickY
John Wood (R)[6] Thomas Marshall (D)
1861 Richard Yates (R) Francis Hoffmann (R) William Butler (R) 13R, 12D 41R, 34D
Orville H. Browning (R)
1862
1863 Alexander Starne (D) 13D, 12R 55D, 30R William A. Richardson (D) 9D, 5R
1864 Abraham Lincoln and Andrew Johnson (NU) Green tickY
1865 Richard J. Oglesby (R) William Bross (R) Sharon Tyndale (R) Orlin H. Miner (R) James H. Beveridge (R) 14R, 11D 51R, 34D Richard Yates (R) 11R, 3D
1866
1867 Robert G. Ingersoll (R) George W. Smith (R) 16R, 9D 60R, 25D
1868 Ulysses S. Grant and Schuyler Colfax (R) Green tickY
1869 John M. Palmer (R) John Dougherty (R) Edward Rummel (R) Washington Bushnell (R) Charles E. Lippincott (R) Erastus N. Bates (R) 18R, 7D 58R, 27D 10R, 4D
1870
1871 30R, 20D 98R, 76D, 1I John A. Logan (R) 8R, 6D
1872 Ulysses S. Grant and Henry Wilson (R) Green tickY
1873 Richard J. Oglesby (R)[12] John L. Beveridge (R) George H. Harlow (R) James K. Edsall (R) Edward Rutz (R) 33R, 18D[13] 86R, 67D 14R, 5D
John L. Beveridge (R)[6] John Early (R) Richard J. Oglesby (R)
1874
1875 Archibald A. Glenn (D) Thomas S. Ridgway (R) 24R, 18D, 9I[14] 69R, 42D, 41I[15] 10D, 7R, 2I
1876 11D, 6R, 2I Rutherford B. Hayes and William A. Wheeler (R) Green tickY
1877 Shelby Moore Cullom (R)[16] Andrew Shuman (R) Thomas B. Needles (R) Edward Rutz (R) 22D, 21R, 8I[17] 79R, 67D, 7I David Davis (I) 12R, 7D
1878
1879 John C. Smith (R) 26R, 24D, 1I 80R, 60D, 10G, 3S John A. Logan (R) 12R, 6D, 1G
1880 James A. Garfield and Chester A. Arthur (R) Green tickY
1881 John M. Hamilton (R) Henry D. Dement (R) James McCartney (R) Charles P. Swigert (R) Edward Rutz (R) 32R, 18D, 1S 82R, 71D 13R, 6D
1882
1883 John M. Hamilton (R)[6] William J. Campbell (R) John C. Smith (R) 31R, 20D 77R, 75D, 1I Shelby Moore Cullom (R) 11R, 8D, 1ID
1884 James G. Blaine and John A. Logan (R) Red XN
1885 Richard J. Oglesby (R) John C. Smith (R) George Hunt (R) Jacob Gross (R) 26R, 25D 76D, 76R, 1I[18] 10D, 10R
1886
1887 John Riley Tanner (R) 33R, 18D 92R, 61D Charles B. Farwell (R) 14R, 6D
1888 Benjamin Harrison and Levi P. Morton (R) Green tickY
1889 Joseph W. Fifer (R) Lyman Beecher Ray (R) Isaac N. Pearson (R) Charles W. Pavey (R) Charles Becker (R) 33R, 18D 92R, 61D 13R, 7D
1890
1891 Edward S. Wilson (D) 27R, 24D 77D, 73R, 3FA John M. Palmer (D) 14D, 6R
1892 Grover Cleveland and Adlai Stevenson I (D) Green tickY
1893 John Peter Altgeld (D) Joseph B. Gill (D) William H. Hinrichsen (D) Maurice T. Moloney (D) David Gore (D) Rufus N. Ramsay (D) 29D, 22R 78D, 75R 11D, 11R
1894
1895 Henry Wulff (R) 33R, 18D 92R, 61D 20R, 2D
1896 22R William McKinley and Garret Hobart (R) Green tickY
1897 John Riley Tanner (R) William Northcott (R) James A. Rose (R) Edward C. Akin (R) James S. McCullough (R) Henry L. Hertz (R) 39R, 11D, 1P 89R, 62D, 2P William E. Mason (R) 17R, 5D
1898
1899 Floyd K. Whittlemore (R) 34R, 16D, 1P 81R, 71D, 1Proh. 14R, 8D
1900 William McKinley and Theodore Roosevelt (R) Green tickY
1901 Richard Yates Jr. (R) Howland J. Hamlin (R) Moses O. Williamson (R) 32R, 19D 81R, 72D 11D, 11R
1902
1903 Fred A. Busse (R) 36R, 15D 88R, 62D, 2Pub. Own., 1Proh. Albert J. Hopkins (R) 17R, 8D
1904 Theodore Roosevelt and Charles W. Fairbanks (R) Green tickY
1905 Charles S. Deneen (R) Lawrence Y. Sherman (R) William H. Stead (R) Len Small (R) 41R, 10D 91R, 57D, 3Proh., 2S 24R, 1D
1906
1907 John F. Smulski (R) 44R, 7D 90R, 60D, 3Proh. 20R, 5D
1908 William Howard Taft and James S. Sherman (R) Green tickY
1909 John G. Oglesby (R) Andrew Russel (R) 38R, 13D 88R, 65D William Lorimer (R) 19R, 6D
1910
1911 Edward E. Mitchell (R) 34R, 17D 82R, 68D, 2I, 1Proh. 14R, 11D
1912 Cornelius J. Doyle (R) Woodrow Wilson and Thomas R. Marshall (D) Green tickY
1913 Edward F. Dunne (D) Barratt O'Hara (D) Harry Woods (D) Patrick J. Lucey (D) James J. Brady (D) William F. Ryan, Jr. (D) 25R, 24D, 2Prog.[19] 71D, 52R, 27Prog., 3S[20] J. Hamilton Lewis (D) Lawrence Y. Sherman (R) 20D, 5R, 2Prog.
1914
1915 Lewis Stevenson (D) Andrew Russel (R) 25D, 25R, 1Prog.[21] 79R, 70D, 2S, 1I, 1Prog. 16R, 10D, 1Prog.
1916 Charles Evans Hughes and Charles W. Fairbanks (R) Red XN
1917 Frank O. Lowden (R) John G. Oglesby (R) Louis L. Emmerson (R) Edward J. Brundage (R) Andrew Russel (R) Len Small (R) 33R, 18D 85R, 67D, 1I 21R, 6D
1918
1919 Fred E. Sterling (R) 34R, 17D 90R, 63D Joseph M. McCormick (R) 22R, 5D
1920 Warren G. Harding and Calvin Coolidge (R) Green tickY
1921 Len Small (R) Fred E. Sterling (R) Edward E. Miller (R) 43R, 8D 95R, 58D William B. McKinley (R) 24R, 3D
1922
1923 Oscar Nelson (R) 42R, 9D 89R, 63D, 1I 20R, 7D
1924 Calvin Coolidge and Charles G. Dawes (R) Green tickY
1925 Oscar E. Carlstrom (R) Oscar Nelson (R) Omer N. Custer (R) 38R, 13D 94R, 59D Charles S. Deneen (R) 22R, 5D
1926
1927 Garrett D. Kinney (R) 41R, 10D 93R, 60D vacant 20R, 7D
1928 Otis F. Glenn (R) Herbert Hoover and Charles Curtis (R) Green tickY
1929 Louis L. Emmerson (R) William J. Stratton (R) Omer N. Custer (R) 40R, 11D 91R, 62D 21R, 6D
1930
1931 Edward J. Barrett (D) 33R, 18D 81R, 72D J. Hamilton Lewis (D) 15R, 12D
1932 14R, 13D Franklin D. Roosevelt and John N. Garner (D) Green tickY
1933 Henry Horner (D)[11] Thomas Donovan (D) Edward J. Hughes (D) Otto Kerner Sr. (D)[22] Edward J. Barrett (D) John C. Martin (D) 33D, 18R 80D, 73R William H. Dieterich (D) 19D, 8R
1934
1935 John H. Stelle (D) 35D, 16R 84D, 69R 21D, 6R
1936
1937 John H. Stelle (D) John C. Martin (D) 34D, 17R 86D, 67R
1938
1939 John E. Cassidy (D)[23] Louie E. Lewis (D) 30D, 21R 80R, 73D Scott W. Lucas (D) 17D, 10R
1940 James M. Slattery (D)
John H. Stelle (D)[6] vacant Charles W. Brooks (R) Franklin D. Roosevelt and Henry A. Wallace (D) Green tickY
1941 Dwight H. Green (R) Hugh W. Cross (R) George F. Barrett (R) Arthur C. Lueder (R) Warren Wright (R) 28R, 23D 79R, 74D 16R, 11D
1942
1943 William G. Stratton (R) 84R, 69D 19R, 7D
1944 Richard Y. Rowe (R) Franklin D. Roosevelt and Harry S. Truman (D) Green tickY
1945 Edward J. Barrett (D) Conrad F. Becker (R) 34R, 17D 78R, 75D 15R, 11D
1946
1947 Richard Y. Rowe (R) 37R, 14D 87R, 66D 20R, 6D
1948 Harry S. Truman and Alben W. Barkley (D) Green tickY
1949 Adlai Stevenson II (D) Sherwood Dixon (D) Ivan A. Elliott (D) Benjamin O. Cooper (D) Ora Smith (D) 33R, 18D 79D, 74R Paul Douglas (D) 14R, 12D
1950
1951 William G. Stratton (R) 31R, 27D 84R, 69D Everett Dirksen (R) 18R, 8D
1952 Dwight D. Eisenhower and Richard Nixon (R) Green tickY
1953 William G. Stratton (R) John W. Chapman (R) Charles F. Carpentier (R) Latham Castle (R)[22] Orville Hodge (R) Elmer J. Hoffman (R) 38R, 13D 16R, 9D
1954
1955 Warren Wright (R) 32R, 19D 79R, 74D 13R, 12D
1956 Lloyd Morey (R)[23]
1957 Elbert S. Smith (R) Elmer J. Hoffman (R) 38R, 20D 94R, 83D 14R, 11D
1958
1959 Grenville Beardsley (R)[11] Joseph D. Lohman (D) 34R, 24D 92D, 85R 14D, 11R
1960 William L. Guild (R)[23] John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson (D) Green tickY
1961 Otto Kerner Jr. (D)[22] Samuel H. Shapiro (D) William G. Clark (D) Michael J. Howlett (D) 31R, 27D 89R, 88D
1962 Francis S. Lorenz (D)
1963 William J. Scott (R) 35R, 23D 90R, 87D 12D, 12R
1964 William H. Chamberlain (D) Lyndon B. Johnson and Hubert Humphrey (D) Green tickY
1965 Paul Powell (D) 33R, 25D 118D, 59R 13D, 11R
1966
1967 Adlai Stevenson III (D) 38R, 20D 99R, 78D Charles H. Percy (R) 12D, 12R
1968
Samuel H. Shapiro (D)[6] vacant Richard Nixon and Spiro Agnew (R) Green tickY
1969 Richard B. Ogilvie (R) Paul Simon (D) William J. Scott (R)[24] 94R, 83D
Ralph Tyler Smith (R)
1970
1971 John W. Lewis, Jr. (R) Alan J. Dixon (D) 29D, 29R[25] 90R, 87D Adlai Stevenson III (D)
1972
1973 Dan Walker (D) Neil Hartigan (D) Michael J. Howlett (D) George W. Lindberg (R) 30R, 29D 92R, 84D, 1I 14R, 10D
1974
1975 34D, 25R 98D, 76R, 3I 13D, 11R
1976 Gerald Ford and Bob Dole (R) Red XN
1977 James R. Thompson (R) Dave O'Neal (R)[7] Alan J. Dixon (D) Michael Bakalis (D) Donald R. Smith (R) 93D, 83R, 1I 12D, 12R
1978
1979 Roland Burris (D) Jerome Cosentino (D) 32D, 27R 88D, 88R, 1I[26] 13R, 11D
1980 Tyrone C. Fahner (R)[27] 14R, 10D Ronald Reagan and George H. W. Bush (R) Green tickY
1981 30D, 29R 91R, 85D, 1I Alan J. Dixon (D)
vacant Jim Edgar (R)[28]
1982
1983 George Ryan (R) Neil Hartigan (D) James Donnewald (D) 33D, 26R 70D, 48R 12D, 10R
1984
1985 31D, 28R 67D, 51R Paul Simon (D) 13D, 9R
1986
1987 Jerome Cosentino (D)
1988 George H. W. Bush and Dan Quayle (R) Green tickY
1989 68D, 50R 14D, 8R
1990
1991 Jim Edgar (R) Bob Kustra (R)[7] George Ryan (R) Roland Burris (D) Dawn Clark Netsch (D) Pat Quinn (D) 72D, 46R 15D, 7R
1992 Bill Clinton and Al Gore (D) Green tickY
1993 32R, 27D 67D, 51R Carol Moseley Braun (D) 12D, 8R
1994
1995 Jim Ryan (R) Loleta Didrickson (R) Judy Baar Topinka (R) 33R, 26D 64R, 54D 10D, 10R
1996
1997 31R, 28D 60D, 58R Dick Durbin (D)
1998
vacant
1999 George Ryan (R) Corinne Wood (R) Jesse White (D) Daniel Hynes (D) 32R, 27D 62D, 56R Peter Fitzgerald (R)
2000 Al Gore and Joe Lieberman (D) Red XN
2001
2002
2003 Rod Blagojevich (D)[29] Pat Quinn (D) Lisa Madigan (D) 32D, 26R, 1I 66D, 52R 10R, 9D
2004 John Kerry and John Edwards (D) Red XN
2005 31D, 27R, 1I 65D, 53R Barack Obama (D)[30] 10D, 9R
2006
2007 Alexi Giannoulias (D) 37D, 22R 66D, 52R
10D, 8R
2008 67D, 51R Barack Obama and Joe Biden (D) Green tickY
11D, 8R
2009 Pat Quinn (D)[6] vacant 70D, 48R Roland Burris (D)[23] 12D, 7R
2010
2011 Sheila Simon (D) Judy Baar Topinka (R)[11] Dan Rutherford (R) 35D, 24R 64D, 54R Mark Kirk (R) 11R, 8D
2012
2013 40D, 19R 71D, 47R 12D, 6R
2014
2015 Bruce Rauner (R) Evelyn Sanguinetti (R) Jerry Stermer (D)[31] Mike Frerichs (D) 39D, 20R 10D, 8R
Leslie Munger (R)[23]
2016 Hillary Clinton and Tim Kaine (D) Red XN
2017 Susana Mendoza (D) 37D, 22R 67D, 51R Tammy Duckworth (D) 11D, 7R
Year Governor Lieutenant Governor Sec. of State Attorney General Comptroller/
Auditor[2]
Treasurer State Senate State House U.S. Senator (Class II) U.S. Senator (Class III) U.S. House Electoral College votes
Executive offices General Assembly United States Congress

Gallery[edit]

Gallery of Illinois presidential election results
Illinois in the 2000 Presidential election. Gore v. Bush
Illinois in the 2004 Presidential election. Kerry v. Bush
Illinois in the 2008 presidential election. Obama v. McCain
Illinois in the 2012 presidential election. Obama v. Romney
Illinois in the 2016 presidential election. Clinton v. Trump
Gallery of Illinois US Senate election results
2004 US Senate election results in Illinois. 
2010 US Senate election results in Illinois. The Republicans gained a seat in the Senate with Mark Kirk's victory. Notice Giannoulias won the same counties as Quinn. 
Gallery of Illinois gubernatorial election results
Illinois gubernatorial race in 2010. Notice Pat Quinn's win despite the rest of the state's overwhelming support for Republican candidate Bill Brady, and that Quinn carried the same counties as Democratic Senate candidate Alexi Giannoulias
2014 Illinois gubernatorial election. Incumbent Democratic governor Pat Quinn was defeated for reelection by Republican candidate Bruce Rauner. Notice that Rauner carried every county except Cook County

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.nbcchicago.com/blogs/ward-room/Illinois-The-Most-Democratic-State-126772408.html
  2. ^ a b The Office of Illinois Auditor of Public Accounts existed from 1818-1973, when it was eliminated by the 1970 Constitution and replaced with the office of Comptroller. George W. Lindberg was the first Illinois Comptroller
  3. ^ Territorial governor.
  4. ^ Andrew Jackson received two of Illinois' three electoral votes for President while John Quincy Adams received one. John C. Calhoun won all three electoral votes for Vice President.
  5. ^ a b Resigned following election to United States House of Representatives.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g As acting lieutenant governor, filled unexpired term.
  7. ^ a b c Resigned.
  8. ^ Lt. Gov. Stinson Anderson provided the tie-breaking vote to allow the Democrats to organize and run the chamber.
  9. ^ Elected a Democrat, William Lee D. Ewing, as a minority-party Speaker.
  10. ^ An Anti-Nebraska Democrat, Thomas J. Turner, was elected in coalition with the Whigs to be a minority-party Speaker.
  11. ^ a b c d Died in office.
  12. ^ Resigned so that Lieutenant Governor John Lourie Beveridge, acting as governor, would appoint him to the United States Senate.
  13. ^ Due to the ascension of Lt. Gov. Beveridge to the Governorship after Gov. Oglesby took a U.S. Senate seat, the President Pro Tempore elected by the Senate, John Early, became acting Lt. Governor. p. 193
  14. ^ A coalition of Democrats and Independents came together to run the Senate, and chose Archibald A. Glenn, a Democrat, to be President Pro Tempore. Due to the vacancy in the Lt. Governorship from John Beveridge ascending to be Governor in 1873, Glenn also became acting Lt. Governor. p. 193
  15. ^ A coalition of Democrats and Independents came together to run the House, and chose Elijah M. Haines, a Independent, to be Speaker. p. 193
  16. ^ Resigned to take elected seat in the United States Senate.
  17. ^ A coalition of Democrats and Independents came together to run the Senate, and chose Fawcett Plumb, an Independent tied to the Farmers' Association, to be President Pro Tempore. p. 193
  18. ^ The Independent, Elijah M. Haines, was elected Speaker with Democratic support, giving them control.
  19. ^ With the support of the Progressive members, the Democrats named the President Pro Tempore and controlled the chamber.
  20. ^ After 76 ballots, a Democrat, William B. McKinley, was elected Speaker with Republican votes. p. 100
  21. ^ With the support of the Progressive member, the Democrats named the President Pro Tempore and controlled the chamber.
  22. ^ a b c Resigned to take seat on the United States Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit.
  23. ^ a b c d e Appointed to fill vacancy.
  24. ^ Removed from Office upon tax fraud conviction: "Ex-Illinois Attorney General Loses Tax Conviction Plea". New York Times. 20 September 1980. Retrieved on 11 Feb. 2009.
  25. ^ With a Democratic Lt. Governor, the Democrats retained the Senate majority and the Senate Presidency.
  26. ^ The Independent, Taylor Pouncey, caucused with the Democrats, giving them the votes to control the Speakership and run the House. [1]
  27. ^ Appointed to fill Attorney General William J. Scott's term upon Scott's removal from office.
  28. ^ Initially appointed to fill vacancy; later elected in his own right.
  29. ^ Impeached and removed from office by the state legislature on corruption charges.
  30. ^ Resigned following election as president of the United States.
  31. ^ Appointed by Pat Quinn to fill Baar Topinka's vacancy. Stepped aside to allow Gov. Rauner to appoint a successor.
  • Regarding resignations and appointments; the person who held the office for the majority of the year is listed as the office holder for that year.

References[edit]