Political party strength in Kentucky
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
||This article is incomplete. (December 2014)|
- Lieutenant Governor
- Secretary of State
- Attorney General
- State Treasurer
- Auditor of Public Accounts
- Agriculture Commissioner
The table also indicates the historical party composition in the:
- State Senate
- State House of Representatives
- State delegation to the United States Senate
- State delegation to the United States House of Representatives
For years in which a presidential election was held, the table indicates which party's nominees received the state's electoral votes.
|Year||Executive offices||General Assembly||United States Congress||Electoral College votes|
|Governor||Lt. Governor||Sec. of State||Attorney General||Treasurer||Auditor||Ag. Comm.||State Senate||State House||U.S. Senator (Class II)||U.S. Senator (Class III)||U.S. House|
|1792||Isaac Shelby (DR)||no such office||James Brown (DR)||George Nicholas||John Logan||William McDowell||John Brown (DR)||John Edwards (DR)||2DR||George Washington and John Adams (F)|
|1793||John Breckinridge (DR)|
|1795||Humphrey Marshall (DR)|
|1796||Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr (DR)|
|1797||James Garrard (DR)||Harry Toulmin (DR)||James Blair||George Madison (DR)|
|1801||Alexander Scott Bullitt (DR)||John Breckinridge (DR)|
|1804||Thomas Jefferson and George Clinton (DR)|
|1805||Christopher Greenup (DR)||John Caldwell (DR)||John Rowan (DR)||Buckner Thruston (DR)|
|vacant||John Adair (DR)|
|1806||Thomas Posey (DR)|
|1807||Henry Clay (DR)|
|Alfred W. Grayson||David Logan||John Pope (DR)|
|1808||William C. Greenup||James Madison and George Clinton (DR)|
|1809||Charles Scott (DR)||Gabriel Slaughter (DR)||Jesse Bledsoe (DR)||John P. Thomas|
|1810||Henry Clay (DR)|
|1811||George M. Bibb (DR)|
|1812||Fielding Whitlock||James Madison and Elbridge Gerry (DR)|
|Isaac Shelby (DR)||Richard Hickman (DR)||Martin D. Hardin (DR)|
|1813||Christopher Greenup (DR)||Jesse Bledsoe (DR)||10DR|
|Martin D. Hardin (DR)|
|George Walker (DR)|
|1815||William T. Barry (DR)||Isham Talbot (DR)|
|1816||James Monroe and Daniel D. Tompkins (DR)|
|George Madison (DR)||Gabriel Slaughter (DR)||Charles Stewart Todd (DR)||John Madison|
|Gabriel Slaughter (DR)||vacant||John Pope (DR)||Martin D. Hardin (DR)|
|1817||John J. Crittenden (DR)|
|1819||Samuel South||Richard Mentor Johnson (DR)||William Logan (DR)|
|1820||Oliver G. Waggener||Joseph M. White||Peter Clay|
|Ben Hardin||Isham Talbot (DR)|
|1821||John Adair (DR)||William T. Barry (DR)||Cabell Breckinridge (DR)||Solomon P. Sharp (DR)||Benjamin Shelby|
|1823||12DR (8 Adams-Clay, 4 Jackson)|
|1824||Thomas Bell Monroe (DR)||Henry Clay and Nathan Sanford (DR)|
|1825||Joseph Desha (DR)||Robert B. McAfee (DR)||William T. Barry (DR)||Frederick W. S. Grayson||James Davidson||John Rowan (DR)||7A-J, 5J|
|James C. Pickett (DR)||James W. Denny|
|1828||George Robertson (DR)||8J, 4A-J||Andrew Jackson and John C. Calhoun (D)|
|1829||Thomas Metcalfe (NR)||John Breathitt (D)||Thomas T. Crittenden||George M. Bibb (D)||10J, 2A-J|
|1831||Henry Clay (NR/W)||8J, 4A-J|
|1832||John F. McCurdy||Henry Clay and John Sergeant (NR)|
|1833||John Breathitt (D)||James Turner Morehead (NR)||Lewis Sanders||Charles S. Morehead (NR)||9A-J, 4J|
|James Turner Morehead (NR)||vacant||John J. Crittenden (NR)||Thomas Scudder Page|
|1835||William Owsley (NR)||John J. Crittenden (W)|
|1836||Austin P. Cox||William Henry Harrison and Francis Granger (W)|
|1837||James Clark (W)||Charles A. Wickliffe (W)||James M. Bullock||12W, 1D|
|1838||Owen G. Cotes|
|Charles A. Wickliffe (W)||vacant|
|1840||William Henry Harrison and John Tyler (W)|
|1841||Robert P. Letcher (W)||Manlius Valerius Thomson (W)||James Harlan (W)||James Turner Morehead (W)|
|John J. Crittenden (W)|
|1844||Henry Clay and Theodore Frelinghuysen (W)|
|1845||William Owsley (W)||Archibald Dixon (W)||Benjamin Hardin (W)||7W, 3D|
|1847||George B. Kinkead (W)||H. Q. Bradley||Joseph R. Underwood (W)||6W, 4D|
|1848||Zachary Taylor and Millard Fillmore (W)|
|William Decatur Reed (W)||Thomas Metcalfe (W)|
|1849||John J. Crittenden (W)||John L. Helm (W)||Orlando Brown (W)||M. Conyers Johnson||Richard Curd Wintersmith||John B. Temple||Henry Clay (W)|
|1850||Joshua Fry Bell (W)|
|John L. Helm (W)||vacant||John William Finnell (W)||James A. Barbour|
|1852||Lazarus W. Powell (D)||John Burton Thompson (W)||David Meriwether (D)||James Harlan (W)||Thomas Scudder Page (W)||Winfield Scott and William Alexander Graham (W)|
|James P. Metcalfe (D)||David Meriwether (D)|
|Archibald Dixon (W)|
|1853||vacant||John Burton Thompson (A)|
|1854||Grant Green (D)|
|1855||John J. Crittenden (A)||6K-N, 4D|
|1856||Charles S. Morehead (A)||James Greene Hardy (A)||Mason Brown (A)||James Buchanan and John C. Breckinridge (D)|
|1857||James H. Garrard||8D, 2A|
|1859||Lazarus W. Powell (D)||5D, 5O|
|Beriah Magoffin (D)||Linn Boyd (D)||Thomas Bell Monroe, Jr. (D)||Andrew J. James||Grant Green (D)|
|1860||vacant||John Bell and Edward Everett (CU)|
|1861||John C. Breckinridge (D)||9U, 1D|
|1862||Nathaniel Gaither (D)||Garrett Davis (D)||10U|
|James F. Robinson (D)||Daniel C. Wickliffe (D)|
|1864||Thomas E. Bramlette (D)||Richard Taylor Jacob (D)||Ephraim L. Van Winkle||John Marshall Harlan (U)||A. T. Samuels||George B. McClellan and George H. Pendleton (D)|
|1865||James Guthrie (D)||5D, 4U|
|1866||John S. Van Winkle||Mason Brown||20D, 18R||60D, 40R||6D, 3U|
|1867||7D, (2 vacant)|
|John L. Helm (D)||John W. Stevenson (D)||Samuel B. Churchill (D)||John Rodman||James "Honest Dick" Tate (D)||D. Howard Smith (D)|
|1868||John W. Stevenson (D)||vacant||28D, 7R, 3 Union Dem.||70D, 25R||Thomas C. McCreery (R)||7D, 1R, (1 vacant)||Horatio Seymour and Francis Preston Blair, Jr. (D)|
|1870||36D, 2R||92D, 8R|
|Preston H. Leslie (D)||John W. Stevenson (D)|
|John G. Carlisle (D)||Andrew Jackson James (D)|
|1872||35D, 3R||88D, 12R|
|George Washington Craddock (D)||Willis B. Machen (D)||Thomas A. Hendricks and Benjamin Gratz Brown (D)|
|1873||Thomas C. McCreery (R)||10D|
|1874||31D, 7R||80D, 20R|
|1876||James B. McCreary (D)||John C. Underwood (D)||J. Stoddard Johnston (D)||Thomas Edward Moss||32D, 6R||89D, 11R||Samuel J. Tilden and Thomas A. Hendricks (D)|
|1877||James B. Beck (D)||10D|
|1878||37D, 1R||87D, 13R|
|1879||John Stuart Williams (D)||9D, 1Ind.D|
|1880||Luke P. Blackburn (D)||James E. Cantrill (D)||Samuel B. Churchill (D)||Parker Watkins Hardin (D)||Fayette Hewitt (D)||34D, 4R||80D, 20R||Winfield Scott Hancock and William Hayden English (D)|
|1881||James W. Blackburn (D)||8D, 1R, 1Ind.D|
|1882||26D, 8R, 4G||72D, 20R, 4G|
|1883||8D, 2R, 1Ind.D|
|1884||J. Proctor Knott (D)||James R. Hindman (D)||James A. McKenzie (D)||33D, 5R||89D, 11R||Grover Cleveland and Thomas A. Hendricks (D)|
|1885||Joseph Clay Stiles Blackburn (D)||10D, 1R|
|1886||35D, 3R||80D, 20R|
|1888||Simon Bolivar Buckner, Sr. (D)||James William Bryan (D)||George Madison Adams (D)||32D, 6R||70D, 25R, 3 Proh., 2 Lab.||Grover Cleveland and Allen G. Thurman (D)|
|1889||Stephen G. Sharpe (D)||9D, 2R|
|1890||William J. Hendrick||L. C. Norman||31D, 7R||86D, 14R|
|Henry S. Hale (D)||John G. Carlisle (D)|
|Willis Lunsford Ringo (D)|
|1892||John Y. Brown (D)||Mitchell Cary Alford (D)||John W. Headley (D)||27D, 11R||73D, 22R, 5P||Grover Cleveland and Adlai Stevenson I (D)|
|1893||William Lindsay (D)|
|1894||76D, 22R, 2P|
|1896||William O. Bradley (R)||William Jackson Worthington (R)||Charles Finley (R)||William S. Taylor (R)||George W. Long (R)||Samuel H. Stone (R)||22D, 16R||52R, 46D, 1P, 1 Ind. Prog.||William McKinley and Garret Hobart (R)|
|1897||William Joseph Deboe (D)||7D, 4R|
|1898||27D, 11R||73D, 25R, 2P|
|1900||William S. Taylor (R)||John Marshall (R)||Caleb Powers (R)||R. J. Breckinridge||Walter R. Day (R)||John S. Sweeny||26D, 12R||60D, 40R||William Jennings Bryan and Adlai Stevenson I (D)|
|William Goebel (D)||J. C. W. Beckham (D)||Caleb Breckinridge Hill (D)||Samuel W. Hager (D)||Gus G. Coulter (D)|
|J. C. W. Beckham (D)||vacant|
|1901||Joseph Clay Stiles Blackburn (D)||8D, 3R|
|1902||C. J. Pratt||25D, 13R||73D, 26R, 1ID|
|1903||James B. McCreary (D)||10D, 1R|
|1904||William P. Thorne (D)||Harry V. McChesney (D)||N. B. Hays||Henry M. Bosworth (D)||Samuel W. Hager (D)||31D, 7R||77D, 23R||Alton B. Parker and Henry G. Davis (D)|
|1907||Thomas H. Paynter (D)||7D, 4R|
|1908||Augustus E. Willson (R)||William Hopkinson Cox (R)||Ben L. Bruner (R)||James Breathitt||Edwin Farley (R)||Frank P. Jones||22D, 16R||51D, 49R||William Jennings Bryan and John W. Kern (D)|
|1909||William O. Bradley (R)||8D, 3R|
|1910||26D, 12R||73D, 27R|
|1912||James B. McCreary (D)||Edward J. McDermott (D)||Carl F. Crecelius (D)||James Garnett||Thomas Rhea (D)||Henry M. Bosworth (D)||32D, 6R||76D, 24R||Woodrow Wilson and Thomas R. Marshall (D)|
|1913||Ollie Murray James (D)|
|1914||25D, 13R||79D, 20R, 1 Fus.|
|Johnson N. Camden (D)|
|1915||J. C. W. Beckham (D)|
|1916||Augustus O. Stanley (D)||James D. Black (D)||James P. Lewis (R)||M. M. Logan (D)||Sherman Goodpaster (D)||Robert L. Greene (D)||28D, 10R||64D, 36R|
|1918||Charles H. Morris||24D, 14R||60D, 40R|
|George B. Martin (D)|
|James D. Black (D)||vacant||Thomas Martin Jones||Augustus Owsley Stanley (D)|
|1920||Edwin P. Morrow (R)||S. Thruston Ballard (R)||Fred A. Vaughn (R)||Charles I. Dawson (R)||James A. Wallace (R)||John J. Craig (R)||20D, 18R||55R, 45D||James M. Cox and Franklin D. Roosevelt (D)|
|1921||Richard P. Ernst (R)||8D, 3R|
|1924||William J. Fields (D)||Henry Denhardt (D)||Emma Guy Cromwell (D)||T. B. McGregor||Edward B. Dishman (D)||William H. Shanks (D)||25D, 13R||67D, 32R, 1I||Calvin Coolidge and Charles G. Dawes (R)|
|1925||Frank E. Daugherty||Frederic M. Sackett (R)|
|1926||26D, 12R||65D, 35R|
|1927||Alben W. Barkley (D)|
|1928||Flem D. Sampson (R)||James Breathitt, Jr. (D)||Ella Lewis (D)||James W. Cammack||Emma Guy Cromwell (D)||Clell Coleman||24D, 14R||62D, 38R||Herbert Hoover and Charles Curtis (R)|
|1930||66D, 34R||John M. Robsion (R)|
|Ben M. Williamson (D)|
|1931||M. M. Logan (D)||9D, 2R|
|1932||Ruby Laffoon (D)||Happy Chandler (D)||Sara W. Mahan (D)||Bailey P. Wootton||Elam Huddleston (D)||J. Dan Talbott (D)||26D, 12R||74D, 26R||Franklin D. Roosevelt and John Nance Garner (D)|
|1936||Happy Chandler (D)||Keen Johnson (D)||Charles D. Arnett (D)||Beverly M. Vincent (D)||John E. Buckingham||Ernest E. Shannon (D)||66D, 34R|
|1938||28D, 10R||76D, 24R|
|Keen Johnson (D)||vacant||Happy Chandler (D)|
|1940||Rodes K. Myers (D)||George G. Hatcher (D)||Ernest E. Shannon (D)||David A. Logan||29D, 9R||73D, 27R||Franklin D. Roosevelt and Henry A. Wallace (D)|
|1944||Simeon S. Willis (R)||Kenneth H. Tuggle (R)||Charles K. O'Connell (D)||Eldon S. Dummit (R)||Thomas W. Vinson (R)||B. L. Sparks||23D, 15R||57D, 43R||7D, 2R||Franklin D. Roosevelt and Harry S. Truman (D)|
|1946||Charles I. Ross||21D, 17R||69D, 31R||William A. Stanfill (R)|
|1947||W. D. Bratcher||John Sherman Cooper (R)||6D, 3R|
|1948||Earle C. Clements (D)||Lawrence W. Wetherby (D)||George G. Hatcher (D)||Alvarado E. Funk (D)||Edward F. Seiller (D)||Harry Newman Jones (D)||29D, 9R||75D, 25R||Harry S. Truman and Alben W. Barkley (D)|
|1949||Virgil Chapman (D)||Garrett L. Withers (D)||7D, 2R|
|1950||Pearl Frances Runyon (D)||76D, 24R|
|1951||Lawrence W. Wetherby (D)||vacant||Thomas R. Underwood (D)||Earle C. Clements (D)|
|1952||Emerson Beauchamp (D)||Charles K. O'Connell (D)||J. D. Buckman, Jr. (D)||T. Herbert Tinsley (D)||28D, 10R||73D, 27R||Adlai Stevenson and John Sparkman (D)|
|1953||John Sherman Cooper (R)||6D, 2R|
|1954||29D, 9R||79D, 21R|
|1955||Alben Barkley (D)|
|1956||Happy Chandler (D)||Harry Lee Waterfield (D)||Thelma Stovall (D)||Jo M. Ferguson (D)||Henry H. Carter (D)||Mary Louise Foust (D)||30D, 8R||77D, 23R||Robert Humphreys (D)||Dwight D. Eisenhower and Richard M. Nixon (R)|
|1957||John Sherman Cooper (R)||Thruston Ballard Morton (R)|
|1958||29D, 9R||75D, 25R|
|1960||Bert T. Combs (D)||Wilson W. Wyatt (D)||Henry H. Carter (D)||John B. Breckinridge (D)||Thelma Stovall (D)||Joseph W. Schneider (D)||30D, 8R||80D, 20R||Richard M. Nixon and Henry Cabot Lodge Jr. (R)|
|1962||29D, 9R||74D, 26R|
|1964||Edward T. Breathitt (D)||Harry Lee Waterfield (D)||Thelma Stovall (D)||Robert F. Matthews, Jr. (D)||Emerson Beauchamp (D)||Henry H. Carter (D)||Wendell Butler (D)||25D, 13R||63D, 37R||Lyndon B. Johnson and Hubert H. Humphrey (D)|
|1966||26D, 12R||64D, 36R|
|1968||Louie B. Nunn (R)||Wendell H. Ford (D)||Elmer Begley (R)||John B. Breckinridge (D)||Thelma Stovall (D)||Clyde Conley (R)||Bob Miller (R)||24D, 14R||59D, 41R||Marlow Cook (R)||Richard M. Nixon and Spiro Agnew (R)|
|1970||James Thompson (R)||71D, 29R|
|Leila Feltner Begley (R)|
|1971||Ken Harper (R)||Mary Louise Foust (D)||5D, 2R|
|1972||Wendell H. Ford (D)||Julian Carroll (D)||Thelma Stovall (D)||Ed W. Hancock (D)||Drexell R. Davis (D)||27D, 11R||73D, 27R|
|1973||Walter D. Huddleston (D)|
|1974||29D, 9R||80D, 20R|
|1975||Julian Carroll (D)||vacant||Wendell H. Ford (D)|
|1976||Thelma Stovall (D)||Drexell R. Davis (D)||Robert F. Stephens (D)||Frances Jones Mills (D)||George L. Atkins (D)||Thomas O. Harris (D)||30D, 8R||79D, 21R||Jimmy Carter and Walter Mondale (D)|
|1980||John Y. Brown, Jr. (D)||Martha Layne Collins (D)||Frances Jones Mills (D)||Steve Beshear (D)||Drexell R. Davis (D)||James B. Graham (D)||Alben W. Barkley II (D)||75D, 25R||Ronald Reagan and George H. W. Bush (R)|
|1982||29D, 9R||76D, 24R|
|1984||Martha Layne Collins (D)||Steve Beshear (D)||Drexell R. Davis (D)||David L. Armstrong (D)||Frances Jones Mills (D)||Mary Ann Tobin (D)||David Boswell (D)||28D, 10R|
|1985||74D, 26R||Mitch McConnell (R)|
|1987||29D, 9R||73D, 27R|
|1988||Wallace G. Wilkinson (D)||Brereton Jones (D)||Bremer Ehrler (D)||Fred Cowan (D)||Robert Mead (D)||Bob Babbage (D)||Ward "Butch" Burnette (D)||George H. W. Bush and Dan Quayle (R)|
|1991||Charles Hamilton (D)||27D, 11R||68D, 32R|
|1992||Brereton Jones (D)||Paul E. Patton (D)||Bob Babbage (D)||Chris Gorman (D)||Frances Jones Mills (D)||Ben Chandler (D)||Ed Logsdon (D)||Bill Clinton and Al Gore (D)|
|1993||24D, 14R||71D, 29R||4D, 2R|
|1995||21D, 17R||64D, 36R||4R, 2D|
|1996||Paul E. Patton (D)||Steve Henry (D)||John Y. Brown, III (D)||Ben Chandler (D)||John Kennedy Hamilton (D)||Ed Hatchett (D)||Billy Ray Smith (D)|
|1997||23 Coal., 15D||5R, 1D|
|1999||66D, 34R||Jim Bunning (R)|
|2000||Jonathan Miller (D)||20R, 18D||George W. Bush and Dick Cheney (R)|
|2003||21R, 17D||65D, 35R|
|2004||Ernie Fletcher (R)||Steve Pence (R)||Trey Grayson (R)||Greg Stumbo (D)||Crit Luallen (D)||Richie Farmer (R)||4R, 2D|
|2005||21R, 15D, 1I, 1VC||57D, 43R||5R, 1D|
|2006||21R, 16D, 1I|
|2007||61D, 39R||4R, 2D|
|2008||Steve Beshear (D)||Daniel Mongiardo (D)||Jack Conway (D)||Todd Hollenbach (D)||22R, 15D, 1I||63D, 37R||John McCain and Sarah Palin (R)|
|2009||21R, 16D, 1I||65D, 35R|
|2010||20R, 17D, 1I|
|2011||Elaine Walker (D)||22R, 15D, 1I||59D, 41R||Rand Paul (R)|
|2012||Jerry Abramson (D)||Alison Lundergan Grimes (D)||Adam Edelen (D)||James Comer (R)||Mitt Romney and Paul Ryan (R)|
|2013||23R, 14D, 1I||55D, 45R||5R, 1D|
|2015||Crit Luallen (D)||26R, 12D|
|Year||Governor||Lt. Governor||Sec. of State||Attorney General||Treasurer||Auditor||Ag. Comm.||State Senate||State House||U.S. Senator (Class II)||U.S. Senator (Class III)||U.S. House||Electoral College votes|
|Executive offices||General Assembly||United States Congress|
- The position of auditor of public accounts was established by the state legislature on June 22, 1792 but did not become an elected office until the adoption of the state's third constitution on June 11, 1850 but was appointed by the governor until that time.
- Resigned in order to run for governor.
- Resigned to take office as Attorney General of the United States.
- Died from "inflammation of the brain" while presiding over the state Senate during his first year as lieutenant governor.
- Died in office.
- As lieutenant governor, filled unexpired term.
- Resigned to take office as Governor of Kentucky.
- Resigned due to his disagreement with the state legislature over the American Civil War; he espoused neutrality.
- As president of the senate, filled unexpired term – at the time the previous governor resigned, as there was no lieutenant governor.
- As lieutenant governor, filled unexpired term, and was later elected in his own right.
- Resigned to take an elected seat in the United States Senate.
- As president of the state Senate, filled unexpired term because at the time the previous governor resigned, there was no lieutenant governor; was later elected in his own right.
- Resigned to accept the presidency of the State National Bank of Frankfort.
- Appointed to fill vacancy.
- Appointed to fill vacancy, then elected to a full term.
- Taylor was sworn in and assumed office, but the state legislature challenged the validity of his election, claiming ballot fraud. William Goebel, his challenger in the election, was shot on January 30, 1900. The next day, the legislature named Goebel governor. However, Goebel died from his wounds three days later. Taylor fled the state and never returned and was pardoned by Governor Augustus Willson in 1909.
- As lieutenant governor, filled unexpired term until elected to fill it in a special election.
- As assistant state auditor, was appointed to fill vacancy.
- Resigned to take an appointed seat in the United States Senate.
- Resigned to take a position in Washington, D.C.
- Elected to fill vacancy.
- Pursuant to Constitutional Amendment #2, passed in 1979, election dates for the Kentucky General Assembly were moved to even-numbered years. Only elections for the Kentucky House of Representatives were held in 1984 (having last been held in 1981), and Senators elected in the 1981 and 1983 elections served five-year terms in order to bring the dates of election into symmetry again.
- Resigned shortly before impeachment trial in the Kentucky Senate following criminal conviction for theft.
- Harlan Daily Enterprise, "Incumbents on ballot fare well in legislative primaries across state," May 25, 1994
- A coalition of 5 Democrats and 18 Republicans formed to control the chamber. 
- Senators Dan Seum and Bob Leeper switched parties from Democrat to Republican, giving the Republicans outright majority control.
- Resigned to accept a position at the John F. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University.
- A Republican who won a Senate seat was denied the ability to take her seat over residency issues by court order; Senator Bob Leeper switches from being a Republican to an Independent, but continues to caucus with the GOP.
- After the Republican with residency issues resigned her seat, a Democrat filled the vacancy left by her is a special election.
- A Republican filled the vacancy left by Daniel Mongiardo when he became Lt. Governor.
- A Democrat filled the vacancy left by Brett Guthrie when he became a Congressman.
- A Democrat filled the vacancy left by Charlie Borders when he was appointed to the Kentucky Public Service Commission by Gov. Beshear.
- State Rep. Wade Hurt (R-Louisville) announced his becoming a Democrat on April 22, 2011.
- Resigned to accept an appointed to the position of Deputy Assistant to the President and White House Director of Intergovernmental Affairs.
- A Republican filled the vacancy left by John A. Arnold when he resigned over sexual harassment allegations.
- A Republican filled the vacancy left by Walt Blevins when he became Judge-Executive of Rowan County.