Political positions of the Democratic Party

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The platform of the Democratic Party of the United States is generally based on American liberalism and American progressivism, in contrast to the conservatism of the Republican Party. The party incorporates centrists,[1][2][3][4] liberals, and progressives,[5][6] as well as more left-wing or socialist movements.[7][a]

Policies of past Democratic platforms have sought to protect social programs, labor unions, consumer protection and workplace safety regulation, equal opportunity,disability rights and racial equality,[8] and regulation against pollution of the environment.[9][10][11] Democrats support abortion rights and the LGBTQ+ community, and tend to support an easier pathway to citizenship for illegal immigrants. Democrats tend to agree with the scientific consensus on climate change, and support clean energy and cap-and-trade policies. In foreign policy, Democrats typically favor a multilateral approach.

History of Positions[edit]

Economic positions[edit]

Equal economic opportunity and a base social safety net provided by the welfare state and strong labor unions have historically been at the heart of Democratic economic policy.[8] The party pursues a mixed economy, albeit with more government intervention and regulation in the economy.[12] Democrats generally support a progressive tax system, higher minimum wages, social security, universal health care, public education, and public housing.[8] They also support infrastructure development and government-sponsored employment programs in an effort to achieve economic development and job creation, while stimulating private sector job creation.[13] Also, however, since the 1990s, the party has occasionally supported centrist economic reforms, which cut the size of government and reduced market regulations.[14] The party has continuously rejected laissez-faire economics instead favoring a Social Market Economy to ensure a true Free Market and equality of opportunity

Fiscal policy[edit]

Democrats support a more progressive tax structure to provide more services and reduce economic inequality by making sure that the wealthiest Americans pay the highest amount in taxes.[15] They also support more government spending on social services while spending less on the military.[16][17] They oppose cutting social services, such as Social Security, as well as Medicare, Medicaid, and various other welfare programs,[18] believing it to be harmful to efficiency and social justice. Democrats believe the benefits of social services, in monetary and non-monetary terms, are a more productive labor force and that the benefits of this are greater than any benefits that could be derived from lower taxes, especially on top earners, or cuts to social services. Furthermore, Democrats view social services as essential towards providing positive freedom (i.e. freedom derived from economic opportunity). The Democratic-led House of Representatives reinstated the PAYGO (pay-as-you-go) budget rule early in the 110th Congress.[19]

Minimum wage[edit]

Democrats favor raising the minimum wage and believe that all Americans have the right to a fair wage. They call for a $15.00/hour national minimum wage and believe that the minimum wage should be adjusted regularly.[20] The Fair Minimum Wage Act of 2007 was an early component of the party's agenda during the 110th Congress. In 2006, Democrats supported six state ballot initiatives to increase the minimum wage; all six initiatives passed.[21]

Health care[edit]

President Barack Obama signing the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act into law at the White House on March 23, 2010.

Democrats call for "affordable and quality health care," and many advocate on expanding government intervention in this area. They favor a movement toward universal health care in a variety of forms to address the rising costs of modern health insurance. Democratic politicians like Representatives John Conyers and John Dingell have called for a single-payer program or Medicare for All. The Progressive Democrats of America, a group operating inside the Democratic Party, has made single-payer universal health care one of their primary policy goals.[22] The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, signed into law by President Barack Obama on March 23, 2010, has been one of the most significant pushes for universal health care to become a reality. As of April 2014, more than 10 million Americans have enrolled in healthcare coverage since the Affordable Care Act was launched.[23]


Democrats favor improving public education by raising school standards and reforming the head start program. They also support universal preschool and expanding access to primary education (some Democrats who support this through charter schools). They call for slashes in student loan debt and support reforms to force down tuition fees.[24] Other proposed reforms have included nationwide universal preschool education, tuition-free or reduced-tuition college, and reforms of standardized testing. Democrats have the long-term aim of having low-cost, publicly funded college education with low tuition fees (like in much of Europe and Canada), which should be available to every eligible American student. Alternatively, they encourage expanding access to post-secondary education by increasing state funding for student financial aid such as Pell Grants and college tuition tax deductions.[25]

Democrats tend to support the Common Core State Standards and oppose school choice.


Democrats believe that the government should protect the environment and have a history of environmentalism. In more recent years, this stance has had as its emphasis alternative energy generation as the basis for an improved economy, greater national security, and general environmental benefits.[26]

The Democratic Party also favors expanding conservation lands, and it encourages open space and rail travel to relieve highway and airport congestion and improve air quality and economy; it "believe[s] that communities, environmental interests, and government should work together to protect resources while ensuring the vitality of local economies. Once Americans were led to believe they had to make a choice between the economy and the environment. They now know this is a false choice."[27]

The Democratic Party's most important environmental concern is climate change. Democrats, most notably former Vice President Al Gore, have pressed for stern regulation of greenhouse gases. On October 15, 2007, Gore won the Nobel Peace Prize for his efforts to build greater knowledge about man-made climate change and laying the foundations for the measures needed to counteract these changes asserting that "the climate crisis is not a political issue, it is a moral and spiritual challenge to all of humanity."[28] A 2017 study by the Center for American Progress Action Fund of climate change denial in the U.S. Congress found that 180 members deny the science behind climate change, all Republicans, and that no Democratic members of Congress publicly denied climate change.[29][30]

Renewable energy and fossil fuels[edit]

Democrats support increased domestic renewable energy development, including wind and solar power farms, in an effort to reduce carbon pollution. The party's platform calls for an "all of the above" energy policy including clean energy, natural gas, and domestic oil, while wanting to become energy independent.[21] The party has supported higher taxes on oil companies and increased regulations on coal power plants, favoring a policy of reducing long-term reliance on fossil fuels.[31][32] Additionally, the party supports stricter fuel emissions standards to prevent air pollution.

Trade agreements[edit]

The 2012 Democratic Party platform endorses fair and free trade, the KORUS FTA, the TPP, the Panama–United States Trade Promotion Agreement, the CTPA, and the Interagency Trade Enforcement Center.[33]

Social issues[edit]

Shirley Chisholm was the first major party African-American candidate to run nationwide primary campaigns.

The modern Democratic party emphasizes egalitarianism, social equality, protecting the environment, and strengthening the social safety net through liberalism. They support voting rights and minority rights, including LGBT rights, multiculturalism, and religious secularism. A longstanding social policy is upholding civil rights, which affect ethnic and racial minorities and includes voting rights, equal opportunity, and racial equality. The party championed the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which for the first time outlawed segregation. Democrats made civil rights and anti-racism a core party philosophy. Carmines and Stimson say, "the Democratic Party appropriated racial liberalism and assumed federal responsibility for ending racial discrimination."[34][35][36]

Ideological social elements in the party include cultural liberalism, civil libertarianism, and feminism. Other Democratic social policies are internationalism, open immigration, electoral reform, and women's reproductive rights.

Equal opportunity[edit]

The Democratic Party strive for equality of outcome for all Americans regardless of sex, age, race, ethnicity, sexual orientation, gender identity, religion, creed, or national origin. Many Democrats support affirmative action programs to further this goal. Democrats also strongly support the Americans with Disabilities Act to prohibit discrimination against people based on physical or mental disability. As such, they pushed the ADA Amendments Act of 2008, a legal expansion that became law.[37]

Voting rights[edit]

The 2012 Democratic Party platform believes the right to vote and to have ones vote counted is an essential American freedom, and oppose laws placing unnecessary restrictions on those seeking to exercise that freedom, such as voter ID laws.[33][38] Many Democrats also support automatic voter registration, which ensures that all Americans over the legal voting age are registered to vote upon reaching the aforementioned age, and are never required to re-register.

Abortion and reproductive rights[edit]

The 2012 Democratic Party platform endorses maintaining Roe v. Wade, a woman's right to make decisions regarding her pregnancy, including a safe and legal abortion, regardless of ability to pay, and a woman's decision to have a child by providing affordable health care and ensuring the availability of and access to programs helping women during pregnancy and after a child's birth, including caring adoption programs, along with opposing any and all efforts to weaken or undermine that right.[33]


President Lyndon B. Johnson signs the Immigration Act of 1965 as Sen. Edward Kennedy, Sen. Robert Kennedy, and others look on.

The 2012 Democratic Party platform endorses enacting comprehensive immigration reform supporting American economic goals and reflects America's values as both a nation of laws and a nation of immigrants. They generally support an easier path toward citizenship for immigrants, a system for allocating visas meeting economic needs, keeps families together, and enforces the law. The party supported the immigration policy of the Obama administration, the DREAM Act, the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals program, and opposes state laws targeting immigrants.[33] Democrats are generally more sympathetic to sanctuary cities.

LGBT rights[edit]

President Barack Obama meeting with the Joint Chiefs of Staff on the eve of publication of a Defense Department report on repeal of Don't Ask Don't Tell, which prohibit openly gay individuals to serve in the military.

The 2012 Democratic Party platform endorsed the principle that no one should face discrimination based on their gender, sexual orientation, and gender identity, such as transgender, gay, lesbian and/or bisexual support for the Employment Non-Discrimination Act, anti-bullying prevention for LGBT youth, the Don't Ask, Don't Tell Repeal Act of 2010, and the Matthew Shepard and James Byrd Jr. Hate Crimes Prevention Act. Democrats also supported President Obama's presidential memorandum on April 15, 2010 granting patients to receive visitors and to designate surrogate decision makers for medical emergencies,[clarification needed] the U.S. Customs and Border Protection's March 29, 2012 update of the Customs Declarations Form that same-sex couples and their children can go through Customs when re-entering the country together instead of being forced to split up, marriage equality, and the Respect for Marriage Act. Support for the Obama administration policy requiring American diplomats must raise the issue wherever harassment or abuse arises, and they are required to record it in the State Department's annual report on human rights, and the United States Department of State funding a program financing LGBT rights organizations to combat discrimination, violence, and other abuses is also present. Since 2011, the party opposed the Defense of Marriage Act. The party also opposes discriminatory federal and state constitutional amendments and other attempts to deny equal protection of the laws to committed same-sex couples seeking the same respect and responsibilities as other married couples, and efforts by other nations criminalizing homosexual conduct or ignore abuse.[33][39][40]

Civil Rights — United States Citizens in Puerto Rico[edit]

The 2016 Democratic Party Platform declares: "We are committed to addressing the extraordinary challenges faced by our fellow citizens in Puerto Rico. Many stem from the fundamental question of Puerto Rico's political status. Democrats believe that the people of Puerto Rico should determine their ultimate political status from permanent options that do not conflict with the Constitution, laws, and policies of the United States. Democrats are committed to promoting economic opportunity and good-paying jobs for the hardworking people of Puerto Rico. We also believe that Puerto Ricans must be treated equally by Medicare, Medicaid, and other programs that benefit families. Puerto Ricans should be able to vote for the people who make their laws, just as they should be treated equally. All American citizens, no matter where they reside, should have the right to vote for the President of the United States. Finally, we believe that federal officials must respect Puerto Rico's local self-government as laws are implemented and Puerto Rico's budget and debt are restructured so that it can get on a path towards stability and prosperity."[41][excessive quote]

Legal issues[edit]

Gun control[edit]

With a stated goal of reducing crime and homicide, the Democratic Party has introduced various gun control measures, most notably the Gun Control Act of 1968, the Brady Bill of 1993, and Crime Control Act of 1994. However, some Democrats, especially rural, Southern, and Western Democrats, favor fewer restrictions on firearm possession and warned that the party was defeated in the 2000 presidential election in rural areas because of the issue.[42] In the national platform for 2008, the only statement explicitly favoring gun control was a plan calling for renewal of the 1994 Assault Weapons Ban.[43]

Death penalty[edit]

The 2012 Democratic Party platform endorses the death penalty, but believes it must not be arbitrary, DNA testing should be used in all appropriate circumstances, defendants should have effective assistance of counsel, and the administration of justice should be fair and impartial.[33]

The 2016 Democratic Platform, however, supports abolition of the death penalty.[44]


Many Democrats are opposed to the use of torture against individuals apprehended and held prisoner by the U.S. military, and hold that categorizing such prisoners as unlawful combatants does not release the U.S. from its obligations under the Geneva Conventions. Democrats contend that torture is inhumane, decreases the United States' moral standing in the world, and produces questionable results. Democrats largely spoke out against waterboarding.[citation needed]

Torture became a very divisive issue in the party after Barack Obama was elected president. Many centrist Democrats and members of the party's leadership supported the use of torture while the more left-leaning wings continued to be steadfastly opposed to it.[45]

Right to privacy[edit]

The Democratic Party believes that individuals should have a right to privacy. For example, many Democrats have opposed the NSA warrantless surveillance of U.S. citizens.

Some Democratic officeholders have championed consumer protection laws that limit the sharing of consumer data between corporations. Most Democrats oppose "sodomy laws" and believe that government should not regulate consensual noncommercial sexual conduct among adults as a matter of personal privacy.[46]

Patriot Act[edit]

Many Democrats are opposed to the Patriot Act. However, when the law was passed most Democrats were supportive of it and all but two Democrats in the U.S. Senate voted for the original legislation in 2001. The lone nay vote was from Russ Feingold of Wisconsin; Mary Landrieu of Louisiana did not vote. In the House, the Democrats voted for the Act by a margin of 145-62. Democrats split on the issue of the Act's renewal in 2006. In the Senate, 34 Democrats voted for the 2006 renewal, and 9 against. In the House, 66 Democrats voted for the renewal, and 124 against.[47][better source needed]

Foreign policy positions[edit]

In foreign policy, the voters of the two major parties have largely overlapped since the 1990s. The Gallup poll in early 2013 shows broad agreement on the top issues, albeit with some divergence regarding as human rights and international cooperation through agencies such as the UN.[48]

In June 2014 the Quinnipiac Poll asked Americans which foreign policy they preferred:

A) The United States is doing too much in other countries around the world, and it is time to do less around the world and focus more on our own problems here at home. B) The United States must continue to push forward to promote democracy and freedom in other countries around the world because these efforts make our own country more secure.

Democrats chose A over B by 65–32%; Republicans chose A over B by 56% to 39%; independents chose A over B by 67% to 29%.[49]

The only possible foreign policy difference between the parties consists of the size of the budget of the Department of Defense, more specifically the United States military.

Iraq War[edit]

In 2002, Congressional Democrats were divided on the Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Iraq; 147 voted against it (21 in the Senate and 126 in the House) and 110 voted for it (29 in the Senate, 81 in the House). Since then, many prominent Democrats, such as former Senator John Edwards, have expressed regret about this decision, and have called it a mistake, while others, such as Senator Hillary Clinton have criticized the conduct of the war but did not repudiate their initial vote for it (though Clinton later went on to do so during the party's 2008 presidential primaries). Referring to Iraq, in April 2007, Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid declared the war to be "lost" while other Democrats (especially during the 2004 presidential election cycle) accused President Bush of lying to the public about WMDs in Iraq. Among lawmakers, Democrats are the most vocal opponents of Operation Iraqi Freedom and campaigned on a platform of withdrawal ahead of the 2006 mid-term elections.

A March 2003 CBS News poll taken a few days before the invasion of Iraq found that 34% of Democrats nationwide would support it without United Nations backing, 51% would support it only with its backing, and 14% would not support it at all.[50] The Los Angeles Times stated in early April 2003 that 70% of Democrats supported the decision to invade while 27% opposed it.[51] The Pew Research Center stated in August 2007 that opposition increased from 37% during the initial invasion to 74%.[52] In April 2008, a CBS News poll found that about 90% of Democrats disapproved of the Bush administration's conduct and want to end the war within the next year.[53]

Democrats in the House of Representatives near-unanimously supported a non-binding resolution disapproving of President Bush's decision to send additional troops into Iraq in 2007. Congressional Democrats overwhelmingly supported military funding legislation that included a provision that set "a timeline for the withdrawal of all US combat troops from Iraq" by March 31, 2008, but also would leave combat forces in Iraq for purposes such as targeted counter-terrorism operations.[54][55] After a veto from the president, and a failed attempt in Congress to override the veto,[56] the U.S. Troop Readiness, Veterans' Care, Katrina Recovery, and Iraq Accountability Appropriations Act, 2007 was passed by Congress and signed by the president after the timetable was dropped. Criticism of the Iraq War subsided after the Iraq War troop surge of 2007 led to a dramatic decrease in Iraqi violence. The Democratic-controlled 110th Congress continued to fund efforts in both Iraq and Afghanistan. Presidential candidate Barack Obama advocated a withdrawal of combat troops within Iraq by late 2010 with a residual force of peacekeeping troops left in place.[57] He stated that both the speed of withdrawal and the number of troops left over would be "entirely conditions-based."[57]

On February 27, 2009, President Obama announced, "As a candidate for president, I made clear my support for a timeline of 16 months to carry out this drawdown, while pledging to consult closely with our military commanders upon taking office to ensure that we preserve the gains we've made and protect our troops ... Those consultations are now complete, and I have chosen a timeline that will remove our combat brigades over the next 18 months."[58] Around 50,000 non-combat related forces will remain.[58] Obama's plan drew wide bipartisan support, including that of defeated Republican Presidential candidate Senator John McCain.[58]

Iran sanctions[edit]

The Democratic Party has been critical of Iran's nuclear weapon program and supported economic sanctions against the Iranian government. In 2013, the Democratic led administration worked to reach a diplomatic agreement with the government of Iran to halt the Iranian nuclear weapon program in exchange for international economic sanction relief.[59] As of 2014 negotiations had been successful and the party called for more cooperation with Iran in the future.[60] In 2015, the Obama administration agreed to the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, which provides sanction relief in exchange for international oversight of the Iranian nuclear program.

Invasion of Afghanistan[edit]

Democrats in the House of Representatives and in the Senate near-unanimously voted for the Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Terrorists against "those responsible for the recent attacks launched against the United States" in Afghanistan in 2001, supporting the NATO coalition invasion of the nation. Most elected Democrats continue to support the Afghanistan conflict, and some, such as a Democratic National Committee spokesperson, have voiced concerns that the Iraq War shifted too many resources away from the presence in Afghanistan.[61][62][63] Since 2006, then-candidate Barack Obama called for a "surge" of troops into Afghanistan and, since 2008, Republican candidate John McCain also called for a "surge".[63] As President, Obama sent a "surge" force of additional troops to Afghanistan.[citation needed] Troop levels were at 94,000 in December 2011, and are decreasing as of recent years, with a target of 68,000 by fall 2012. Obama plans to bring all the troops home by 2014.[64]

Support for the war among the American people has diminished over time, and many Democrats have changed their opinion and now oppose a continuation of the conflict.[65][66] In July 2008, Gallup found that 41% of Democrats called the invasion a "mistake" while a 55% majority disagreed; in contrast, Republicans were more supportive of the war. The survey described Democrats as evenly divided about whether or not more troops should be sent—56% support it if it would mean removing troops from Iraq and only 47% support it otherwise.[66] A CNN survey in August 2009 stated that a majority of Democrats now oppose the war. CNN polling director Keating Holland said, "Nearly two thirds of Republicans support the war in Afghanistan. Three quarters of Democrats oppose the war."[65] An August 2009 Washington Post poll found similar results, and the paper stated that Obama's policies would anger his closest supporters.[67]


The 2012 Democratic Party platform endorses maintaining commitment to Israel's security, claiming a strong and secure Israel is vital because of strategic interests and common values, the Obama administration providing nearly $10 billion to Israel in the past three years, military support for Israel, such as the Iron Dome system, the Egypt–Israel Peace Treaty, the Israel–Jordan peace treaty, and recognizing Jerusalem as and remains the capital of Israel, and opposes any attempt to delegitimize Israel on the world stage. The platform also states that Democratic Party seeks peace between Israelis and Palestinians, and supports a two-state solution, under conditions that Israel's security concerns are met and any Palestinian partner must recognize Israel's right to exist, reject violence, and adhere to existing agreements.[33]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ There is also a small Conservative wing represented in the house by the Blue Dog Coalition, although Conservative Democrat ideology is different from the traditional Conservatism the Republican party supports.


  1. ^ Ball, Molly. "No, Liberals Don't Control the Democratic Party". The Atlantic. Retrieved 13 March 2017.
  2. ^ Cirilli, Kevin. "Centrist Dems ready strike against Warren wing". The Hill. Retrieved 13 March 2017.
  3. ^ Gaudiano, Nicole. "Liberals seek 'ideological shift' in the Democratic Party". USA Today. Gannett Satellite Information Network, LLC. Retrieved 13 March 2017.
  4. ^ Alterman, Eric (2008). Why We're Liberals: A Political Handbook for Post-Bush America. Penguin. p. 339. ISBN 9780670018604. Retrieved 13 March 2017. Suffice to say that there has not been a huge swing away from the center since the 1970s.
  5. ^ N. Scott, Arnold (April 7, 2011). Imposing Values: Liberalism and Regulation. Oxford University Press. p. 3. ISBN 9780199705290. Retrieved November 27, 2015.
    "Modern liberalism occupies the left-of-center in the traditional political spectrum and is represented by the Democratic Party in the United States".
  6. ^ Starr, Paul (2012). "Center-Left Liberalism". The Oxford Companion to American Politics. Retrieved 13 March 2017.
  7. ^ Hanna, Andrew (October 1, 2017). "Could America's Socialists Become the Tea Party of the Left?". Politico. Retrieved November 21, 2017.
  8. ^ a b c Larry E. Sullivan. The SAGE glossary of the social and behavioral sciences (2009) p 291, "This liberalism favors a generous welfare state and a greater measure of social and economic equality. Liberty thus exists when all citizens have access to basic necessities such as education, health care, and economic opportunities."
  9. ^ John McGowan, American Liberalism: An Interpretation for Our Time (2007)
  10. ^ Starr P. (March 1, 2007). "War and Liberalism." The New Republic.""Starr, P. (1 March 2007). "War and Liberalism". The New Republic". Retrieved August 2, 2007. "Liberalism wagers that a state ... can be strong but constrained – strong because constrained. ... Rights to education and other requirements for human development and security aim to advance the opportunity and personal dignity of minorities and to promote a creative and productive society. To guarantee those rights, Democrats support a wider social and economic role for the state, counterbalanced by more robust guarantees of civil liberties and a wider social system of checks and balances anchored in an independent press and pluralistic society."
  11. ^ Hugo Helco, in The Great Society and the High Tide of Liberalism, "In (the 1970s) the American government began telling Americans what they could and could not do with regard to abortions, capital punishment, and bilingual education. The 1970s also brought new and more sweeping national regulations to deal with environmental challenges, consumer protection, workplace safety, gender discrimination, the rights of those with disabilities, and political spending.", p. 58, Sidney M. Milkis & Jerome M. Mileur, editors, University of Massachusetts Press, 2005, ISBN 978-1-55849-493-0
  12. ^ Levy, Jonah (2006). The state after statism: new state activities in the age of liberalization. Florence: Harvard University Press. p. 198. ISBN 0-495-50112-3. In the corporate governance area, the center-left repositioned itself to press for reform. The Democratic Party in the United States used the postbubble scandals and the collapse of share prices to attack the Republican Party ... Corporate governance reform fit surprisingly well within the contours of the center-left ideology. The Democratic Party and the SPD have both been committed to the development of the regulatory state as a counterweight to managerial authority, corporate power, and market failure.
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  18. ^ U.S. GOVERNMENT > Social Support > The Social Safety Net Archived 2008-04-10 at the Wayback Machine
  19. ^ "Day Two: House passes new budget rules". Associated Press. 2007-01-05. Retrieved 2007-01-05.
  20. ^ Burgess Everett. "Harry Reid slates minimum wage vote". POLITICO.
  21. ^ a b "The Democratic Party Platform". Democrats.org. Archived from the original on March 15, 2014. Retrieved 2014-03-18.
  22. ^ "Progressive Democrats of America — Priorities (Health Care for All)". Pdamerica.org. Archived from the original on June 13, 2010. Retrieved 2010-06-17.
  23. ^ "Medicaid Enrollments Bring Obamacare Enrollment to More Than 10 Million". Newsweek. Reuters. April 4, 2014.
  24. ^ http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/papers_pdf/101962.pdf
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  26. ^ "Agenda — Environment". Archived from the original on March 15, 2007. Retrieved 2007-03-18.
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  28. ^ John Nicols (2007-10-12). "Al Gore Wins Nobel Peace Prize". The Nation.
  29. ^ "RELEASE: CAP Action Releases 2017 Anti-Science Climate Denier Caucus". Center for American Progress Action Fund. April 28, 2017. Retrieved September 6, 2017.
  30. ^ Moser, Claire; Koronowski, Ryan (April 28, 2017). "The Climate Denier Caucus in Trump's Washington". ThinkProgress. Retrieved September 6, 2017.
  31. ^ "Energy Independence". Democrats.org. Archived from the original on 2010-09-20.
  32. ^ Sullivan, Sean (June 2, 2014). "Coal state Democrats to Obama: Curb emissions? Um, no thanks". Washington Post.
  33. ^ a b c d e f g "Party Platform - Democrats".
  34. ^ Carmines, Edward G.; Stimson, James A. "Racial Issues and The Structure of Mass Belief Systems," Journal of Politics (1982) 44#1 pp 2-20 in JSTOR
  35. ^ Talmadge Anderson & James Benjamin Stewart (2007). Introduction to African American Studies: Transdisciplinary Approaches and Implications. Black Classic Press. p. 205. ISBN 9781580730396.
  36. ^ Jeffrey M. Stonecash (2010). New Directions in American Political Parties. Routledge. p. 131. ISBN 9781135282059.
  37. ^ "Civil Rights". Democrats.org.
  38. ^ "Voting Rights - Democrats".
  39. ^ "DHS updates Customs Declarations Form to recognize LGBT people and families". 26 March 2012.
  40. ^ "Presidential Memorandum - Hospital Visitation".
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  42. ^ Abramsky, Sasha (2005-04-18). "Democrat Killer?". The Nation. Archived from the original on 2006-07-11. Retrieved 2006-10-10.
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  44. ^ "The 2016 Democratic Platform". 2016.
  45. ^ Kenneth T. Walsh. "Obama and Democrats' Torture Problem". US News & World Report.
  46. ^ Ashtari, Shadee (2013-11-06). "Here's The Medieval-Sounding Sodomy Law That Helped Ken Cuccinelli Lose In Virginia". Huffington Post.
  47. ^ Doreen Miller. "Senate Vote Roll Call on U.S. Patriot Act 2001 & 2006". Educate-yourself.org. Retrieved 2013-10-02.
  48. ^ Lydia Saad, "Republicans, Democrats Agree on Top Foreign Policy Goals: Partisans disagree most on importance of working to achieve world cooperation," "Gallup: Politics" Feb, 20, 2013
  49. ^ See "July 3, 2014 - Iraq — Getting In Was Wrong; Getting Out Was Right, U.S. Voters Tell Quinnipiac University National Poll" Quinnipiac University Poll item #51
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  52. ^ Pew Research Center: Along the Iraq-Vietnam Parallel. Pew Research Center. Published Aug 28, 2007.
  53. ^ Recent polls from Pollingreport.
  54. ^ Flaherty, Anne (2007-04-26). "Congress passes Iraq bill, veto awaits". The Boston Globe. Associated Press. Archived from the original on May 29, 2007. Retrieved 2007-04-26.
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  57. ^ a b Obama says conditions to dictate final Iraq force. Reuters. Published July 27, 2008.
  58. ^ a b c Top Republicans embrace Iraq plan. The Politico. Published February 27, 2009.
  59. ^ Gordon, Michael R. (2013-11-23). "Accord Reached With Iran to Halt Nuclear Program". The New York Times.
  60. ^ "Jewish Democratic donors urge Congress: Back off Iran sanctions". Haaretz.com. February 28, 2014.
  61. ^ "Pelosi, Schumer Express Support for Troop Surge in Afghanistan" CNS News. Published August 1, 2008. Retrieved August 22, 2008. Archived September 19, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
  62. ^ Democrats say McCain forgot Afghanistan. Boston Globe. Published July 24, 2008. Retrieved August 23, 2008. Archived August 20, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
  63. ^ a b John McCain & Barack Obama urge Afghanistan surge. New York Daily News. Published July 15, 2008. Retrieved August 23, 2008.
  64. ^ "U.S. plans major shift to advisory role in Afghanistan," Los Angeles Times, Dec. 13. 2011
  65. ^ a b Most Americans oppose Afghanistan war: poll. The Australian. Published August 7, 2009. Retrieved August 24, 2009.
  66. ^ a b "Afghan War Edges Out Iraq as Most Important for U.S." by Frank Newport. Gallup. Published July 30, 2008. Retrieved August 24, 2009.
  67. ^ Public Opinion in U.S. Turns Against Afghan War. By Jennifer Agiesta and Jon Cohen. Washington Post. Published August 20, 2009. Retrieved August 24, 2009.