Political positions of Donald Trump
45th president of the United States
Political affiliation and ideology
Donald Trump registered as a Republican in Manhattan in 1987; since that time, he has changed his party affiliation five times. In 1999, Trump changed his party affiliation to the Independence Party of New York. In August 2001, Trump changed his party affiliation to Democratic. In September 2009, Trump changed his party affiliation back to the Republican Party. In December 2011, Trump changed to "no party affiliation" (independent). In April 2012, Trump again returned to the Republican Party.
In a 2004 interview, Trump told CNN's Wolf Blitzer: "In many cases, I probably identify more as Democrat", explaining: "It just seems that the economy does better under the Democrats than the Republicans. Now, it shouldn't be that way. But if you go back, I mean it just seems that the economy does better under the Democrats...But certainly we had some very good economies under Democrats, as well as Republicans. But we've had some pretty bad disaster under the Republicans." In a July 2015 interview, Trump said that he has a broad range of political positions and that "I identify with some things as a Democrat."
During his 2016 campaign for the presidency, Trump consistently described the state of the United States in bleak terms, referring to it as a nation in dire peril that is plagued by lawlessness, poverty, and violence, constantly under threat, and at risk of having "nothing, absolutely nothing, left". In accepting the Republican nomination for president, Trump said that "I alone can fix" the system, and pledged that if elected, "Americanism, not globalism, will be our credo." He described himself as a "law and order" candidate and "the voice" of "the forgotten men and women". Trump's inaugural address on January 20, 2017, focused on his campaign theme of America in crisis and decline. He pledged to end what he referred to as "American carnage", depicting the United States in a dystopian light—as a "land of abandoned factories, economic angst, rising crime"—while pledging "a new era in American politics".
Although Trump was the Republican nominee, he has signaled that the official party platform, adopted at the 2016 Republican National Convention, diverges from his own views. According to a Washington Post tally, Trump made some 282 campaign promises over the course of his 2016 campaign.
During the last week of his presidential term, Trump was reportedly considering founding a new political party and wanted to call it the Patriot Party.
As described by others
Trump's political positions are viewed by some as populist. Politicians and pundits alike have referred to Trump's populism, anti-free trade, and anti-immigrant stances as "Trumpism".
Liberal economist and columnist Paul Krugman disputes that Trump is a populist, arguing that his policies favor the rich over those less well off. Harvard Kennedy School political scientist Pippa Norris has described Trump as a "populist authoritarian" analogous to European parties such as the Swiss People's Party, Austrian Freedom Party, Swedish Democrats, and Danish People's Party. Columnist Walter Shapiro and political commentator Jonathan Chait describe Trump as authoritarian. Conservative commentator Mary Katharine Ham characterized Trump as a "casual authoritarian," saying "he is a candidate who has happily and proudly spurned the entire idea of limits on his power as an executive and doesn't have any interest in the Constitution and what it allows him to do and what [it] does not allow him to do. That is concerning for people who are interested in limited government." Charles C. W. Cooke of the National Review has expressed similar views, terming Trump an "anti-constitutional authoritarian." Libertarian journalist Nick Gillespie, by contrast, calls Trump "populist rather than an authoritarian". Rich Benjamin refers to Trump and his ideology as fascist and a form of inverted totalitarianism.
Legal experts spanning the political spectrum, including many conservative and libertarian scholars, have suggested that "Trump's blustery attacks on the press, complaints about the judicial system and bold claims of presidential power collectively sketch out a constitutional worldview that shows contempt for the First Amendment, the separation of powers and the rule of law." Law professors Randy E. Barnett, Richard Epstein, and David G. Post, for example, suggest that Trump has little or no awareness of, or commitment to, the constitutional principles of separation of powers and federalism. Law professor Ilya Somin believes that Trump "poses a serious threat to the press and the First Amendment," citing Trump's proposal to expand defamation laws to make it easier to sue journalists and his remark that Washington Post owner Jeff Bezos would "have problems" if Trump was elected president. Anthony D. Romero, the executive director of the American Civil Liberties Union, wrote in an op-ed published in the Washington Post in July 2016 that "Trump's proposed policies, if carried out, would trigger a constitutional crisis. By our reckoning, a Trump administration would violate the First, Fourth, Fifth and Eighth amendments if it tried to implement his most controversial plans."
Prior to his election as president, his views on social issues were often described as centrist or moderate. Political commentator Josh Barro termed Trump a "moderate Republican," saying that except on immigration, his views are "anything but ideologically rigid, and he certainly does not equate deal making with surrender." MSNBC host Joe Scarborough said Trump is essentially more like a "centrist Democrat" on social issues. Journalist and political analyst John Heilemann characterized Trump as liberal on social issues, while conservative talk radio host and political commentator Rush Limbaugh said that Heilemann is seeing in Trump what he wants to see. Since he became president, commentators have generally characterized his policy agenda as socially conservative.
Trump and his political views have often been described as nationalist. John Cassidy of the New Yorker writes that Trump seeks to make the Republican Party "into a more populist, nativist, avowedly protectionist, and semi-isolationist party that is skeptical of immigration, free trade, and military interventionism." Washington Post editorial page editor Fred Hiatt and College of the Holy Cross political scientist Donald Brand describe Trump as a nativist. Rich Lowry, the editor of National Review, instead calls Trump an "immigration hawk" and supports Trump's effort to return immigration levels to what Trump calls a "historically average level". Trump is a protectionist, according to free-market advocate Stephen Moore and conservative economist Lawrence Kudlow. Historian Joshua M. Zeitz wrote in 2016 that Trump's appeals to "law and order" and "the silent majority" were comparable to the dog-whistle and racially-coded terminology of Richard Nixon.
According to a 2020 study, voters had the most difficulty assessing the ideology of Trump in the 2016 election out of all presidential candidates since 1972 and all contemporary legislators.
Scales and rankings
On the Issues
The organization and website On the Issues has classified Trump in a variety of ways over time, showing the variance of his political beliefs:
- "Moderate populist" (2003)
- "Liberal-leaning populist" (2003–2011)
- "Moderate populist conservative" (2011–2012)
- "Libertarian-leaning conservative" (2012–2013)
- "Moderate conservative" (2013–2014)
- "Libertarian-leaning conservative" (2014–2015)
- "Hard-core conservative" (2015)
- "Libertarian-leaning conservative" (2015–2016)
- "Moderate conservative" (2016–2017)
- "Hard-core conservative" (2017–present)
Politics and policies during presidency
As president, Trump has pursued sizable income tax cuts, deregulation, increased military spending, rollbacks of federal health-care protections, and the appointment of conservative judges consistent with conservative (Republican Party) policies. However, his anti-globalization policies of trade protectionism cross party lines. In foreign affairs he has described himself as a nationalist. Trump has said that he is "totally flexible on very, very many issues."
In his 2016 presidential campaign, Trump promised significant infrastructure investment and protection for entitlements for the elderly, typically considered liberal (Democratic Party) policies. In October 2016, Trump's campaign posted fourteen categories of policy proposals on his website, which have been since removed. During October 2016, Trump outlined a series of steps for his first 100 days in office.
Trump's political positions, and his descriptions of his beliefs, have often been inconsistent. Politico has described his positions as "eclectic, improvisational and often contradictory." According to an NBC News count, over the course of his campaign Trump made "141 distinct shifts on 23 major issues." Fact-checking organizations reported that during the campaign, Trump made a record number of false statements and lies compared to other candidates, a pattern that has continued — and further increased — in office.
While Trump has repeatedly expressed support for "the idea of campaign finance reform," he has not outlined specifics of his actual views on campaign-finance regulation. For example, Trump has not said whether he favors public financing of elections or caps on expenditures of campaigns, outside groups, and individuals.
During the Republican primary race, Trump on several occasions accused his Republican opponents of being bound to their campaign financiers, and asserted that anyone (including Trump himself) could buy their policies with donations. He called super PACs a "scam" and "a horrible thing". In October 2015, he said, "All Presidential candidates should immediately disavow their Super PACs. They're not only breaking the spirit of the law but the law itself."
Having previously touted the self-funding of his campaign as a sign of his independence from the political establishment and big donors, Trump reversed course and started to fundraise in early May 2016. While Trump systematically disavowed pro-Trump super PACs earlier in the race, he stopped doing so from early May 2016.
According to Chris Christie (who served briefly as leader of Trump's White House transition team), Trump will seek to purge the federal government of officials appointed by Obama and will ask Congress to pass legislation making it easier to fire public workers.
Trump has provided "little detail regarding his positions on disability-related policies," and his campaign website made no mention of disabled people. As of June 1, 2016, Trump had not responded to the issue questionnaire of the nonpartisan disability group RespectAbility.
District of Columbia statehood
Donald Trump is opposed to DC statehood. In 2020, Donald Trump indicated that if the statehood legislation for Washington, D.C. passes both houses of Congress, he would veto the admission legislation.
Trump has stated his support for school choice and local control for primary and secondary schools. On school choice he's commented, "Our public schools are capable of providing a more competitive product than they do today. Look at some of the high school tests from earlier in this century and you'll wonder if they weren't college-level tests. And we've got to bring on the competition—open the schoolhouse doors and let parents choose the best school for their children. Education reformers call this school choice, charter schools, vouchers, even opportunity scholarships. I call it competition—the American way."
Trump has blasted the Common Core State Standards Initiative, calling it a "total disaster". Trump has asserted that Common Core is "education through Washington, D.C.", a claim which Politifact and other journalists have rated "false", since the adoption and implementation of Common Core is a state choice, not a federal one.
Trump has stated that Ben Carson will be "very much involved in education" under a Trump presidency. Carson rejects the theory of evolution, believes that "home-schoolers do the best, private schoolers next best, charter schoolers next best, and public schoolers worst"; he said that he wanted to "take the federal bureaucracy out of education."
Trump has proposed redirecting $20 billion in existing federal spending to block grants to states to give poor children vouchers to attend a school of their family's choice (including a charter school, private school, or online school). Trump did not explain where the $20 billion in the federal budget would come from. Trump stated that "Distribution of this grant will favor states that have private school choice and charter laws."
As president, Trump chose Republican financier Betsy DeVos, a prominent Michigan charter school advocate, as Secretary of Education. The nomination was highly controversial; Washington Post education writer Valerie Strauss wrote that "DeVos was considered the most controversial education nominee in the history of the nearly 40-year-old Education Department." On the confirmation vote the Senate split 50/50 (along party lines, with two Republican senators joining all Democratic senators to vote against confirmation). Vice President Mike Pence used his tie-breaking vote to confirm the nomination, the first time in U.S. history that this has occurred.
In September 2016, Trump posted a list on his web site of regulations that he would eliminate. The list included what it called the "FDA Food Police" and mentioned the Food and Drug Administration's rules governing "farm and food production hygiene" and "food temperatures". The factsheet provided by Trump mirrored a May report by the conservative Heritage Foundation. It was replaced later that month and the new factsheet did not mention the FDA.
Colman McCarthy of The Washington Post wrote in 1993 that in testimony given that year to the House Natural Resources subcommittee on Native American Affairs, Trump "devoted much of his testimony to bad-mouthing Indians and their casinos," asserted that "organized crime is rampant on Indian reservations" and that "if it continues it will be the biggest scandal ever." Trump offered no evidence in support of his claim, and testimony from the FBI's organized crime division, the Justice Department's criminal division, and the IRS's criminal investigation division did not support Trump's assertion. Representative George Miller, a Democrat who was the chairman of the Natural Resources Committee at the time, stated: "In my 19 years in Congress, I've never heard more irresponsible testimony."
Trump bankrolled in 2000 a set of anti-Indian gaming ads in upstate New York that featured "a dark photograph showing hypodermic needles and drug paraphernalia," a warning that "violent criminals were coming to town," and an accusation that the St. Regis Mohawks had a "record of criminal activity." The ad—aimed at stopping the construction of a casino in the Catskills that might hurt Trump's own Atlantic City casinos—was viewed as "incendiary" and racially charged, and at the time local tribal leaders, in response, bought a newspaper ad of their own to denounce the "smear" and "racist and inflammatory rhetoric" of the earlier ad. The ads attracted the attention of the New York Temporary State Commission on Lobbying because they failed to disclose Trump's sponsorship as required by state lobbying rules. Trump acknowledged that he sponsored the ads and reached a settlement with the state in which he and his associates agreed to issue a public apology and pay $250,000 (the largest civil penalty ever levied by the commission) for evading state disclosure rules.
In 2015, Trump defended the controversial team name and mascot of the Washington Redskins, saying that the NFL team should not change its name and he did not find the term to be offensive. The "Change the Mascot" campaign, led by the Oneida Indian Nation and National Congress of American Indians, condemned Trump's stance.
While campaigning in 2016, Trump has repeatedly belittled Democratic Senator Elizabeth Warren of Massachusetts by calling her "Pocahontas" (a reference to Warren's claim, based on family lore, of Native American ancestry, which she has been unable to document). Trump's comments were criticized by a number of public figures as racist and inappropriate. Gyasi Ross of the Blackfeet Nation, a Native American activist and author, criticized Trump's "badgering of Elizabeth Warren as 'Pocahontas'" as "simply the continuation of his pattern of racist bullying."
Questioning Obama's citizenship
In March 2011, during an interview on Good Morning America, Trump said he was seriously considering running for president, that he was a "little" skeptical of Obama's citizenship and that someone who shares this view should not be so quickly dismissed as an "idiot." Trump added: "Growing up no one knew him"—a claim ranked "Pants on Fire" by Politifact. Later, Trump appeared on The View repeating several times that "I want him (Obama) to show his birth certificate" and speculating that "there's something on that birth certificate that he doesn't like." Although officials in Hawaii certified Obama's citizenship, Trump said in April 2011 he would not let go of the issue, because he was not satisfied that Obama had proved his citizenship.
After Obama released his long-form birth certificate on April 27, 2011, Trump said: "I am really honored and I am really proud, that I was able to do something that nobody else could do." Trump continued to question Obama's birth certificate in the following years, as late as 2015. In May 2012, Trump suggested that Obama might have been born in Kenya. In October 2012, Trump offered to donate five million dollars to the charity of Obama's choice in return for the publication of his college and passport applications before the end of the month. In a 2014 interview, Trump questioned whether Obama had produced his long-form birth certificate. When asked in December 2015 if he still questioned Obama's legitimacy, Trump said that "I don't talk about that anymore."
On September 14, 2016, Trump declined to acknowledge whether he believed Obama was born in the United States. On September 15, 2016, Trump for the first time acknowledged that Obama was born in the United States. He gave a terse statement, saying, "President Barack Obama was born in the United States, period." He falsely accused Hillary Clinton of having started the "Birther" movement. He also asserted that he "finished" the birther controversy, apparently referring to Obama's 2011 release of his long-form birth certificate, despite the fact that he continued to question Obama's citizenship in the years that followed. The next day, Trump tweeted a Washington Post story with the headline "Donald Trump's birther event is the greatest trick he's ever pulled". The "greatest trick" of the headline referred to the fact that cable networks aired the event live, waiting for a "birther" statement, while Trump touted his new hotel and supporters gave testimonials. In October 2016, Trump appeared to question the legitimacy of Barack Obama's presidency, referring to him at a rally as the "quote 'president' ".
Social Security and Medicare
During his campaign Trump repeatedly promised "I’m not going to cut Social Security like every other Republican and I’m not going to cut Medicare or Medicaid." For the first three years of his presidency he said nothing about cutting Social Security or Medicare. In a January 2020 interview he said he planned to "take a look" at entitlement programs like Medicare, but he then said via Twitter "We will not be touching your Social Security or Medicare in Fiscal 2021 Budget." His proposed 2021 budget, unveiled in February 2020, included a $45 billion cut to the program within Social Security that supports disabled people, as well as cuts to Medicare and Medicaid. In August 2020, as part of a package of executive orders related to the COVID-19 pandemic, he signed an order to postpone the collection of the payroll taxes that support Social Security and Medicare, paid by employees and employers, for the rest of 2020. He also said that if he wins re-election, he will forgive the postponed payroll taxes and make permanent cuts to the payroll tax, saying he would "terminate the tax," although only Congress can change tax law. Analysts said such an action would threaten Social Security and Medicare by eliminating the dedicated funding which pays for the programs.
2016 presidential campaign
Trump caused a stir in July 2015 when he charged that Senator John McCain had "done nothing to help the vets," a statement ruled false by PolitiFact and the Chicago Tribune. Trump added that McCain is "not a war hero. He was a war hero because he was captured. I like people who weren't captured."
As a presidential candidate, Trump was critical of the ways in which veterans are treated in the United States, saying "the vets are horribly treated in this country...they are living in hell." He favored eliminating backlogs and wait-lists that had caused a Veterans Health Administration scandal the previous year. He claimed that "over 300,000 veterans have died waiting for care." He said he believed Veterans Affairs (VA) facilities needed to be technologically upgraded, to hire more veterans to treat other veterans, to increase support of female veterans, and to create satellite clinics within hospitals in rural areas. He proposed a plan for reforming the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs with provisions to allow veterans to obtain care from any doctor or facility that accepts Medicare, to increase funding for PTSD and suicide prevention services, and to provide ob/gyn services at every VA hospital. Trump called for greater privatization of veterans' care, although his plan made no direct reference to letting veterans get health care outside the VA system. The Wall Street Journal noted that "such a plan is counter to recommendations from major veterans groups, the VA itself and from the Commission on Care, an independent body established by Congress that last week made recommendations for VA changes." Trump's plan calls "for legislation making it easier to fire underperforming employees, increasing mental-health resources and adding a White House hotline so veterans can bypass the VA and bring problems directly to the president." Trump opposed the current G.I. Bill.
In January 2016, Trump hosted a fundraising rally for veterans (skipping a televised Republican debate to do so). Weeks later, after the Wall Street Journal inquired with the Trump campaign when veterans' groups would receive their checks, the funds began to be disbursed. In April, the Journal reported that the funds had yet to be fully distributed. In May, NPR confirmed directly with 30 recipient charities that they had received their funds, "accounting for $4.27 million of the $5.6 million total," while the remaining 11 charities did not answer the question.
Presidency and 2020 campaign
In February 2018, the Trump administration initiated a policy known as ‘Deploy Or Get Out’ (DOGO), ordering the Pentagon to discharge any soldier who would be ineligible for deployment within the next 12 months. This mainly affected disabled soldiers. It also affected HIV-positive soldiers, who are allowed to serve within the US but cannot be deployed overseas; the DOGO policy meant that they could no longer serve within the US, either.
In August 2019, Trump credited himself for the passing the Veterans Choice Act, a law that had actually been passed under the previous president, Barack Obama, in 2014. Trump did sign an expansion of that act in 2018.
In September 2020, The Atlantic reported that Trump referred to Americans who were casualties of war as "losers" and "suckers", citing multiple people who were present for the statements; later reporting by the Associated Press and Fox News corroborated some of these stories. Veterans expressed scorn over the report's allegations. Trump denied these allegations and called them "disgraceful", adding: "I would be willing to swear on anything that I never said that about our fallen heroes". John Bolton, who was present at the discussion, also said he never heard Trump make such comments.
Economy and trade
Environment and energy
By March 2016, Trump had not released any plans to combat climate change or provided details regarding his approach to energy issues more broadly.
In May 2016, Trump asked U.S. Representative Kevin Cramer, Republican of North Dakota—described by Reuters as "one of America's most ardent drilling advocates and climate change skeptics"—to draft Trump's energy policy.
In May 2016, Trump said that he could solve the water crisis in California. He declared that "there is no drought," a statement which the Associated Press noted is incorrect. Trump accused California state officials of denying farmers of water so they can send it out to sea "to protect a certain kind of three-inch fish." According to the AP, Trump appeared to be referring to a dispute between Central Valley farming interests and environmental interests; California farmers accuse water authorities of short-changing them of the water in their efforts to protect endangered native fish species.
Climate change and pollution
Trump rejects the scientific consensus on climate change, repeatedly contending that global warming is a "hoax." He has said that "the concept of global warming was created by and for the Chinese in order to make U.S. manufacturing non-competitive," a statement which Trump later said was a joke. However, it was also pointed out that he often conflates weather with climate change.
Trump criticized President Obama's description of climate change as "the greatest threat to future generations" for being "naive" and "one of the dumbest statements I've ever heard." A 2016 report by the Sierra Club contended that, were he to be elected president, Trump would be the only head of state in the world to contend that climate change is a hoax. In December 2009, Trump and his three adult children had signed a full-page advertisement from "business leaders" in The New York Times stating "If we fail to act now, it is scientifically irrefutable that there will be catastrophic and irreversible consequences for humanity and our planet" and encouraging "investment in the clean energy economy" to "create new energy jobs and increase our energy security".
Although "not a believer in climate change," Trump has stated that "clean air is a pressing problem" and has said: "There is still much that needs to be investigated in the field of climate change. Perhaps the best use of our limited financial resources should be in dealing with making sure that every person in the world has clean water."
In May 2016, during his presidential campaign, Trump issued an energy plan focused on promoting fossil fuels and weakening environmental regulation. Trump promised to "rescind" in his first 100 days in office a variety of Environmental Protection Agency regulations established during the Obama administration to limit carbon emissions from coal-fired power plants, which contribute to a warming global climate. Trump has specifically pledged to revoke the Climate Action Plan and the Waters of the United States rule, which he characterizes as two "job-destroying Obama executive actions."
Trump has said "we're practically not allowed to use coal any more," a statement rated "mostly false" by PolitiFact. Trump has criticized the Obama administration's coal policies, describing the administration's moves to phase out the use of coal-fired power plants are "stupid." Trump has criticized the Obama administration for prohibiting "coal production on federal land" and states that it seeks to adopt "draconian climate rules that, unless stopped, would effectively bypass Congress to impose job-killing cap-and-trade." Trump has vowed to revive the U.S. coal economy, a pledge that is viewed by experts as unlikely to be fulfilled because the decline of the coal industry is driven by market forces, and specifically by the U.S. natural gas boom. An analysis by Scientific American found that Trump's promise to bring back closed coal mines would be difficult to fulfill, both because of environmental regulations and economic shifts. An analysis by Bloomberg New Energy Finance dismissed Trump's claims of a "war on coal": "U.S. coal's main problem has been cheap natural gas and renewable power, not a politically driven 'war on coal'...[coal] will continue being pushed out of the generating mix."
According to FactCheck.org, over at least a five-year period, Trump has on several occasions made incorrect claims about the use of hair spray and its role in ozone depletion. At a rally in May 2016, "Trump implied that the regulations on hairspray and coal mining are both unwarranted" and incorrectly asserted that hairspray use in a "sealed" apartment prevents the spray's ozone-depleting substances from reaching the atmosphere.
In June 2019, the Trump White House tried to prevent a State Department intelligence analyst from testifying to Congress about "possibly catastrophic" effects of human-caused climate change, and prevented his written testimony containing science from NASA and NOAA from being included in the official Congressional Record because it was not consistent with administration positions.
In August 2019, Trump described America's coal production as "clean, beautiful", despite coal being a particularly polluting energy source. Although "clean coal" is a specific jargon used by the coal industry for certain technologies, Trump instead generally describes that coal itself is "clean".
Opposition to international cooperation on climate change
Trump pledged in his May 2016 speech on energy policy to "cancel the Paris climate agreement" adopted at the 2015 United Nations Climate Change Conference (in which 170 countries committed to reductions in carbon emissions). Trump pledged to cancel the agreement in his first hundred days in office. This pledge followed earlier comments by Trump, in which he said that as president, he would "at a minimum" seek to renegotiate the agreement and "at a maximum I may do something else." Trump characterizes the Paris Agreement "one-sided" and "bad for the United States," believing that the agreement is too favorable to China and other countries. In his May 2016 speech, Trump inaccurately said that the Paris Agreement "gives foreign bureaucrats control over how much energy we use on our land, in our country"; in fact, the Paris Agreement is based on voluntary government pledges, and no country controls the emissions-reduction plan of any other country.
Once the agreement is ratified by 55 nations representing 55 percent of global emissions (which has not yet occurred), a four-year waiting period goes into effect for any country wishing to withdraw from the agreement. A U.S. move to withdraw from the Paris Agreement as Trump proposes is viewed as likely to unravel the agreement; according to Reuters, such a move would spell "potential doom for an agreement many view as a last chance to turn the tide on global warming."
In Trump's May 2016 speech on energy policy, he declared that if elected president, he would "stop all payment of U.S. tax dollars to global warming programs." This would be a reversal of the U.S. pledge to commit funds to developing countries to assist in climate change mitigation and could undermine the willingness of other countries to take action against climate change.
In August 2016, 375 members of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences, including 30 Nobel laureates, issued an open letter warning that Trump's plan to unilaterally withdraw from the Paris Agreement would have dire effects on the fight against climate change. The scientists wrote, in part:
[I]t is of great concern that the Republican nominee for President has advocated U.S. withdrawal from the Paris Accord. A "Parexit" would send a clear signal to the rest of the world: "The United States does not care about the global problem of human-caused climate change. You are on your own." Such a decision would make it far more difficult to develop effective global strategies for mitigating and adapting to climate change. The consequences of opting out of the global community would be severe and long-lasting – for our planet's climate and for the international credibility of the United States.
In his May 2016 speech on energy policy, Trump stated : "Under my presidency, we will accomplish complete American energy independence. We will become totally independent of the need to import energy from the oil cartel or any nation hostile to our interest." The New York Times reported that "experts say that such remarks display a basic ignorance of the workings of the global oil markets."
In January 2016, Trump vowed "tremendous cutting" of the budget for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency if elected. In an October 2015 interview with Chris Wallace, Trump explained, "what they do is a disgrace. Every week they come out with new regulations." When Wallace asked, "Who's going to protect the environment?", Trump answered "we'll be fine with the environment. We can leave a little bit, but you can't destroy businesses."
Trump has charged that the "U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service abuses the Endangered Species Act to restrict oil and gas exploration." In 2011, Trump said that would permit drilling in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge in northeastern Alaska.
In July 2016, Trump suggested that he was in favor of state and local bans on hydraulic fracturing (fracking), saying, "I'm in favor of fracking, but I think that voters should have a big say in it. I mean, there's some areas, maybe, they don't want to have fracking. And I think if the voters are voting for it, that's up to them...if a municipality or a state wants to ban fracking, I can understand that."
Trump promised to construct the Keystone XL pipeline, a proposed project to bring Canadian petroleum to the U.S. Trump pledged that if elected, he would ask TransCanada Corp. to renew its permit application for the project within his first hundred days in office. Trump claimed that Keystone XL pipeline will have "no impact on environment" and create "lots of jobs for U.S.," although in fact the pipeline is projected to create only 35 permanent jobs.
In his first days in office, Trump revived the Keystone XL project, signing a presidential memorandum reversing the rejection of the proposed pipeline that President Obama had made. Trump "also signed a directive ordering an end to protracted environmental reviews," pledging to make environmental review " a very short process."
Dakota Access Pipeline
After months of protest by thousands of protesters, including the largest gathering of Native Americans in 100 years, in December 2016 the United States Army Corps of Engineers under the Obama administration announced that it would not grant an easement for the pipeline, and the Corps of Engineers undertook an environmental impact statement to look at possible alternative routes. However, in February 2017, newly elected President Donald Trump ended the environmental impact assessment and ordered for construction to continue. Trump has financial ties to Energy Transfer Partners and Phillips 66, who are both directly involved in the controversial project. The CEO of Energy Transfer Partners is a campaign donor for Donald Trump.
In his 2015 book Crippled America, Trump is highly critical of the "big push" to develop renewable energy, arguing that the push is based on a mistaken belief that greenhouse gases contribute to climate change. He writes, "There has been a big push to develop alternative forms of energy—so-called green energy—from renewable sources. That's a big mistake. To begin with, the whole push for renewable energy is being driven by the wrong motivation, the mistaken belief that global climate change is being caused by carbon emissions. If you don't buy that—and I don't—then what we have is really just an expensive way of making the tree-huggers feel good about themselves."
Despite criticizing wind farms in the past (calling them "ugly"), Trump has said that he does not oppose the wind production tax credit, saying: "I'm okay with subsidies, to an extent." Trump has criticized wind energy for being expensive and for not working without "massive subsidies". He added, "windmills are killing hundreds and hundreds of eagles. One of the most beautiful, one of the most treasured birds—and they're killing them by the hundreds and nothing happens," a claim rated as "mostly false" by PolitiFact since best estimates indicate that about one hundred golden eagles are killed each year by wind turbine blades.
In his official platform, Trump claims that he will reduce bureaucracy which would then lead to greater innovation. His platform mentions "renewable energies", including "nuclear, wind and solar energy" in that regard but adds that he would not support those "to the exclusion of other energy".
Trump supports a higher ethanol mandate (the amount of ethanol required by federal regulation to be blended into the U.S. gasoline supply). Trump vowed to protect the government's Renewable Fuel Standard and the corn-based ethanol.
In August 2019, Trump falsely claimed: "if a windmill is within two miles of your house, your house is practically worthless"; this claim is not supported by studies in the United States.
Wildlife conservation and animal welfare
In October 2016, the Humane Society denounced Trump's campaign, saying that a "Trump presidency would be a threat to animals everywhere" and that he has "a team of advisors and financial supporters tied in with trophy hunting, puppy mills, factory farming, horse slaughter, and other abusive industries."
In February 2017, under the Trump administration, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) unexpectedly removed from its public website "all enforcement records related to horse soring and to animal welfare at dog breeding operations and other facilities." The decision prompted criticism from animal welfare advocates (such as the Animal Welfare Institute), investigative journalists, and some of the regulated industries (the Association of Zoos and Aquariums and the group Speaking of Research said that the move created an impression of non-transparency).
Foreign policy and defense
Actions while in office
President Trump advocated repealing and replacing the Affordable Care Act (ACA or "Obamacare"). The Republican-controlled House passed the American Health Care Act (AHCA) in May 2017, handing it to the Senate, which decided to write its own version of the bill rather than voting on the AHCA. The Senate bill, called the "Better Care Reconciliation Act of 2017" (BCRA), failed on a vote of 45–55 in the Senate during July 2017. Other variations also failed to gather the required support, facing unanimous Democratic Party opposition and some Republican opposition. The Congressional Budget Office estimated that the bills would increase the number of uninsured by over 20 million persons, while reducing the budget deficit marginally.
Actions to hinder implementation of ACA
President Trump continued Republican attacks on the ACA while in office, including steps such as:
- Weakening the individual mandate through his first executive order, which resulted in limiting enforcement of mandate penalties by the IRS. For example, tax returns without indications of health insurance ("silent returns") will still be processed, overriding instructions from the Obama administration to the IRS to reject them.
- Reducing funding for advertising for the 2017 and 2018 exchange enrollment periods by up to 90%, with other reductions to support resources used to answer questions and help people sign-up for coverage. This action could reduce ACA enrollment.
- Cutting the enrollment period for 2018 by half, to 45 days. The NYT editorial board referred to this as part of a concerted "sabotage" effort.
- Issuing public statements that the exchanges are unstable or in a death spiral. CBO reported in May 2017 that the exchanges would remain stable under current law (ACA), but would be less stable if the AHCA were passed.
Several insurers and actuary groups cited uncertainty created by President Trump, specifically non-enforcement of the individual mandate and not funding cost sharing reduction subsidies, as contributing 20-30 percentage points to premium increases for the 2018 plan year on the ACA exchanges. In other words, absent Trump's actions against the ACA, premium increases would have averaged 10% or less, rather than the estimated 28-40% under the uncertainty his actions created. The Center on Budget and Policy Priorities (CBPP) maintains a timeline of many "sabotage" efforts by the Trump Administration.
Ending cost-sharing reduction (CSR) payments
President Trump announced in October 2017 he would end the smaller of the two types of subsidies under the ACA, the cost sharing reduction (CSR) subsidies. This controversial decision significantly raised premiums on the ACA exchanges (as much as 20 percentage points) along with the premium tax credit subsidies that rise with them, with the CBO estimating a $200 billion increase in the budget deficit over a decade. CBO also estimated that initially up to one million fewer would have health insurance coverage, although more might have it in the long-run as the subsidies expand. CBO expected the exchanges to remain stable (e.g., no "death spiral") as the premiums would increase and prices would stabilize at the higher (non-CSR) level.
President Trump's argument that the CSR payments were a "bailout" for insurance companies and therefore should be stopped, actually results in the government paying more to insurance companies ($200B over a decade) due to increases in the premium tax credit subsidies. Journalist Sarah Kliff therefore described Trump's argument as "completely incoherent."
This section has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. (Learn how and when to remove these template messages)
In August 2019, at a campaign rally, Trump claimed that his administration "will always protect patients with pre-existing conditions, always." However, his administration had already repeatedly attempted to water down or repeal the ACA's protections for people with preexisting medical conditions, without any proposal on how to restore these protections if the ACA is rendered void.
Prior to election
According to a report by the RAND Corporation, Trump's proposed health-care policy proposals, depending on specific elements implemented, would result in between 15 and 25 million fewer people with health insurance and increase the federal deficit in a range from zero to $41 billion in 2018. This was in contrast to Clinton's proposals, which would expand health insurance coverage for between zero and 10 million people while increasing the deficit in a range from zero to $90 billion in 2018. According to the report, low-income individuals and sicker people would be most adversely affected by his proposed policies, although it was pointed out that not all policy proposals have been modeled.
Affordable Care Act and health-care reform
As the 2016 campaign unfolded, Trump stated that he favors repealing the Affordable Care Act (ACA or "Obamacare")—which Trump refers to as a "complete disaster"—and replacing it with a "free-market system." On his campaign website, Trump says, "on day one of the Trump Administration, we will ask Congress to immediately deliver a full repeal of Obamacare." Trump's campaign has insisted that the candidate has "never supported socialized medicine."
Trump has cited the rising costs of premiums and deductibles as a motivation to repeal the Affordable Care Act. However, according to a study by the Kaiser Family Foundation, the after-subsidy premium costs to those with insurance coverage via the Affordable Care Act's exchanges did not change significantly on average from 2016 to 2017, as increases in the subsidies offset pre-subsidy insurance premium increases. For example, after-subsidy costs for a popular "silver plan" remained around $200/month in 2016 and 2017. An estimated 70% of persons on the exchanges could purchase a plan for $75/month after subsidies. Further, in the employer market, health insurance premium cost increases from 2015 to 2016 were an estimated 3% on average, low by historical standards. While deductibles rose 12% on average from 2015 to 2016, more workers are pairing higher-deductible plans with tax-preferred health savings accounts (HSAs), offsetting some of the deductible increase (i.e., lowering their effective deductible).
The Congressional Budget Office reported in March 2016 that there were approximately 23 million people with insurance due to the law, with 12 million people covered by the exchanges (10 million of whom received subsidies to help pay for insurance) and 11 million made eligible for Medicaid. The CBO also reported in June 2015 that: "Including the budgetary effects of macroeconomic feedback, repealing the ACA would increase federal budget deficits by $137 billion over the 2016–2025 period." CBO also estimated that excluding the effects of macroeconomic feedback, repeal of the ACA would increase the deficit by $353 billion over that same period.
In the early part of his campaign, Trump responded to questions about his plan to replace the ACA by saying that it would be "something terrific!" Trump subsequently said at various points that he believes that the government should have limited involvement of health care, but has also said that "at the lower end, where people have no money, I want to try and help those people," by "work[ing] out some sort of a really smart deal with hospitals across the country." and has said "everybody's got to be covered." At a February 2016 town hall on CNN, Trump said that he supported the individual health insurance mandate of the ACA, which requires all Americans to have health insurance, saying "I like the mandate. So here's where I'm a little bit different [from other Republican candidates]." In March 2016, Trump reversed himself, saying that "Our elected representatives must eliminate the individual mandate. No person should be required to buy insurance unless he or she wants to."
In March 2016, Trump released his health care plan, which called for allowing health-insurance companies to compete across state lines and for making Medicaid into a block grant system for the states. He also called for elimination of the individual mandate for health insurance, for allowing health insurance premiums to be deducted on tax returns, and for international competition in the drug market. In the same document, Trump acknowledged that mental health care in the U.S. is often inadequate but offered no immediate solution to the problem, instead stating that "there are promising reforms being developed in Congress." Trump also emphasized the removal of market entry barriers for drug providers and improved access to imported medication corresponding to safety standards.
Explaining how he would address the problem of ensuring the people that would lose their insurance coverage if Obamacare were repealed, Trump said, "We have to come up, and we can come up with many different plans. In fact, plans you don't even know about will be devised because we're going to come up with plans—health care plans—that will be so good. And so much less expensive both for the country and for the people. And so much better." His plan has been criticized by Republican health experts as "a jumbled hodgepodge of old Republican ideas, randomly selected, that don't fit together" (Robert Laszewski) providing nothing that "would do anything more than cover a couple million people," (Gail R. Wilensky).
In 1999, during his abortive 2000 Reform Party presidential campaign, Trump told TV interviewer Larry King, "I believe in universal health care." In his 2000 book, The America We Deserve, Trump reiterated his call for universal health care and focused on a Canadian-style single-payer health care system as a means to achieve it. Though he characterized the Canadian health-care system as "catastrophic in certain ways" in October 2016 during the second presidential debate, the Trump campaign website wrote in June 2015 about his support for "a system that would mirror Canada's government-run healthcare service" under the title "What does Donald Trump believe? Where the candidate stands on 10 issues". In 2015, Trump also expressed admiration for the Scottish health-care system, which is single payer.
In 2014, after a New York physician returned from treating Ebola patients in West Africa and showed symptoms of the disease, Trump tweeted that if the doctor had Ebola, "Obama should apologize to the American people & resign!" When the doctor was later confirmed to have developed Ebola in New York, Trump tweeted that it was "Obama's fault" and "I have been saying for weeks for President Obama to stop the flights from West Africa. So simple, but he refused. A TOTAL incompetent!" Trump also criticized President Obama's decision to send 3,000 U.S. troops to affected regions to help combat the outbreak (see Operation United Assistance).
As Dr. Kent Brantly returned to the U.S. for treatment, Trump tweeted that U.S. doctors who went abroad to treat Ebola were "great" but "must suffer the consequences" if they became infected and insisted that "the U.S. must immediately stop all flights from EBOLA infected countries or the plague will start and spread inside our 'borders.'" When an Ebola patient was scheduled to come to the U.S. for treatment, Trump tweeted, "now I know for sure that our leaders are incompetent. KEEP THEM OUT OF HERE!"
Trump's suggestion on the Ebola crisis "would go against all the expert advice being offered," with doctors warning "that isolating West Africa would only make the Ebola outbreak much worse, potentially denying help and supplies from getting in," and possibly destabilizing the countries and contributing to the disease's spread outside West Africa.
On August 3, 2016, Trump called the Zika virus outbreak in Florida "a big problem". He expressed his support for Florida Governor Rick Scott's handling of the crisis, saying that he's "doing a fantastic job". When asked if Congress should convene an emergency session to approve Zika funding, Trump answered, "I would say that it's up to Rick Scott." On August 11, 2016, Trump said that he was in favor of Congress setting aside money to combat the Zika virus.
Trump believed that childhood vaccinations were related to autism, a hypothesis which has been repeatedly debunked. The American Academy of Pediatrics and Autism Speaks have "decried Trump's remarks as false and potentially dangerous."
In 2010, the Donald J. Trump Foundation donated $10,000 to Generation Rescue, Jenny McCarthy's nonprofit organization that advocates the incorrect view that autism and related disorders are primarily caused by vaccines.
Despite his prior views, however, Trump did drop his claims of vaccines being related to autism in 2019 after the 2019 measles outbreaks, in saying: "They have to get those shots," as well as "...vaccinations are so important".
Illegal immigration was a signature issue of Trump's presidential campaign, and his proposed reforms and controversial remarks about Trump has also expressed support for a variety of "limits on legal immigration and guest-worker visas," including a "pause" on granting green cards, which Trump says will "allow record immigration levels to subside to more moderate historical averages."
Trump in August 2019 accused Democrats of supporting "open borders" by attempting to use their opposition to his immigration priorities as an example despite no explicit evidence to support his claim. He also claimed that his administration is "building the wall faster and better than ever", but no new barriers were erected by June 2019 at the Mexico-U.S. border unlike what Trump promised during his 2016 campaign. The only installations have been replacement fencing of old barriers. Trump also falsely claimed that only 02% of who were released instead of detained eventually returned for their immigration hearings. The 2017 statistic is 72% for migrants, and 89% of migrants applying for asylum.
Law and order
Trump has long advocated for capital punishment in the United States. In May 1989, shortly after the Central Park jogger case received widespread media attention, Trump purchased a full-page ad in four New York City newspapers with the title "BRING BACK THE DEATH PENALTY!" Five defendants (the "Central Park Five") were wrongfully convicted in the case and were subsequently exonerated. By October 2016, Trump still maintained that the "Central Park Five" were guilty.
In December 2015, in a speech accepting the endorsement of the New England Police Benevolent Association, Trump said that "One of the first things I do [if elected President] in terms of executive order if I win will be to sign a strong, strong statement that will go out to the country, out to the world, that...anybody killing a police officer—death penalty. It's going to happen, O.K.?" However, the president has no authority over these prosecutions as they usually take place in state court under state law, and over one-third of U.S. states have already abolished the death penalty. Furthermore, mandatory death sentences are unconstitutional, as held by the Supreme Court in Woodson v. North Carolina (1976).
Trump has said that he believes that "torture absolutely works". During his campaign, Trump said that "I would bring back waterboarding, and I'd bring back a hell of a lot worse than waterboarding". However, during his presidency, he did not bring back waterboarding.
As of May 2016, Trump's campaign website makes no mention of criminal justice reform, and Trump rarely talks specifics. Trump has stated that he would be "tough on crime" and criticized Barack Obama's and Hillary Clinton's criminal justice reform proposals. When asked about specific criminal justice reforms, Trump reportedly often changes the subject back to supporting police or vague answers about needing to be "tough." In January 2016, Trump said that along with veterans, "the most mistreated people in this country are police."
Trump supports the use of "stop and frisk" tactics, of the kind once used in New York City. In 2000, Trump also rejected as elitist and naive the arguments of criminal justice reformers that the U.S. criminal justice system puts too many criminals in jail. Trump is in favor of at least one mandatory sentence, where using a gun to commit a crime results in a five-year sentence.
Trump has on several occasions asserted that crime is rising in the United States. Trump's assertion that crime is rising is false; in fact, both violent crime and property declined consistently declining in the U.S. from the early 1990s until 2014. Trump's claim that "inner-city crime is reaching record levels" received a "pants-on-fire" rating from PolitiFact. As President, Trump reiterated in February 2017 the false claim that crime was rising, saying, "the murder rate in our country is the highest it's been in 47 years."
In May 2016, Trump stated that the cities of Oakland and Ferguson are "among the most dangerous in the world". In response, CBS News in San Francisco reported that the murder rates in Oakland and Baghdad are comparable, but PolitiFact rated Trump's claim false given that "homicide rates alone are not enough to gauge whether a city is dangerous or not".
On November 22, 2015, Trump retweeted a graphic with purported statistics—cited to a nonexistent "Crime Statistics Bureau"—which claimed that African Americans were responsible for 81% of the homicides of White Americans and that police were responsible for 1% of black homicides compared to 4% of white homicides. Trump's retweet earned PolitiFact's "Pants on Fire" rating and was called "grossly inaccurate" by FactCheck.org the next day. Blacks were actually responsible for only 15% of white homicides according to FBI data for 2014. The breakdown of the racial differences in police killings in Trump's retweet was also inaccurate. Based on the percentages, the number of whites killed by police would be almost 4 times greater than the number of blacks. Data from the Washington Post for 2009 to 2013 showed a ratio of 1.5 white deaths by police for each black death. A separate estimate by Peter Moskos, associate professor at the John Jay College of Criminal Justice attributed 10% of white homicides to police and 4% to police for blacks. When asked about the statistics, Trump maintained that the statistics came "from sources that are very credible."
At a luncheon hosted by the Miami Herald in April 1990, Trump told a crowd of 700 people that U.S. drug enforcement policy was "a joke," and that: "We're losing badly the war on drugs. You have to legalize drugs to win that war. You have to take the profit away from these drug czars."
In his campaign for the presidency in 2015 and 2016, however, Trump adopted "drug warrior" positions and has sought advice on the issue from William J. Bennett, who served as the U.S. first "drug czar" in the 1980s "and has remained a proponent of harsh 1980s-style drug war tactics." Trump told Sean Hannity in June 2015 that he opposes marijuana legalization and that "I feel strongly about that." Trump also claims to have personally never used controlled substances of any kind.
Trump has voiced support for medical marijuana, saying that he is "a hundred percent in favor" because "I know people that have serious problems...and...it really, really does help them." When asked about Colorado (where recreational use of marijuana is legal), Trump softened his previously expressed views and essentially said that states should be able to decide on whether marijuana for recreational purposes should be legal.
In his 2000 book The America We Deserve, Trump wrote that he generally opposed gun control, but supported the ban on assault weapons and supported a "slightly longer waiting period to purchase a gun." In his book, Trump also criticized the gun lobby, saying: "The Republicans walk the N.R.A. line and refuse even limited restrictions." In 2008, Trump opposed hunting-education classes in schools and called the "thought of voluntarily putting guns in the classroom...a really bad plan."
While campaigning for the presidency Trump reversed some of his positions on gun issues, calling for the expansion of gun rights. In 2015 he described himself as a staunch advocate of the Second Amendment and said concealed carry "is a right, not a privilege." He proposed eliminating prohibitions on assault weapons, military-style weapons and high-capacity magazines (which Trump described as "scary sounding phrases" used by gun control advocates "to confuse people"), as well as making concealed carry permits valid nationwide, rather than on the current state-to-state basis. At his campaign website he called for an overhaul of the current federal background check system, arguing that "Too many states are failing to put criminal and mental health records into the system."
On the campaign trail in 2015, Trump praised the National Rifle Association (NRA), and received the group's endorsement after becoming the presumptive Republican nominee. He asserted that the presence of more guns in schools and public places could have stopped mass shootings such as those in Paris, San Bernardino, California, and Umpqua Community College. Trump supported barring people on the government's terrorist watch list from purchasing weapons, saying in 2015: "If somebody is on a watch list and an enemy of state and we know it's an enemy of state, I would keep them away, absolutely." This is one position where Trump departs from the position of gun-rights groups and most of his Republican rivals for the presidency and supports a stance backed by Senate Democrats. Trump said that he holds a New York concealed carry permit and that "I carry on occasion, sometimes a lot. I like to be unpredictable." A 1987 Associated Press story said that he held a handgun permit at that time.
In January 2016, Trump said: "I will get rid of gun-free zones on schools, and—you have to—and on military bases...My first day, it gets signed, okay? My first day. There's no more gun-free zones." Trump could not eliminate gun-free school zones by executive order, however, since such zones were created by a federal law that can only be reversed by Congress. In May 2016, Trump made ambiguous comments on guns in classrooms, saying: "I don't want to have guns in classrooms. Although, in some cases, teachers should have guns in classrooms." In May 2016, Trump accused Hillary Clinton of lying when she claimed that "Donald Trump would force schools to allow guns in classrooms on his first day in office." According to the Washington Post fact-checker, Clinton's statement was accurate.
In June 2016, Trump said "it would have been a beautiful, beautiful sight" to see Omar Mateen shot in the head by an armed patron in the Orlando nightclub shooting, reiterating his stance that more people should be armed in public places. A few days later, after two top officials of the NRA challenged the notion that drinking clubgoers should be armed, Trump reversed his position, saying that he "obviously" meant that additional guards or employees should have been armed in the nightclub. Security personnel and other staffers at a number of Trump's hotels and golf courses told ABC News that patrons are not permitted to carry guns on the property. A Trump spokesman denied this, saying that licensed persons are permitted to carry guns on the premises.
At a rally on August 9, 2016, Trump accused his opponent of wanting to "essentially abolish the Second Amendment", and went on: "By the way, and if she gets to pick her judges, nothing you can do, folks. Although the Second Amendment people, maybe there is, I don't know." These comments were interpreted by critics as suggesting violence against Clinton or her appointees, but Trump's campaign stated that he was referring to gun rights advocates' "great political power" as a voting bloc.
One month after his inauguration, Trump reversed an Obama-era regulation that had been intended to prevent weapons purchases by certain people with mental health problems. Had the regulation been allowed to take effect, it would have added 75,000 names, including the names of those whose receive federal financial assistance due to a mental illness or who have financial proxies due to a mental illness, to a background check database.
Following the Stoneman Douglas High School shooting in February 2018, Trump met with students and others at the White House for a "listening session." Trump suggested arming up to 20% of the teachers to stop "maniacs" from attacking students. The following day Trump called a "gun free" school a "magnet" for criminals and tweeted, "Highly trained, gun adept, teachers/coaches would solve the problem instantly, before police arrive. GREAT DETERRENT!"
In August 2019, following mass shootings in El Paso, Texas and Dayton, Ohio, Trump declined to support universal background checks, saying that existing background checks are already "very, very strong," even though "we have sort of missing areas and areas that don’t complete the whole circle.” He also indicated that he was not interested in working on bipartisan compromises.
According to The New York Times, many of Trump's statements on legal topics are "extemporaneous and resist conventional legal analysis," with some appearing "to betray ignorance of fundamental legal concepts."
Trump has stated that he wants to replace Antonin Scalia on the U.S. Supreme Court with "a person of similar views and principles". He has released a list of eleven potential picks to replace Scalia. The jurists are widely considered to be conservative. All are white, and eight of the eleven are men. The list includes five out of the eight individuals recommended by the Heritage Foundation, a conservative think tank. Trump had previously insisted that he would seek guidance from conservative groups such as the Federalist Society and the Heritage Foundation when it came to picking Supreme Court candidates. Several of the judges listed by Trump have questioned abortion rights. Six of the eleven judges have clerked for conservative Supreme Court justices.
Trump has claimed that he "would probably appoint" justices to the Supreme Court who "would look very seriously" at the Hillary Clinton email controversy "because it's a criminal activity." However, under the U.S. Constitution, Supreme Court justices "are neither investigators nor prosecutors."
Trump has criticized Chief Justice of the United States John Roberts, a George W. Bush appointee, as a "nightmare for conservatives," citing Roberts' vote in the 2015 decision in King v. Burwell, which upheld provisions of the Affordable Care Act. He has also blamed Roberts for the June 2015 Supreme Court ruling legalizing same-sex marriage, apparently in error, since in that case Roberts actually dissented from the majority opinion.
In February 2016, Trump called on the Senate to stop Obama from filling the vacant seat on the Supreme Court.
An analysis by FiveThirtyEight shows that, under the assumption that Scalia's vacant seat on the Court will not be filled, and taking account of the advanced age of three of the sitting justices, that a Trump presidency would move the Supreme Court "rightward toward its most conservative position in recent memory".
Comments on judges and judicial decisions
Since taking office, Trump has made a series of "escalating attacks on the federal judiciary" in response to judicial decisions against him. After a federal district judge issued a stay of Trump's executive order on travel, immigration, and refugees, Trump disparaged the judge on Twitter, referring to him as a "the so-called judge" and writing: "[He] put our country in such peril. If something happens blame him and court system. People pouring in. Bad!"
While presidents in the past have sometimes offered muted criticism of judicial opinions, Trump's personal attacks on individual judges are seen as unprecedented in American history. Trump's remarks prompted criticism from his own Supreme Court nominee, Judge Neil Gorsuch, who told Senator Richard Blumenthal that Trump's statements were "disheartening" and "demoralizing" to the federal judiciary. A number of legal scholars feared that Trump's conduct could undermine public confidence in the courts and endanger the independence of the judiciary.
Term limits and ethics regulations
In October 2016, Trump said that he would push for a constitutional amendment to impose term limits on members of Congress, so that members of the House of Representatives could serve for a maximum of six years and Senators for a maximum of twelve years. Trump also pledged to re-institute a ban on executive branch officials from lobbying for five years after leaving government service and said that he supported Congress instituting a similar five-year lobbying ban of its own, applicable to former members and staff. Under current "cooling-off period" regulations, former U.S. Representatives are required to wait one year before they can lobby Congress, former U.S. Senators are required to two years, and former executive-branch officials "must wait either two years or one year before lobbying their former agency, depending on how senior they were."
On multiple occasions since taking office in 2017, Trump has questioned presidential term limits and in public remarks has talked about serving beyond the limits of the 22nd Amendment. For instance, during an April 2019 White House event for the Wounded Warrior Project, he joked that he would remain president "at least for 10 or 14 years".
During a rally in June 2020, President Trump told supporters that he thinks flag burning should be punishable by one year in prison.
Video game violence
Trump has voiced his opposition to video game violence. After it was erroneously reported that the Sandy Hook shooter frequently played violent video games, Trump tweeted, "Video game violence & glorification must be stopped—it is creating monsters!"
After the 2019 El Paso shooting, Trump said in a speech, "We must stop the glorification of violence in our society. This includes the gruesome and grisly video games that are now commonplace. It is too easy today for troubled youth to surround themselves with a culture that celebrates violence. We must stop or substantially reduce this and it has to begin immediately."
Trump supports online gambling, based on the following reasoning: "This has to happen because many other countries are doing it and like usual the U.S. is just missing out."
Science and technology
- See also Climate change and pollution, above.
A 2016 report in Scientific American graded Trump and three other top presidential candidates—Hillary Clinton, Gary Johnson, and Jill Stein—on science policy, based on their responses to a twenty-question ScienceDebate.org survey. Trump "came in last on all counts" in grading, with scientists and researchers faulting him for a lack of knowledge or appreciation of scientific issues.
As of October 2016, one of Trump's policy advisors declared that, under Trump, NASA would recreate the National Space Council and pursue a goal of "human exploration of the solar system by the end of the century", to drive technology developments to a stronger degree than a manned mission to Mars. Other goals would include shifting budget to deep space exploration from Earth science and climate research, and pursuit of small satellites and hypersonic technology. A possibility of China joining the International Space Station program was also considered. A stronger role of manned Lunar exploration is possible in NASA's quest for a manned mission to Mars. Prior to that statement, the Trump campaign appeared to have little to no space policy at all.
Technology and net neutrality
As of June 2016, Trump has published no tech policy proposals. On the campaign trail, Trump frequently antagonized Silicon Valley figures, using his Twitter account to lambast tech leaders such as Jeff Bezos of Amazon, Tim Cook of Apple, and Brian Chesky of Airbnb over a series of months. He is particularly concerned about the social breakdown of American culture caused by technology, and said, "the Internet and the whole computer age is really a mixed bag," having "complicated lives very greatly."
Trump has suggested closing "certain areas" of the Internet. Regarding how this relates to freedom of speech, he added "Somebody will say, 'Oh freedom of speech, freedom of speech.' These are foolish people. We have a lot of foolish people."
The Free Press Action Fund, a group of tech policy activists, rated Trump the worst 2016 presidential candidate for "citizens' digital lives," citing his positions opposing reforming the Patriot Act, favoring Internet censorship, and opposing net neutrality.
Social issues and civil liberties
Trump describes himself as pro-life and generally opposes abortion with some exceptions: rape, incest, and circumstances endangering the health of the mother. He has said that he is committed to appointing justices who may overturn the ruling in Roe v. Wade.
In early 2017, Trump reversed an Obama-era directive that had required companies with large federal contracts to prove their compliance with LGBT protections.
In 2018, Trump signed the United States-Mexico-Canada trade agreement with a footnote exempting the United States from complying with the agreement's call for an end to "sex-based discrimination".
The Trump administration unsuccessfully tried to eliminate nondiscrimination protections at the level of the Supreme Court, where the Justice Department intervened in three employment lawsuits—Bostock v. Clayton County, Georgia; Altitude Express, Inc. v. Zarda; and Harris Funeral Homes v. EEOC—arguing that Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 does not prohibit job discrimination based on sexual orientation or "transgender status." However, despite the Trump administration's intervention, the Supreme Court ruled on these three cases on June 15, 2020, that sexual orientation and gender identity are indeed covered under existing protections for "sex discrimination."
The Affordable Care Act included an Obama-era nondiscrimination provision that explicitly entitled people to receive care regardless of sex or gender identity, but the Trump administration reversed it. On June 12, 2020, the Department of Health and Human Services finalized and revealed its replacement rule. Now, health care providers and insurers may decide whether to serve transgender people.
One month after taking office, Trump reversed a directive from the Obama administration that had allowed transgender students to use bathrooms that correspond with their gender identity; this reversal allowed public schools to make their own rules about gendered bathrooms. In 2020, the Department of Education threatened to withhold funding from Connecticut school districts that allow transgender girls to compete on girls' teams, claiming that the transgender students' participation is a violation of Title IX.
Six months into his presidency, Trump tweeted that transgender individuals would not be allowed to serve "in any capacity" in the U.S. military, an order that took Pentagon officials by surprise. Eventually, in 2019, the Supreme Court—without hearing arguments or explaining its own decision—allowed the Trump administration to move ahead with the ban.
In 2018, the Department of Health and Human Services wrote a memo planning to establish a definition of gender based on sex assignment at birth. The memo argued in favor of a definition of gender "on a biological basis that is clear, grounded in science, objective and administrable" and the government's prerogative to genetically test individuals to determine their sex. If approved by the Justice Department, the definition would apply across federal agencies, notably the departments of Education, Justice, and Labor, which, along with Health and Human Services, are responsible for enforcing Title IX nondiscrimination statutes.
In 2019, HUD proposed a new rule to weaken the 2012 Equal Access Rule, which requires equal access to housing regardless of sexual orientation or gender identity. This could allow homeless shelters to place transgender women in men's housing or to deny transgender people admission altogether.
In April 2021 Donald Trump attacked Arkansas governor Asa Hutchinson after he vetoed legislation that would ban gender-affirming medical care for transgender people younger than 18, which was later overturned.
After several decades of national debate, the U.S. Supreme Court legalized same-sex marriage nationwide in 2015 in the Obergefell v. Hodges ruling. After his election, Trump acknowledged that the court had already "settled" the issue. Trump has not, however, been a personal proponent of same-sex marriage, saying as recently as 2011 that he was "not in favor of gay marriage" and saying during his 2016 campaign that he would "strongly consider" appointing Supreme Court justices who were inclined to overturn Obergefell v. Hodges.
The Trump administration has made efforts to remove questions about LGBT identity and relationships from the 2020 Census, the American Community Survey, the annual National Survey of Older Americans Act Participants (NSOAAP), and the Adoption and Foster Care Analysis and Reporting System.
In 2017, Trump dissolved the Office of National AIDS Policy and the Presidential Advisory Council on HIV/AIDS, both of which had existed since the 1990s. Every year on World AIDS Day—2017, 2018, 2019—Trump's proclamations have omitted mention of LGBT people.
In 2018, the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) announced the creation of the Conscience and Religious Freedom Division. Its purpose is to enforce federal laws that related to "conscience and religious freedom"; that is, to enable individuals and businesses to exempt themselves from obeying nondiscrimination laws.
In 2019, HHS granted an exemption from an Obama-era nondiscrimination regulation to a foster care agency in South Carolina. HHS cited the Religious Freedom Restoration Act (RFRA) as a basis for allowing federally funded Christian groups to discriminate against non-Christians. Later that year, the Department of Labor, also referencing the RFRA, proposed a new rule to exempt "religious organizations" from obeying employment nondiscrimination law if they invoke "sincerely held religious tenets and beliefs" as their reason to discriminate. In 2020, the Justice Department filed a brief with the Supreme Court in support of another foster care agency in Pennsylvania, defending the agency's right to turn away same-sex couples as part of its “free exercise of religion.”
In 2019, the State Department created the Commission on Unalienable Rights to initiate philosophical discussions of human rights that are grounded in the Catholic concept of "natural law" rather than modern identities based on gender and sexuality. Most of the twelve members of the commission have a history of anti-LGBT comments.
The Trump administration eliminated the State Department's position for a Special Envoy for the Human Rights of LGBTI Persons.
In 2018, the Trump administration denied visas to the unmarried same-sex partners of foreign diplomats, even if they were from countries that recognize only civil partnership or that ban same-sex marriage.
Richard Grenell, nominated by Trump as the U.S. Ambassador to Germany, is openly gay. In February 2019, Grenell was announced as the leader of a new campaign to decriminalize homosexuality worldwide, and he hosted a meeting with 11 European activists. Trump seemed unaware of the initiative when he was asked about it the next day. Several months later, Trump tweeted that, "as we celebrate LGBT Pride Month," Americans should "stand in solidarity with the many LGBT people who live in dozens of countries worldwide that punish, imprison, or even execute" people for their sexual orientation. However, that same week, the Trump administration instructed U.S. embassies not to fly the Pride flag during Pride Month.
About one-third of Trump's judicial nominees have anti-LGBT records. The U.S. Senate has, as of May 2020, confirmed nearly 400 of Trump's nominees to their new roles. At least one of the confirmed judges, Patrick Bumatay, is openly gay.
Marijuana and the rights of individual states to legalize recreational and medical marijuana was an issue of Trump's presidential campaign, and he formally stated during his campaign that he believed states should have the right to manage their own policies with regard to medical and recreational marijuana. Following his election, he reversed his position on recreational marijuana and stated he believed medical marijuana should be allowed but stated the Federal Government may seek legal resolutions for those states which regulate the growth and sale of recreational marijuana. However, in April 2018, he once again reversed himself, endorsing leaving the issue to the states; and in June 2018, Trump backed a bill introduced by Republican Senator Cory Gardner of Colorado and Democratic Senator Elizabeth Warren of Massachusetts that would leave the decision to the states.
- Donald Trump 2016 presidential campaign#Political positions
- Donald Trump on social media
- Presidency of Donald Trump
- "Trumpism". Cambridge Dictionary. Cambridge University Press. Retrieved July 30, 2020.
- "How Trumpism has come to define the Republican Party". www.msn.com. Archived from the original on October 11, 2018. Retrieved March 25, 2018.
- "The GOP platform's ruling plank: Trumpism". Laredo Morning Times. Retrieved March 25, 2018.
- Gillin, Joshua; "Bush says Trump was a Democrat longer than a Republican 'in the last decade'", PolitiFact (August 24, 2015).
- Moody, Chris; "Trump in '04: 'I probably identify more as Democrat'", CNN (July 21, 2015).
- Johnson, Jenna; "Donald Trump's vision of doom and despair in America", Washington Post (July 21, 2016).
- Reena Flores, "Donald Trump offers dark vision of America in GOP convention speech", CBS News (July 22, 2016).
- Jackson, David; "Donald Trump accepts GOP nomination, says 'I alone can fix' system", USA Today (July 22, 2016).
- Rucker, Philip; Fahrenthold, David A.; "Donald Trump positions himself as the voice of 'the forgotten men and women'", Washington Post (July 21, 2016).
- Page, Susan; "Analysis: Trump's short, dark and defiant inaugural address" Archived July 17, 2017, at the Wayback Machine, USA Today (January 20, 2017).
- "Donald Trump's full inauguration speech and transcript". Global News. January 20, 2017. Archived from the original on January 28, 2017. Retrieved January 28, 2017.
- "Donald Trump is sworn in as president, vows to end 'American carnage'". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on January 22, 2017. Retrieved January 22, 2017.
- O'Keefe, Ed; Balz Dan; Weigel, David; "In GOP platform fight, Donald Trump is a distant presence", Washington Post (July 11, 2016).
- Johnson, Jenna; "'I will give you everything.' Here are 282 of Donald Trump's campaign promises", Washington Post (November 24, 2016).
- "Trump: I Am a Nationalist in a True Sense". RealClearPolitics. February 27, 2017.
- "Trump: 'I'm a nationalist'". Politico. Retrieved October 23, 2018.
- "Promoting His Agenda, Trump Embraces the 'Nationalist' Label". Retrieved October 23, 2018.
- "Trump Has Discussed Starting a New Political Party - WSJ.com". WSJ. Associated Press. January 19, 2021. Retrieved January 19, 2021.
- Muller, Jan-Werner (2016). What Is Populism?. University of Pennsylvania Press. p. 101. ISBN 9780812293784.
- Kazin, Michael. How Can Donald Trump and Bernie Sanders Both Be 'Populist'?, New York Times (March 22, 2016).
- Becker, Bernie. Trump's 6 populist positions, Politico (February 13, 2016).
- Gerald F. Seib (August 8, 2016). "Separating Donald Trump From Trumpism". Wall Street Journal.
- "Mitt Romney: Vote for Ted Cruz over 'Trumpism'". BBC News. March 18, 2016. Retrieved December 5, 2016.
- Krugman, Paul. Obama's War on Inequality, New York Times (May 20, 2016): "Just for the record, while Mr. Trump is sometimes described as a 'populist,' almost every substantive policy he has announced would make the rich richer at workers' expense".
- Norris, Pippa (March 11, 2016). "It's not just Trump. Authoritarian populism is rising across the West. Here's why". Washington Post.
- Shapiro, Walter (February 23, 2016). "Dear Republican Sirs: It's Up to You to Save the Republic". Roll Call. Archived from the original on January 23, 2020. Retrieved May 17, 2016.
He is the embodiment of the authoritarian temptation that has imperiled liberty since the days of the Roman Republic.
- Chait, Jonathan (May 13, 2016). "Here's How Donald Trump's Authoritarianism Would Actually Work". New York.
- Transcript: Donald Trump Sweeps Nebraska and West Virginia Primaries; Bernie Sanders Wins West Virginia But Gains Little, CNN (May 11, 2016).
- Charles C. W. Cooke (December 8, 2015). "Here's How Donald Trump's Authoritarianism Would Actually Work". National Review.
- Gillespie, Nick. Donald Trump Supporters Are Less Authoritarian Than Ted Cruz Voters, Reason.com (March 14, 2016): "Understanding Trump as a populist rather than an authoritarian helps explain why he can get away with sloppy, inconsistent thinking."
- Benjamin, Rich (September 27, 2020). "Democrats Need to Wake Up: The Trump Movement Is Shot Through With Fascism". The Intercept.
- Adam Liptak, Donald Trump Could Threaten U.S. Rule of Law, Scholars Say, New York Times (June 3, 2016).
- Anthony D. Romero, ACLU Director: We will defend the constitution against a President Trump, Washington Post (July 13, 2016).
- Barro, Josh (August 14, 2015). "Donald Trump, Moderate Republican". The Upshot, The New York Times. Retrieved March 5, 2016.
- Hains, Tim. "Joe Scarborough: Donald Trump Is A Centrist Democrat On Social Issues, 'It's Not Been A Secret'", Real Clear Politics (April 22, 2016).
- With All Due Respect (TV series) (April 21, 2016).
- Limbaugh, Rush. Trump Walks It Back on Bathrooms (April 25, 2016): "[P]eople make Trump into what they want him to be. So here you have these two guys Heilemann and Halperin, who are liberals, and they want to like Trump, I think."
- "Trump administration cuts off funding to UN Population Fund over concerns about abortion". The Daily Telegraph. April 4, 2017.
- "Mark Cuban Calls Trump the 'Zoolander President.' He's Also Not Ruling Out a White House Bid". Fortune. March 12, 2017.
- "Social Conservatives Are 'Over the Moon' About Trump". Politico. April 26, 2017.
- "France Poses Biggest Test Yet for Trump's Brand of Nationalism". The New York Times. April 21, 2017.
- "Trump visits Poland and not everyone is happy about it". USA Today. July 3, 2017.
- John Cassidy, Donald Trump Is Transforming the G.O.P. into a Populist, Nativist Party, New Yorker (February 29, 2016).
- Hiatt, Fred (August 23, 2015). "Donald Trump's nativist bandwagon". The Washington Post. Retrieved March 5, 2016.
- Donald Brand, How Donald Trump's Nativism Ruined the GOP, Fortune (June 21, 2016).
- Lowry, Rich. Yes, Pander to Trump on Immigration, Politico (August 19, 2015).
- Kudlow, Lawrence; Moore, Stephen (August 26, 2015). "Donald Trump: A 21st Century Protectionist Herbert Hoover". Real Clear Politics. Retrieved March 5, 2016.
- Zeitz, Josh (July 18, 2016). "How Trump Is Recycling Nixon's 'Law and Order' Playbook". POLITICO Magazine. Retrieved February 5, 2017.
- Eady, Gregory; Loewen, Peter (July 28, 2020). "Measuring Public Uncertainty about Candidate Ideology: An Application to US Presidential Elections". The Journal of Politics. 83 (2): 794–799. doi:10.1086/710147. ISSN 0022-3816. S2CID 225466445.
- "2016 presidential candidate ratings and scorecards". Ballotpedia.org. Retrieved July 27, 2016.
- "Donald Trump On the Issues August 16, 2003". August 16, 2003. Archived from the original on August 16, 2003. Retrieved July 27, 2016.CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
- "Donald Trump On the Issues December 5, 2003". December 5, 2003. Archived from the original on December 5, 2003. Retrieved July 27, 2016.CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
- "Donald Trump On the Issues May 7, 2011". Archived from the original on May 7, 2011. Retrieved July 27, 2016.CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
- "Donald Trump On the Issues February 26, 2012". Archived from the original on February 26, 2012. Retrieved July 27, 2016.CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
- "Donald Trump On the Issues May 27, 2013". Archived from the original on December 13, 2013. Retrieved July 27, 2016.CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
- "Donald Trump On the Issues September 24, 2014". Archived from the original on October 3, 2014. Retrieved July 27, 2016.CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
- "Donald Trump On the Issues July 19, 2015". Archived from the original on July 19, 2015. Retrieved July 27, 2016.
- "Donald Trump on the issues December 31, 2015". Archived from the original on December 31, 2015. Retrieved December 31, 2016.CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
- "Donald Trump On the issues August 1, 2016". Ontheissues.org. Archived from the original on August 1, 2016. Retrieved August 1, 2016.
- "Donald Trump on the Issues October 4, 2017". On the Issues. Archived from the original on October 4, 2017. Retrieved October 4, 2017.
- "Where President Trump stands on the issues in 2020". PBS NewsHour. June 19, 2019. Retrieved August 9, 2019.
- Amber Phillips (August 8, 2016). "A shortlist of economic issues on which Donald Trump sounds more like a Democrat than a Republican". Washington Post.
- Baker, Peter (October 23, 2018). "'Use That Word!': Trump Embraces the 'Nationalist' Label". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved August 9, 2019.
- Jenna Johnson (May 13, 2016). "Trump: All policy proposals are just flexible suggestions". Washington Post.
- "Campaign 2015: The Candidates & the World: Donald Trump on Immigration". Council on Foreign Relations. Archived from the original on February 5, 2017. Retrieved May 15, 2016.
- Keller, Jon. "On The Issues: Building A Wall Along The Mexican Border", Boston Globe (February 2, 2016): "It has become Donald Trump's signature issue: his vow to wall off the Mexican border..."
- "Trump Pence Campaign Policies". October 16, 2016. Archived from the original on November 1, 2016.
- "Fact Check: Donald Trump's First 100 Days Action Plan". November 10, 2016.
- David A. Fahrenthold (August 17, 2015). "20 times Donald Trump has changed his mind since June". Washington Post.
- Jane C. Timm (March 30, 2016). "'Meet the Press' tracks Trump's flip-flops". NBC News.
- Timothy Noah (July 26, 2015). "Will the real Donald Trump please stand up?". Politico.
- Chris Cillizza, The massive flip-floppery of Donald Trump, explained in 113 seconds, Washington Post (July 12, 2015).
- Michelle Ye Hee, A guide to all of Donald Trump's flip-flops on the minimum wage, Washington Post (August 3, 2016).
- Louis Jacobson, Trying to pin down what Donald Trump thinks about abortion, the minimum wage, taxes, and U.S. debt, PolitiFact (May 11, 2016). "But how much of this stems from actual changes in position from one day to the next, and how much stems from his penchant for using confusing, vague and even contradictory language?"
- Kruse, Michael; Weil, Noah. "Donald Trump's Greatest Self-Contradictions". POLITICO Magazine. Retrieved July 15, 2019.
- Timothy Noah (July 26, 2015). "Will the real Donald Trump please stand up?". Politico.
- Jane C. Timm (November 7, 2016). "Here Are All of Donald Trump's Flip-Flops on Big Issues". NBC News.
- "The 'King of Whoppers': Donald Trump". FactCheck.org. December 21, 2015.
- Holan, Angie Drobnic; Qiu, Linda (December 21, 2015). "2015 Lie of the Year: the campaign misstatements of Donald Trump". PolitiFact.com.
- Farhi, Paul (February 26, 2016). "Think Trump's wrong? Fact checkers can tell you how often. (Hint: A lot.)". The Washington Post.
- Kelly, Meg; Rizzo, Salvador; Kessler, Glenn (September 13, 2018). "President Trump has made more than 5,000 false or misleading claims". The Washington Post. Retrieved February 19, 2019.
- [Trump's Lies vs. Obama's https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2017/12/14/opinion/sunday/trump-lies-obama-who-is-worse.html NYT-Trump's Lies Vs. Obama's-December 14, 2017]
- Richard Pildes, What are Donald Trump's Views on Campaign Finance Regulation?, Election Law Blog (ed. Richard L. Hasen) (March 23, 2016).
- "Trump: 'I Love the Idea of Campaign Finance Reform'". Bloomberg Politics. August 14, 2016.
- Peter Overby, Presidential Candidates Pledge To Undo 'Citizens United.' But Can They?, Morning Edition NPR (February 14, 2016) ("Trump says he supports campaign finance reform, though a specific plan is not available on his website.").
- Charles Borden, Claire Rajan & Daniel Holman, The Presidential Candidates on Campaign Finance Reform, Corporate Counsel (March 23, 2016) ("While saying he is open to reform, however, Trump has refrained from detailing specific policies and focused instead on accusing fellow candidates of being bought while arguing that his personal wealth guarantees his political independence.").
- Eugene Scott. "Trump on public financing: 'I don't know yet'". CNN. Retrieved June 15, 2016.
- Richardson, Bradford (January 17, 2016). "Trump open to campaign finance reform". The Hill.
- Levinthal, Dave. "Trump Embraces Donors, Super PACs He Once Decried". Time. Retrieved July 29, 2016.
- Grant, Peter; Mullins, Brody (May 16, 2016). "Donald Trump Wouldn't Have Had the Ready Cash to Self-Finance Entire Campaign – Analysis". Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved June 15, 2016.
- Langley, Monica; Ballhaus, Rebecca (May 5, 2016). "Donald Trump Won't Self-Fund General-Election Campaign". Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved June 15, 2016.
- Sara Murray; Theodore Schleifer (May 18, 2016). "How Donald Trump won over big donors". CNN.
- Emily Flitter (July 20, 2016). "Exclusive: Trump could seek new law to purge government of Obama appointees". Reuters.
- Philip Rucker and Robert Costa, Washington Post Bannon Vows a Daily Fight For "Deconstruction of the Administrative State" February 23, 2017
- Irin Carmon, Disability rights have long been bipartisan. Will Trump end that?, MSNBC (June 1, 2016).
- What the candidates offer to Americans with disabilities, a growing voting bloc, PBS NewsHour, PBS (November 2, 2016): "Judy Woodruff: Trump doesn't address disability issues in detail on his Web site."
- Jacqueline Alemany, The election that forgot America's disabled, CBS News (November 4, 2016): "Trump has not mentioned a plan for research or improved care for the disabled, and there is nothing on his website on this issue."
- "Donald Trump on School Choice". American Principles in Action. Archived from the original on November 25, 2015. Retrieved November 25, 2015.
- Joshua Gillin, Common Core is 'education through Washington, D.C.,' Trump says, Politifact (March 10, 2016).
- Valerie Strauss, Donald Trump is wrong about Common Core — but he's not the only candidate who is, Washington Post (March 4, 2016).
- "Has Donald Trump promised education secretary to Ben Carson?". March 11, 2016. Retrieved July 15, 2016.
- Valerie Strauss (March 11, 2016). "Donald Trump thinks Ben Carson is an education expert. Oy vey". Washington Post.
- Ashley Parker (September 8, 2016). "Donald Trump Releases Education Proposal, Promoting School Choice". The New York Times.
- Abby Jackson (September 8, 2016). "Donald Trump just provided the first detailed education proposal of his campaign". Business Insider.
- Emmarie Huetteman & Yamiche Alcindor, Betsy DeVos Confirmed as Education Secretary; Pence Breaks Tie, New York Times (February 7, 2017).
- Greg Toppo, Trump education nominee opposed by special ed advocates, USA Today (January 31, 2017).
- Valerie Strauss, Why Betsy DeVos is the most polarizing education secretary nominee ever, Washington Post (January 31, 2017).
- "Trump: Eminent Domain "Wonderful"". Real Clear Politics. October 6, 2015.
- "Donald Trump's history of eminent domain abuse". Washington Post. August 19, 2015.
- Wheeler, Lydia (September 15, 2016). "Trump floats rolling back food safety regulations". Retrieved September 16, 2016.
- "Trump Campaign Pushes Food Safety Rollbacks, Then Deletes". The New York Times. The Associated Press. September 15, 2016. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved September 16, 2016.
- Colman McCarthy, Trumped Up Assault on Indian Gambling, Washington Post (October 26, 1993).
- Alexander Burns, Donald Trump's Instinct for Racially Charged Rhetoric, Before His Presidential Bid, New York Times (July 31, 2015).
- Joe Mahoney, Trump is Fines in Attack on Indian Casino, New York Daily News (November 14, 2000).
- Charles V. Bagli, Trump and Others Accept Fines For Ads in Opposition to Casinos, New York Times (October 6, 2000).
- Scott Allen, Donald Trump doesn't think the Redskins should change their name, Washington Post (October 5, 2015).
- John Keim, Donald Trump: Redskins a 'positive' name, Washington shouldn't change, ESPN (October 5, 2015).
- Mark Weiner, Oneida Indian Nation blasts Donald Trump for defending Washington Redskins, Syracuse.com (October 5, 2015).
- Michelle Ye Hee Lee, Fact Checker: Warren's heritage a target for Trump, Washington Post (June 28, 2016).
- Matea Gold, Karoun Demirjian & Mike DeBonis, Donald Trump's 'Pocahontas' attack on Elizabeth Warren leaves GOP struggling to defend him, Chicago Tribune (June 11, 2016).
- Jessica Hopper, Donald Trump Doubles Down on Calling Elizabeth Warren 'Pocahontas', ABC News (June 11, 2016).
- Dean Obeidallah, How Trump Smeared Native Americans Back in 1993, Daily Beast (June 2, 2016).
- Gass, Nick (January 12, 2012). "Trump: I'm still a birther". Politico. Retrieved October 27, 2018.
- Keneally, Meghan (September 18, 2015). "Trump's History of Raising Birther Questions About Obama". ABC News. Retrieved October 27, 2018.
- Epps, Garrett (February 26, 2016). "Trump's Birther Libel". The Atlantic. Retrieved October 27, 2018.
- "Donald Trump, birther?". Politico. Retrieved May 16, 2016.
- "Donald Trump says people who went to school with Obama never saw him". PolitiFact. February 14, 2011.
- "Donald Trump, Whoopi Goldberg, Spar Over Obama on 'The View'". Wall Street Journal. March 24, 2011.
- "Trump hammers away at Obama's citizenship question". Associated Press. April 7, 2011.
- Scherer, Michael (April 27, 2011). "Birtherism Is Dead, But the Birther Industry Continues". Time. ISSN 0040-781X.
- "Without Apology, Trump Now Says: 'Obama Was Born In' The U.S." NPR. Retrieved September 16, 2016.
- "Long, Strange Trip: Trump's Birther Claims Through the Years". NBC News. Retrieved September 18, 2016.
- "Trump: Obama born in Kenya". POLITICO. Retrieved May 16, 2016.
- "Donald Trump's Obama 'Bombshell' Falls Short". ABC News. October 24, 2012.
- "Trump Post-Debate Interview With Chris Matthews Goes Off The Rails: Won't Put "Birth Certificate" Talk To Bed". RealClearPolitics.com. December 16, 2015.
- Haberman, Maggie; Rappeport, Alan (September 16, 2016). "Trump Drops False 'Birther' Theory, but Floats a New One: Clinton Started It". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved September 16, 2016.
- "Trump on Birtherism: Wrong, and Wrong". www.factcheck.org. Retrieved September 16, 2016.
- "Trump finally backs off Obama birth claim, falsely accuses Clinton of starting it". Reuters. September 16, 2016. Retrieved September 16, 2016.
- "US election: Donald Trump keeping fact-checkers busy". BBC News. September 16, 2016. Retrieved September 16, 2016.
- "AP jumps on the "lie" bandwagon". Retrieved September 17, 2016.
- "Sopan Deb on Twitter". Archived from the original on March 8, 2021. Retrieved September 17, 2016.
- Cillizza, Chris (September 16, 2016). "Donald Trump's birther event is the greatest trick he's ever pulled". Washington Post. Retrieved September 19, 2016.
- "Trump air-quotes Obama's presidency". POLITICO. Retrieved October 15, 2016.
- "Promises about Medicare on Trump-O-Meter". Politifact. Retrieved August 11, 2020.
- Weissman, Jordan (January 22, 2020). "Donald Trump Says He's Willing to "Look" at Entitlements "Toward The End of This Year"". Slate. Retrieved August 11, 2020.
- Rupar, Aaron (February 10, 2020). "Trump vowed to not cut Social Security and Medicare — hours before proposing just that". Vox. Retrieved August 11, 2020.
- Picchi, Aimee (February 12, 2020). "Social Security: Here's what Trump's proposed budget could mean for your benefits". USA Today. Retrieved August 11, 2020.
- Romm, Tony (August 8, 2020). "Trump promises permanent cut to payroll tax funding Social Security and Medicare if he's reelected". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 11, 2020.
- Alonso-Zaldivar, Ricardo; Taylor, Taylor (August 10, 2020). "Dems say Trump's payroll tax break weakens Social Security". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 11, 2020.
- Konish, Lorie (August 10, 2020). "Trump's payroll tax cut would 'terminate' Social Security, critics say". CNBC. Retrieved August 11, 2020.
- "After 'not a war hero' remark, Donald Trump says John McCain has 'done nothing' for veterans". PolitiFact. Retrieved May 30, 2016.
- "At Rolling Thunder rally, Trump says those in U.S. illegally treated better than veterans". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved May 30, 2016.
- Ben Schreckinger (July 18, 2015). "Trump attacks McCain: 'I like people who weren't captured'". Politico.
- "Trump says 300,000 veterans died waiting VA care". politifact.com. Retrieved May 31, 2016.
- "Veterans Administration Reforms That Will Make America Great Again". Donald J. Trump for President, Inc. October 31, 2015. Archived from the original on October 31, 2015.
- Ali Vitali (October 31, 2015). "Donald Trump Gets Specific on Veteran's Affairs Policy Reform Plan". NBC News.
- Kesling, Ben (July 11, 2016). "Donald Trump Says He Would Make VA System More Privatized". Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved July 12, 2016.
- "Trump faces mounting attacks on veterans issues". Archived from the original on August 22, 2016. Retrieved July 11, 2016.
- "CNN - Transcripts". edition.cnn.com. Retrieved July 11, 2016.
- Kesling, Ben; Haddon, Heather (February 12, 2016). "Veterans' Wait After Trump Fundraiser Shows Hurdles for Campaign". Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved May 30, 2016.
- Haddon, Heather (April 7, 2016). "Veterans' Charities Await Funds Raised by Donald Trump". Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved May 30, 2016.
- "At Least $1.9 Million In Donations Trump Collected For Vets Was Sent Last Week". NPR. Retrieved December 20, 2018.
- "BREAKING: The Trump Administration Is Kicking HIV-Positive Soldiers Out of The Air Force". www.intomore.com. Retrieved December 20, 2018.
- "Fact check: Trump makes more than 20 false claims at Cincinnati rally". CNN. August 1, 2019. Retrieved August 3, 2019.
- Goldberg, Jeffrey (September 3, 2020). "Trump: Americans Who Died in War Are 'Losers' and 'Suckers'". The Atlantic. Retrieved September 4, 2020.
The president has repeatedly disparaged the intelligence of service members, and asked that wounded veterans be kept out of military parades, multiple sources tell The Atlantic.
- Maddow, Rachel; LaPorta, James (September 3, 2020). "AP report corroborates some stories of Trump deriding veterans - James LaPorta, investigative reporter for the Associated Press, talks with Rachel Maddow about his own reporting that confirms some of the episodes described in an Atlantic article depicting Donald Trump deriding military service and injured veterans". MSNBC. Retrieved September 4, 2020.
- Itkowitz, Colby; Horton, Alex; Leonnig, Carol D. (September 4, 2020). "Trump said U.S. soldiers injured and killed in war were 'losers,' magazine reports". The Washington Post. Retrieved September 4, 2020.
- Baker, Peter; Haberman, Maggie (September 4, 2020). "Trump Faces Uproar Over Reported Remarks Disparaging Fallen Soldiers - A report in The Atlantic said the president called troops killed in combat "losers" and "suckers." He strenuously denied it, but some close to him said it was in keeping with other private comments he has made disparaging soldiers". The New York Times. Retrieved September 5, 2020.
- Barr, Jeremy (September 5, 2020). "Jennifer Griffin defended by Fox News colleagues after Trump Twitter attack over confirmation of Atlantic reporting". Retrieved September 5, 2020.
- Armus, Ted (September 4, 2020). "'The last full measure of his disgrace': Veterans scorn Trump over report that he calls fallen soldiers 'losers'". The Washington Post. Retrieved September 4, 2020.
- "Trump Denies Report Alleging He Called American War Dead 'Losers' and 'Suckers'". Independent Journal Review. September 4, 2020. Retrieved November 3, 2020.
- Deese, Kaelan (September 4, 2020). "John Bolton says he didn't hear Trump insult fallen soldiers in France". TheHill. Retrieved November 3, 2020.
- Lauren Carroll (March 1, 2016). "Obama: None of the GOP candidates have climate change plan". PolitiFact.
- Valerie Volcovici, Trump taps climate change skeptic, fracking advocate as key energy advisor, Reuters (May 13, 2016).
- Michelle Conlin (July 21, 2016). "Exclusive: Trump considering fracking mogul Harold Hamm as energy secretary – sources". Reuters.
- Jill Colvin; Ellen Knickmeyer (May 27, 2016). "Trump tells California 'there is no drought'". Associated Press. Archived from the original on June 10, 2016.
- Ashley Parker & Coral Davenport (May 26, 2016). "Donald Trump's Energy Plan: More Fossil Fuels and Fewer Rules". The New York Times.
- Jason Samenow (March 22, 2016). "Donald Trump's unsettling nonsense on weather and climate". Washington Post.
- on YouTube, September 7, 2016 PBS NewsHour
- Ehrenfreund, Max. July 22, 2015. Here's what Donald Trump really believes. The Washington Post.
- "What Donald Trump said about the Chinese inventing the 'hoax' of climate change". PolitiFact. Retrieved May 16, 2016.
- "Trump: I was joking when I said the Chinese 'created' the concept of climate change". Business Insider. January 8, 2016. Retrieved January 30, 2016.
- "President Trump Renews Climate Change Denial Days After Defense Department Releases Daunting Report on Its Effects". Time. January 20, 2019.
- Tal Kopan; Heather Goldin (November 30, 2015). "Donald Trump: Obama climate change remarks one of 'dumbest things' uttered in history". CNN.
- "Trump: Obama has made us 'fools' with focus on climate change". The Hill. December 1, 2015. Retrieved January 30, 2016.
- Bernstein, Aaron P. (July 12, 2016). "Donald Trump would stand alone among world leaders: Sierra Club". CBS News. Reuters. Retrieved February 3, 2017.
- Adler, Ben; Leber, Rebecca (June 8, 2016). "Donald Trump once backed urgent climate action. Wait, what?". Grist. Retrieved March 6, 2017.
- Letzter, Rafi (August 26, 2016). "TRUMP: Claims of global warming still 'need to be investigated'". Business Insider. Retrieved October 24, 2016.
- "An America first Energy Plan". Donald J. Trump for President, Inc. Archived from the original on December 3, 2016. Retrieved May 27, 2016.
- "Donald Trump exaggerates how much coal in U.S. has been phased out". Politifact. December 15, 2015. Retrieved March 8, 2016.
- Lehmann, Evan (May 10, 2016). "Trump Cannot Bring Back Coal". Scientific American – ClimateWire. Retrieved August 12, 2016.
- Romm, Joe (February 10, 2017). "Energy experts give Trump the hard truth: You can't bring coal back". ThinkProgress. Retrieved February 12, 2017.
- Donald J. Trump Time to Get Tough: Making America#1 Again (Regnery, 2011), p. 15.
- Vanessa Schipani (May 30, 2016). "Trump on Hairspray and Ozone". FactCheck.org. Annenberg Public Policy Center.
- "White House blocked intelligence agency's written testimony saying climate change could be 'possibly catastrophic'". Washington Post.
- Friedman, Lisa (June 8, 2019). "White House Tried to Stop Climate Science Testimony, Documents Show". The New York Times.
- Holland, Steve; Flitter, Emily (May 18, 2016). "Exclusive: Trump would talk to North Korea's Kim, wants to renegotiate climate accord". Reuters.
- Valerie Volcovici; Emily Stephenson (May 27, 2016). "Trump vows to undo Obama's climate agenda in appeal to oil sector". Reuters. Retrieved May 27, 2016.
- Emily Flitter & Steve Holland, Exclusive: Skeptical Trump says would renegotiate global climate deal, Reuters (May 17, 2016).
- Ian Simpson More than 300 scientists warn over Trump's climate change stance, Reuters (September 20, 2016).
- An Open Letter Regarding Climate Change From Concerned Members of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences, ResponsibleScientists.org/Climate Science Rapid Response Team (September 20, 2016).
- Haddon, Heather (January 11, 2016). "Donald Trump Vows to Slash Funding for Education, EPA". The Wall Street Journal.
- "Full Interview and Transcript: Donald Trump on "FOX News Sunday" With Chris Wallace". www.realclearpolitics.com. Retrieved May 22, 2016.
- "Exclusive: Donald Trump Talks 2012, Calls Obama the 'Worst President Ever'". www.foxnews.com. June 16, 2016. Retrieved June 16, 2016.
- Rupert, Evelyn (July 29, 2016). "Trump indicates towns, states should be able to ban fracking". Retrieved July 30, 2016.
- Cama, Timothy (August 3, 2016). "Trump rattles industry with fracking position". The Hill. Retrieved October 24, 2016.
- Schleifer, Theodore. "Donald Trump supports the Keystone pipeline". CNN. Retrieved June 16, 2016.
- Katie Sanders, CNN's Van Jones says Keystone pipeline only creates 35 permanent jobs, PolitiFact (February 10, 2014).
- Peter Baker & Coral Davenport, Trump Revives Keystone Pipeline Rejected by Obama, New York Times (January 24, 2017).
- "Dakota Access Pipeline to be rerouted". CNN. December 4, 2016. Retrieved February 22, 2018.
- Hersher, Rebecca (February 22, 2018). "Army Approves Dakota Access Pipeline Route, Paving Way For The Project's Completion".
- Milman, Oliver (October 26, 2016). "Dakota Access pipeline company and Donald Trump have close financial ties". Guardian. Retrieved November 2, 2016.
- "Crippled America, by Donald J. Trump (Sept. 2015)". www.ontheissues.org. Retrieved June 4, 2016.
- Philip Bump, Donald Trump hated wind farms – until an Iowa voter asked, Washington Post (November 19, 2015).
- "There's a lot to unpack in just one of Donald Trump's answers about energy policy". Washington Post. Retrieved May 27, 2016.
- Jon Greenberg, Trump inflates wind turbine eagle deaths, "Politifact" (May 31, 2016).
- Timothy Cama, Trump calls for higher ethanol mandate, The Hill' (January 19, 2016).
- Dlouhy, Jennifer (September 15, 2016). "Trump Caught Between Corn, Oil Interests on Renewable Fuels". Bloomberg News. Retrieved October 25, 2016.
- Neidig, Harper (October 6, 2016). "Humane Society launches ad: Trump presidency a 'threat to animals everywhere'". The Hill.
- Karin Brulliard, USDA removed animal welfare reports from its site. A showhorse lawsuit may be why., Washington Post (February 9, 2017).
- "H.R. 1628, American Health Care Act of 2017 | Congressional Budget Office". www.cbo.gov. May 24, 2017.
- Bryan, Bob. "Senate Republicans signal they plan to scrap bill the House just passed and write their own". Business Insider.
- Klein, Ezra (July 28, 2017), The GOP's massive health care failures, explained, Vox, retrieved August 3, 2017
- Edsall, Thomas B. (July 27, 2017). "Opinion | Killing Obamacare Softly" – via NYTimes.com.
- Ehley, Brianna; Lorenzo, Aaron. "Trump still enforcing Obamacare mandate". POLITICO.
- Kliff, Sarah (August 31, 2017). "Trump is slashing Obamacare's advertising budget by 90%". Vox.
- The Editorial Board (November 4, 2017). "Opinion | Obamacare vs. the Saboteurs" – via NYTimes.com.
- "12 ways the GOP sabotaged Obamacare". July 26, 2019.
- Scott, Dylan (October 18, 2017). "Obamacare premiums were stabilizing. Then Trump happened". Vox.
- "Sabotage Watch: Tracking Efforts to Undermine the ACA". Center on Budget and Policy Priorities. Updated October 12, 2017. Retrieved October 19, 2017.
- Kliff, Sarah (October 18, 2017). "Trump's stance on insurance "bailouts" is completely incoherent". Vox.
- "The Effects of Terminating Payments for Cost-Sharing Reductions | Congressional Budget Office". www.cbo.gov. August 15, 2017.
- "There's death and then there's death | FRED Blog".
- Edwards, Jim. "There is a correlation between 'deaths of despair' among white people and voters for Trump". Business Insider.
- "The Numbers Behind Trump Versus Clinton Health-Reform Proposals". Bloomberg Politics. September 23, 2016.
- Christine, Eibner (September 23, 2016). "Estimating the Impacts of the Trump and Clinton Health Plans". RAND Corporation.
- Peter Suderman, Donald Trump Wants to Repeal Obamacare, Replace It With Obamacare, Reason (September 29, 2015).
- Kertscher, Tom (September 11, 2015). "Donald Trump wants to replace Obamacare with a single-payer health care system, GOP congressman says". PolitiFact.
- "Healthcare Reform". Donald J. Trump for President, Inc. Archived from the original on January 13, 2017. Retrieved May 21, 2016.
- "Hillary Clinton video lists 8 promises of Donald Trump presidency. Did he say that?". PolitiFact. May 5, 2016.
- "Health Care". donaldjtrump.com. Archived from the original on December 12, 2016. Retrieved November 4, 2016.
- "2017 Premium Changes and Insurer Participation in the Affordable Care Act's Health Insurance Marketplaces". November 2016. Retrieved December 3, 2016.
- "Rates Up 22 Percent For Obamacare Plans, But Subsidies Rise, Too". Retrieved November 19, 2016.
- "Average Annual Workplace Family Health Premiums Rise Modest 3%". Kaiser Family Foundation. September 14, 2016. Retrieved November 23, 2016.
- "Federal Subsidies for Health Insurance Coverage for People Under Age 65:2016 to 2026". CBO. March 24, 2016. Retrieved November 23, 2016.
- "Budgetary and Economic Effects of Repealing the Affordable Care Act". CBO. June 19, 2015. Retrieved December 4, 2016.
- Sarah Ferris, Trump: I'll replace ObamaCare with 'something terrific', The Hill (July 29, 2015).
- Sullivan, Peter (February 19, 2016). "GOP senator hits Trump over ObamaCare mandate support". The Hill.
- Transcript: Donald Trump: CNN Republican Presidential Town Hall, Columbia, South Carolina, CNN (February 18, 2016).
- Vitali, Ali (March 3, 2016). "Donald Trump Reveals Details of His Health Care Plan". NBC News. Retrieved August 11, 2016.
- "Health Care Reform Paper" (PDF). donaldjtrump.com. Retrieved November 4, 2016.
- "Donald Trump's interview with Dr. Oz was just as amazingly strange as we thought it would be". Washington Post. Retrieved September 24, 2016.
- "What will President Donald Trump do? Predicting his policy agenda". The Guardian. Retrieved November 9, 2016.
- Pear, Robert; Haberman, Maggie (April 8, 2016). "Donald Trump's Health Care Ideas Bewilder Republican Experts". The New York Times. Retrieved November 9, 2016.
- "What Does Donald Trump Believe? Where the Candidate Stands on 10 Issues". Donald J. Trump for President, Inc. June 16, 2015. Archived from the original on October 11, 2016. Retrieved October 10, 2016.
- Kassam, Ashifa (October 10, 2016). "Trump's attack on 'catastrophic' Canadian healthcare system draws ire". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved October 10, 2016.
- Nicholas Kristof, Congress to America: Drop Dead, New York Times (May 12, 2016),
- Melanie Eversley (October 23, 2014). "Trump hits Twitter to blame Obama for Ebola in NYC". USA Today.
- Matthew Champion, Donald Trump has a novel approach to fighting Ebola: Irrationality[permanent dead link], Independent (2014).
- Jenn Selby (August 4, 2014). "Donald Trump says Ebola doctors 'must suffer the consequences'". The Independent.
- Sarah Smith (August 8, 2014). "Trump: Keep out Ebola victims". Politico.
- "Trump on 'the Zika': Rick Scott has it 'under control' | Naked Politics". Retrieved August 12, 2016.
- "Trump: Americans could be tried in Guantánamo". Retrieved August 12, 2016.
- "Trump weighs in on vaccine-autism controversy". CNN. March 28, 2014. Retrieved August 24, 2015.
- Ariana Eunjung Cha, The origins of Donald Trump's autism/vaccine theory and how it was completely debunked eons ago, Washington Post (September 17, 2015).
- Willingham, Emily. "Finally, Someone Found A Beneficiary Of Trump Charity, And It's An Antivaccine Organization". Retrieved October 2, 2016.
- Sink, Justin (April 26, 2019). "Trump Backs Vaccines Amid Measles Outbreak, Drops Autism Claims". Bloomberg.com. Retrieved July 29, 2020.
- Fritze, John; Collins, Michael. "Donald Trump urges measles shots for children, in shift from prior warnings on vaccines". USA Today. Retrieved July 29, 2020.
- Sahil Kapur, Reality Check: 4 Reasons Trump's Immigration Plans Are Impractical, Bloomberg Politics (August 8, 2015).
- "Trump says would raise visa fees to pay for Mexican border wall", Reuters (August 16, 2015).
- Seung Min Kim, Trump hits turbulence with immigration hard-liners, Politico (March 14, 2016).
- Jeremy Diamond & Sara Murray, Trump outlines immigration specifics, CNN (August 17, 2015).
- qiu, linda (June 27, 2018). "No, Democrats Don't Want 'Open Borders'". The New York Times. Retrieved July 8, 2021.
- farley, robert (July 3, 2018). "calls to abolish ice not open borders". factcheck.org. Retrieved July 8, 2021.
- Matt Ford, Donald Trump's Racially Charged Advocacy of the Death Penalty, The Atlantic (December 18, 2015).
- Foderaro, Lisa (May 1, 1989). "Angered by Attack, Trump Urges Return Of the Death Penalty". The New York Times. Retrieved March 15, 2016.
- Ford, Matt (December 18, 2015). "Donald Trump's Racially Charged Advocacy of the Death Penalty". The Atlantic. Retrieved March 15, 2016.
- Laughland, Oliver (February 17, 2016). "Donald Trump and the Central Park Five: the racially charged rise of a demagogue". The Guardian. Retrieved March 15, 2016.
- Holmes, Steven A. (October 6, 2016). "Reality Check: Donald Trump and the Central Park 5". CNN. Retrieved October 7, 2016.
- Verbatim: Donald Trump Promises Death Penalty in Killings of Police Officers, New York Times (December 10, 2015).
- "Trump Tells Police Group: Every Single Cop-Killer Gets Death Penalty If I Win". December 11, 2015.
- "Trump: I will mandate death penalty for killing police officers". The Hill. December 10, 2015.
- Diamond, Jeremy (December 11, 2015). "Trump: Death penalty for cop killers". CNN.
- Fact Checks: Donald J. Trump: "One of the first things I do in terms of executive order if I win will be to sign a strong, strong statement" that "anybody killing a police officer—death penalty.", New York Times (December 11, 2016).
- "Donald Trump says he believes waterboarding works". BBC.com. January 27, 2017.
- Liz Goodwin (May 25, 2016). "A 1990s mugging and the roots of Donald Trump's hardline criminal justice views". Yahoo! News.
- Adam Wisnieski. "Trump On Crime: Tough Talk, Few Specifics". The Crime Report. Center on Media, Crime and Justice, John Jay College of Criminal Justice. Archived from the original on May 5, 2016. Retrieved May 31, 2016.
- "Donald Trump wrong that Hillary Clinton wants to release all violent criminals from prison". PolitiFact. May 26, 2016.
- "Trump: The most mistreated people in this country are police and veterans". C-SPAN. Retrieved June 1, 2016.
- Julia Craven, Donald Trump on Crime in Chicago: You Have To Be Tough On 'These People', Huffington Post (March 10, 2016).
- "Trump praises 'stop-and-frisk' police tactic". Reuters. September 21, 2016. Retrieved September 21, 2016.
- "Second Amendment Rights". Donald J. Trump for President, Inc. Archived from the original on January 7, 2016. Retrieved May 31, 2016.
- "Donald Trump actually read his victory speech from a teleprompter. Here's the transcript". Yahoo News. Archived from the original on August 8, 2016. Retrieved June 8, 2016.
- "Trump wrong that inner-city crime is reaching record levels". Retrieved August 30, 2016.
- Trump, Donald J. [@realDonaldTrump] (July 12, 2016). "Crime is out of control, and rapidly getting worse. Look what is going on in Chicago and our inner cities. Not good!" (Tweet). Retrieved August 30, 2016 – via Twitter.
- Trump, Donald J. [@realDonaldTrump] (July 30, 2016). "Violent crime is rising across the United States, yet the DNC convention ignored it. Crime reduction will be one of my top priorities" (Tweet). Retrieved August 30, 2016 – via Twitter.
- Golshan, Tara (June 8, 2016). "Donald Trump actually read his victory speech from a teleprompter. Here's the transcript". Vox. Retrieved August 30, 2016.
- Louis Jacobson, Donald Trump said, 'Crime is rising.' It's not (and hasn't been for decades), PolitiFact (June 9, 2016).
- "Trump makes false statement about U.S. murder rate to sheriffs' group". Washington Post. Retrieved February 7, 2017.
- Draper, Robert. "Mr. Trump's Wild Ride", The New York Times Magazine (May 18, 2016): "there are places in America that are among the most dangerous in the world. You go to places like Oakland. Or Ferguson. The crime numbers are worse. Seriously."
- "Trump Gets Flak For Crack About Oakland Being 'Most Dangerous' City", KPIX-TV (May 18, 2016): "In Baghdad it's 32 murders per 100,000 people...In Oakland it's 25 per 100,000, 32 versus 25, so Baghdad/Oakland, not out of the ballparkTrum according to the statistics."
- "Donald Trump's false claim that Oakland, Ferguson are 'among the most dangerous in the world'". PolitiFact. May 30, 2016.
- "Trump's Pants on Fire tweet that blacks killed 81% of white homicide victims". PolitiFact. Retrieved May 30, 2016.
- Robert Farley (November 23, 2015). "Trump Retweets Bogus Crime Graphic". FactCheck.org. Annenberg Public Policy Center.
- Emily Gray Brosious, The dramatic evolution of Donald Trump's drug policy rhetoric Archived March 14, 2016, at the Wayback Machine, Chicago Sun-Times (October 28, 2015).
- Asawin Suebsaeng, Wayback Machine: Donald Trump: Legalize ALL the Drugs, Daily Beast (August 3, 2015).
- Donald Trump: Legalize Drugs, Sarasota Herald-Tribune (April 14, 1990).
- Christopher Ingraham, Donald Trump's drug policy is an alarming throwback to the 1980s, Washington Post (March 3, 2016).
- Jon Gettman, Pot Matters: Trump on Marijuana Archived July 4, 2016, at the Wayback Machine, High Times (February 12, 2016).
- Jenna Johnson (October 29, 2015). "Trump softens position on marijuana legalization". Washington Post.
- Megan Keller (August 29, 2018), "Trump tasked multi-agency committee with countering pro-marijuana message: report", The Hill
- Katie Zezima, Trump plan calls for nationwide concealed carry and an end to gun bans, Washington Post (September 18, 2015).
- Lisa Desjardins; Nathalie Boyd (June 16, 2015). "What does Donald Trump believe? Where the candidate stands on 10 issues". PBS NewsHour.
- Donald Trump (2000). The America We Deserve. Macmillan. ISBN 9781580631686.
- Trip Gabriel, Donald Trump and Hillary Clinton Set for Clash on Gun Control, New York Times (May 19, 2016).
- Rothfeld, Michael; Maremont, Mark (July 12, 2016). "Donald Trump Said Hillary Clinton Would 'Make a Good President' in 2008". Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved July 12, 2016.
- Sopan Deb, Donald Trump takes on gun control, mass shootings, CBS News (October 5, 2015).
- Jon Keller, On The Issues: Guns and the Race For President, CBS Boston (March 8, 2016) (quoting Trump's campaign website).
- Brianne Pfannenstiel, Trump in Iowa: More guns could stop mass shootings, Des Moines Register (December 5, 2015).
- Beth Reinhard, Donald Trump Wins NRA Endorsement, Wall Street Journal (May 20, 2016).
- "Trump: San Bernardino victims "could've protected themselves if they had guns"". CBS News. December 5, 2015.
- Anita Balakrishnan, Trump: I carry a gun on occasion, CNBC (October 28, 2015).
- "Donald Trump: 'I will get rid of gun-free zones on schools'". Washington Post. Retrieved May 21, 2016.
- Janell Ross, Donald Trump's stance on guns in classrooms – yes, no and probably, Washington Post (May 22, 2016).
- "Trump's Gun Views in Spotlight Amid Accidental Shootings". ABC News. May 24, 2016. Retrieved May 24, 2016.
- Michelle Ye Hee Lee (May 18, 2016). "Clinton campaign's claim that Trump would 'force schools to allow guns in classrooms'". Washington Post.
- Trump, Donald J. (June 17, 2016). "Donald Trump's blistering words toward Orlando shooter". CNN. Retrieved June 18, 2016 – via YouTube.
- "Trump Contradicts Previous Stance on Guns at Pulse Nightclub". ABC News. June 20, 2016. Retrieved June 20, 2016.
- "Trump clarifies stance on guns after NRA criticism". POLITICO. Retrieved June 20, 2016.
- Christopher Good & Candace Smith, Donald Trump Is Against 'Gun-Free Zones' But Guns Aren't Allowed on Many of His Properties, Staff Says, ABC News (May 20, 2016).
- Rafferty, Andrew (August 9, 2016). "Trump '2nd Amendment' Comment Seen as Threat Against Clinton". NBC News. Retrieved August 17, 2016.
- Vitali, Ali (February 28, 2017). "Trump signs bill revoking Obama-era gun checks for mental illness". NBC News. Retrieved August 23, 2019.
- "'Gun free' schools are magnets for 'bad people': Trump". YAHOO. Retrieved February 22, 2018.
- "Trump suggests arming teachers as a solution to increase school safety". CNN. Retrieved February 22, 2018.
- Haberman, Maggie; Karni, Annie; Hakim, Danny (August 20, 2019). "N.R.A. Gets Results on Gun Laws in One Phone Call With Trump". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved August 23, 2019.
- "Donald Trump's prepared speech to the Republican National convention, annotated". Washington Post. Retrieved July 21, 2016.
- "Trump unveils list of potential picks for Supreme Court seat". The Big Story. Archived from the original on June 2, 2016. Retrieved May 19, 2016.
- Rappeport, Alan; Savage, Charlie (May 18, 2016). "Donald Trump Releases List of Possible Supreme Court Picks". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on July 22, 2016. Retrieved May 19, 2016.
- "Trump's Supreme Court List Might Reassure Conservatives, But Leaves Off Big Names". NPR. Retrieved May 19, 2016.
- "Trump Goes Conventional With Conservative Supreme Court List". Bloomberg.com/politics. Retrieved May 19, 2016.
- Malcolm, John G. (March 30, 2016). "8 Highly Qualified Candidates to Serve on the Supreme Court". The Daily Signal. Retrieved May 19, 2016.
- Nolan D. McCaskill (March 30, 2016). "Trump: I'd pick justices who would look at Clinton's email scandal". Politico.
- "Trump Calls Chief Justice Roberts a 'Nightmare for Conservatives'". ABC News. January 17, 2016. Retrieved May 26, 2016.
- "Cruz Distorts Rubio's Stance on Gay Marriage". FactCheck.org. Retrieved May 26, 2016.
- Corasaniti, Nick (February 13, 2016). "At Debate, Donald Trump Calls on Republicans to 'Delay, Delay, Delay'". The New York Times.
- Roeder, Oliver (August 1, 2016). "Clinton And Trump Are Both Promising An Extreme Supreme Court". Retrieved August 1, 2016.
- Abby Phillip, Robert Barnes & Ed O'Keefe, Supreme Court nominee Gorsuch says Trump’s attacks on judiciary are 'demoralizing', Washington Post (February 8, 2017).
- Eric Bradner and Jeff Zeleny, Trump: 'If something happens blame' the judge, CNN (February 5, 2017).
- Jeffrey Rosen, Not Even Andrew Jackson Went as Far as Trump in Attacking the Courts, The Atlantic (February 2017).
- Corky Siemaszko, Experts: Trump Undermines Judiciary With Twitter Attack on Judge Robart, NBC News (February 7, 2017).
- Vitali, Ali (October 18, 2016). "Donald Trump: I Will Push Term Limits to Tell Congress 'You're Fired'". NBC News. Retrieved October 19, 2016.
- "Trump Pledges To Drain The Swamp and Impose Congressional Term Limits". Donald J. Trump for President, Inc. Archived from the original on October 18, 2016. Retrieved October 19, 2016.
- "Trump calls for congressional term limits, lobbyist crackdown". Fox News. October 18, 2016. Retrieved October 19, 2016.
- Catherine Ho, Trump proposes five-year ban on executive branch officials and lawmakers who want to become lobbyists, Washington Post (October 17, 2016).
- Einbinder, Nicole (June 17, 2019). "Trump suggested his supporters want him to serve more than 2 terms as president". Business Insider. Retrieved September 14, 2019.
- Croucher, Shane (September 11, 2019). "Donald Trump Posts Image on Twitter, Instagram Joking That He'll Stand in 2024". Newsweek. Retrieved September 14, 2019.
- Abcarian, Robin (June 24, 2020). "Trump revives a lower of an issue: banning flag burning". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved June 26, 2020.
- "Donald J. Trump on Twitter". Twitter. Retrieved May 26, 2016.
- Chris Morris (August 10, 2015). "Donald Trump: Not so great for gamers". Plugged In/Yahoo! Tech.
- "Fact check: Trump suggests video games to blame for mass shootings". NBC News. Retrieved October 8, 2019.
- Nathan Vardi (October 20, 2011). "Donald Trump: Internet Gambling Mogul". Forbes.
- Christine Gorman & Ryan F. Mandelbaum, Grading the Presidential Candidates on Science: Scientific American evaluates responses from Clinton, Trump, Johnson and Stein to 20 questions, Scientific American (September 26, 2016).
- "What a Trump administration means for space". SpaceNews.com. November 9, 2016. Retrieved November 11, 2016.
- "Trump: "Look at your space program… We're like a third world nation"". Ars Technica. August 8, 2016. Retrieved September 30, 2016.
- Jon Swartz, Clinton wants high-speed Internet in every U.S. home by 2020, USA Today (June 30, 2016).
- Dawn Chmielewski, Hillary Clinton and Donald Trump are worlds apart on tech policy issues, Recode (June 30, 2016).
- "Trump: Sony has 'no courage, no guts...it's extortion'". Retrieved September 20, 2016.
- Savransky, Rebecca (December 29, 2016). "Trump on Russian hacking: 'Computers have complicated lives very greatly'". TheHill.
- Caroline Craig, Where the candidates stand on Net neutrality, InfoWorld (September 25, 2015).
- David Goldman, "Donald Trump wants to 'close up' the Internet", CNN (December 8, 2015).
- Sam Thielman, "Tech policy activists find Bernie Sanders is best bet – while Trump is the worst", Guardian (March 14, 2016).
- Wright, David (April 21, 2016). "Trump: I would change GOP platform on abortion". CNN.
- de Vogue, Ariane (November 15, 2016). "Trump: Same-sex marriage is 'settled,' but Roe v Wade can be changed". 60 Minutes. CBS. Retrieved November 30, 2016 – via CNN.
- "Donald Trump". GLAAD. November 28, 2016. Retrieved May 19, 2020.
- Simmons-Duffin, Selena (March 2, 2020). "'Whiplash' Of LGBTQ Protections And Rights, From Obama To Trump". NPR. Retrieved May 19, 2020.
- Kutner, Jenny (March 29, 2017). "Trump Rolls Back Protections for LGBTQ Workers, Despite Recent Promises". Vogue. Retrieved December 6, 2018.
- "Trump agrees to USMCA agreement with LGBT provisions". November 30, 2018.
- Barbash, Fred (July 27, 2017). "Trump administration, intervening in major LGBT case, says job bias law does not cover sexual orientation". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 24, 2017.
- Feuer, Alan (July 27, 2017). "Justice Department Says Rights Law Doesn't Protect Gays". The New York Times. Retrieved August 25, 2017.
- Blumberg, Antonia (August 16, 2019). "Trump Administration Asks Supreme Court To Legalize Firing Transgender Workers". HuffPost. Retrieved August 17, 2019.
- Sanger-Katz, Margot; Weiland, Noah (June 12, 2020). "Trump Administration Erases Transgender Civil Rights Protections in Health Care". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 13, 2020.
- Dept of Health and Human Services. "Nondiscrimination in Health and Health Education Programs or Activities, Delegation of Authority (4153-01-P)" (PDF). Retrieved June 12, 2020.
- Faith Karimi; Emanuella Grinberg. "Trump's reversal on transgender directive: How we got here". CNN. Retrieved August 3, 2017.
- Kelley, Alexandra (May 28, 2020). "US rules against state allowing transgender athletes to compete in women's sports". TheHill. Retrieved May 28, 2020.
- Miller, Zeke (July 26, 2017). "President Trump's Tweets Catch D.C. Off Guard". TIME. Retrieved August 24, 2017.
- Stohr, Greg (January 22, 2019). "Supreme Court Lets Trump's Transgender Military Ban Take Effect". Bloomberg. Retrieved January 22, 2019.
- Jackson, Brie (January 22, 2019). "President Trump's transgender ban goes into effect". ABC4. Retrieved January 22, 2019.
- Green, Erica L.; Benner, Katie; Pear, Robert (October 21, 2018). "'Transgender' Could Be Defined Out of Existence Under Trump Administration". The New York Times. Retrieved October 27, 2018.
- Browning, Bil (May 12, 2018). "Trump strips transgender prisoners of protections against rape & abuse". LGBTQ Nation. Retrieved December 9, 2018.
- "RIN: 2506-AC53". www.reginfo.gov. Retrieved May 23, 2019.
- Jan, Tracy (May 22, 2019). "Proposed HUD rule would strip transgender protections at homeless shelters". Washington Post. Retrieved May 22, 2019.
- "Donald Trump attacks GOP Arkansas Gov. Asa Hutchinson over veto of transgender bill: "Bye-Bye!"". Newsweek. April 8, 2021. Retrieved April 8, 2021.
- Uy, JD (February 15, 2011). "Donald Trump says he's against gay marriage". Metro Weekly (DC). Retrieved March 29, 2020.
- Johnson, Chris (March 22, 2016). "Trump's far-fetched plan to undo marriage equality". Washington Blade.
- "Trump attacks Supreme Court decision legalizing same-sex marriage". Washington Post. Retrieved March 24, 2017.
- Wang, Hansi Lo (March 30, 2018). "2020 Census Will Ask About Same-Sex Relationships". NPR. Retrieved December 9, 2018.
- Necati, Yas (April 6, 2018). "The 2020 US census will fail to recognise all LGBT+ people who aren't currently in a same sex relationship". Independent. Retrieved December 9, 2018.
- Johnson, Chris (March 28, 2017). "Trump's U.S. Census proposes, immediately cuts LGBT survey questions". Washington Blade. Retrieved December 9, 2018.
- O'Hara, Mary Emily (March 29, 2017). "LGBTQ Americans Won't Be Counted in 2020 U.S. Census After All". NBC News. Retrieved December 9, 2018.
- O'Hara, Mary Emily (March 20, 2017). "Trump Administration Removes LGBTQ Questions From Elderly Survey". NBC News. Retrieved December 9, 2018.
- Cha, Ariana Eunjung (April 24, 2019). "Trump administration prepares a rule civil rights groups worry may deny care to transgender patients". Washington Post. Retrieved May 22, 2019.
- Armus, Teo (December 1, 2017). "Trump's World AIDS Day proclamation leaves out LGBTQ people". NBC News. Archived from the original on December 9, 2018. Retrieved December 9, 2018.
- "President Donald J. Trump Proclaims December 1, 2017, as World AIDS Day". whitehouse.gov. Archived from the original on January 20, 2021. Retrieved December 1, 2019 – via National Archives.
- "Presidential Proclamation on World AIDS Day, 2018". whitehouse.gov. Archived from the original on January 20, 2021. Retrieved December 1, 2019 – via National Archives.
- "Presidential Proclamation on World AIDS Day, 2019". whitehouse.gov. Archived from the original on January 20, 2021. Retrieved December 1, 2019 – via National Archives.
- Herrick, John (December 1, 2018). "VP Pence Criticized for Not Mentioning Gay Community in AIDS Speech". WIBC. Archived from the original on March 29, 2019. Retrieved December 9, 2018.
- "HHS Announces New Conscience and Religious Freedom Division". Health and Human Services. January 18, 2018. Retrieved January 21, 2018.
- Fitzsimons, Tim (January 24, 2019). "S.C. group can reject gays and Jews as foster parents, admin says". NBC News. Retrieved January 27, 2019.
- Stern, Mark Joseph (January 24, 2019). "The Trump Administration Will Let Adoption Agencies Turn Away Jews and Same-Sex Couples. Thank SCOTUS". Slate Magazine. Retrieved February 9, 2020.
- "U.S. Department of Labor Proposes a Rule Clarifying Civil Rights Protections for Religious Organizations | U.S. Department of Labor". www.dol.gov. August 14, 2019. Retrieved August 14, 2019.
- Kelleher, Patrick (June 4, 2020). "The Trump administration just asked the Supreme Court to make it legal to ban same-sex couples from adopting". Pink News. Retrieved June 6, 2020.
- Wong, Edward; Sullivan, Eileen (July 8, 2019). "New Human Rights Panel Raises Fears of a Narrowing U.S. Advocacy". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved July 12, 2019.
- "Envoy for the Human Rights of LGBTI Persons: Vacant (Archive)". U.S. State Department. July 27, 2017. Archived from the original on July 27, 2017. Retrieved October 21, 2018.
- Dwyer, Colin (October 2, 2018). "U.S. Halts Visas For Diplomats' Same-Sex Partners If They're Not Married". NPR. Archived from the original on October 12, 2019. Retrieved October 14, 2019.
- Gilchrist, Tracy E. (February 19, 2019). "Trump Launches Campaign to Decriminalize Homosexuality". Advocate. Retrieved February 23, 2019.
- Fitzsimons, Tim (February 21, 2019). "'I don't know': Trump draws blank on homosexuality decriminalization push". NBC News. Retrieved February 23, 2019.
- Finnegan, Conor; Palmeri, Tara (June 7, 2019). "State Dept denies embassies' requests to fly rainbow pride flag on official flagpoles". ABC News. Retrieved June 10, 2019.
- "Stacking the Courts: The Fight Against Trump's Extremist Judicial Nominees". Lambda Legal. Retrieved May 19, 2020.
- Sopelsa, Brooke (December 23, 2019). "A third of Trump's court nominees have anti-LGBTQ history, report finds". NBC News. Retrieved May 19, 2020.
- "President Trump nominates 3 to Court of Appeals in S.F." SFChronicle.com. October 12, 2018. Retrieved October 14, 2018.
- "Trump's Latest Group Of Judicial Nominees Is A Jab At Dianne Feinstein And Kamala Harris". BuzzFeed News. Retrieved October 14, 2018.
- "Pot Matters: Trump on Marijuana". High Times. February 12, 2016.
- "7 Reasons Trump Is Unlikely to Fight Legal Marijuana". Time.
- Mali, Meghashyam (February 23, 2017). "White House hints at crackdown on recreational marijuana".
- Williams, Trey. "Expect 'greater enforcement' of marijuana laws under Trump, Spicer says".
- "Trump Backs State-Level Marijuana Regulation, Lifting Pot Stocks". Bloomberg.com. April 13, 2018.
- Sullivan, Eileen (June 8, 2018). "Trump Says He's Likely to Back Marijuana Bill, in Apparent Break With Sessions". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved December 8, 2018.