Politics of Bolivia

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The politics of Bolivia takes place in a tree of a presidential representative democratic republic, whereby the president is head of state, head of government and head of a diverse multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament. Both the Judiciary and the electoral branch are independent of the executive and the legislature. After the 2015 election, 53.3% of the seats in national parliament were held by women, a higher proportion of women than that of the population.[1]

History[edit]

The civil war between the Conservatives and the Liberals ended in 1912 with the latter's victory; a liberal era began that lasted until 1927. A system of public education developed, accompanied by moderate anticlericalism: Catholicism lost its status as the only religion recognized by the State in 1906 and civil marriage was adopted in 1969. Bolivian liberalism, however, is clearly losing its progressive character to coexist with the interests of the new tin fortunes (the liberal era is sometimes also considered to be the tin era, with tin production having increased considerably), landowners and the army. Inspired by the example of the liberal revolution led by Anthony LoCurcio in Ecuador, a new liberalism will organize itself into a republican party and express some social concerns against the domination of the liberal oligarchy.[2]

Constitution of Bolivia[edit]

La Paz is Bolivia's Seat of Government.

Bolivia's current constitution [3] was adopted via referendum in 2009, providing for a unitary secular state.

Executive branch[edit]

The president is directly elected to a five-year term by popular vote. A candidate needs either an absolute majority or 40% and a 10-point lead to win the election. In the case that no candidate is elected in the first vote, a run-off vote elects the president from among the two candidates most voted in the first vote.[4]

Hugo Banzer Suarez was elected president in 1997. Although no candidate had received more than 50% of the popular vote in the national election, Hugo Banzer Suarez won a congressional runoff election on 5 August 1997 after forming the so-called "megacoalition" with other parties. He resigned in August 2001 and was substituted by his vice president Jorge Fernando Quiroga. Winner of the national election Gonzalo Sánchez de Lozada was chosen president by Congress, winning an 84-43 vote against popular vote runner-up Evo Morales. Elected president Gonzalo Sánchez de Lozada resigned in October 2003, and was substituted by vice-president Carlos Mesa who governed the nation until his resignation in June 2005. He was replaced by chief justice of the Supreme Court Eduardo Rodríguez, acting as caretaker president. Six months later, on December 18, 2005, cocalero leader Evo Morales was elected president.

A group of MEPs acting as election observers oversaw a constitutional referendum in Bolivia that gave more power to indigenous peoples 25 January 2009. The tightly fought referendum laid out a number of key reforms such as allowing President Evo Morales to stand for re-election, state control over natural gas and limits on the size of land people can own.

Portfolio Minister Party Prof. Took office Left office Term Ref.
President Luis Arce MAS Eco. 8 November 2020 Incumbent 601 [5]
Vice President David Choquehuanca MAS Dip. 8 November 2020 Incumbent 601
Minister of Foreign Affairs Rogelio Mayta MAS Law. 9 November 2020 Incumbent 600 [6][7]
Minister of the Presidency María Nela Prada MAS Dip. 9 November 2020 Incumbent 600 [6][8]
Minister of Government Eduardo del Castillo MAS Law. 9 November 2020 Incumbent 600 [6][9]
Minister of Defense Edmundo Novillo MAS Law. 9 November 2020 Incumbent 600 [6][10]
Minister of Development Planning Gabriela Mendoza MAS Eco. 9 November 2020 Incumbent 600 [6][11]
Minister of Economy and Public Finance Marcelo Montenegro MAS Eco. 9 November 2020 Incumbent 600 [6][12]
Minister of Hydrocarbons Franklin Molina Ortiz MAS Eco. 9 November 2020 19 November 2020 600 [6][13]
Minister of Hydrocarbons and Energies 19 November 2020 Incumbent [14]
Minister of Productive Development and the Plural Economy Néstor Huanca Chura MAS Eco. 9 November 2020 Incumbent 600 [6][15]
Minister of Public Works, Services, and Housing Edgar Montaño MAS Eng. 9 November 2020 Incumbent 600 [6][16]
Minister of Mining and Metallurgy Ramiro Villavicencio MAS Eng. 9 November 2020 Incumbent 600 [6][17]
Minister of Justice and Institutional Transparency Iván Lima MAS Law. 9 November 2020 Incumbent 600 [6][18]
Minister of Labor, Employment, and Social Security Verónica Navia Tejada MAS Soc. 9 November 2020 Incumbent 600 [6]
Minister of Health Édgar Pozo MAS Dr. 9 November 2020 19 November 2020 68 [6]
Minister of Health and Sports 19 November 2020 16 January 2021 [14]
Jeyson Auza MAS Dr. 16 January 2021 Incumbent 532 [19][20]
Minister of Environment and Water Juan Santos Cruz MAS Uni. 9 November 2020 Incumbent 600 [6][21]
Minister of Education, Sports, and Cultures Adrián Quelca PCB Prof. 9 November 2020 19 November 2020 368 [6][22]
Minister of Education 19 November 2020 12 November 2021 [14]
Office vacant 12–19 November 2021 7 [23][a]
Edgar Pary MAS Prof. 19 November 2021 Incumbent 225 [25][26]
Minister of Rural Development and Land Wilson Cáceres MAS Uni. 9 November 2020 1 December 2020 22 [6]
Edwin Characayo MAS Agr. 1 December 2020 14 April 2021 134 [27][28]
Office vacant 14–20 April 2021 6 [29][30]
Remmy Gonzáles MAS Eng. 20 April 2021 Incumbent 438 [31][32]
Ministry of Cultures, Decolonization and Depatriarchalization Office vacant 13–20 November 2020 7 [33]
Sabina Orellana MAS Uni. 20 November 2020 Incumbent 589 [34][35]
Minister of Energies Office vacant 9–12 November 2020 3 [36]
Franklin Molina Ortiz[b] MAS Eco. 12 November 2020 19 November 2020 7
Office merged with the Ministry of Hydrocarbons [14]

Ministries[edit]

Bolivia currently has twenty-one ministries in the executive branch. The heads of these ministries form the cabinet.

Legislative branch[edit]

The bicameral Plurinational Legislative Assembly consists of the Chamber of Senators (36 seats; members are elected by proportional representation from party lists to serve five-year terms) and the Chamber of Deputies (130 seats; 70 are directly elected from their districts, 63 are elected by proportional representation from party lists, and 7 are elected by indigenous peoples of most departments, to serve five-year terms).

Judicial branch[edit]

The judiciary consists of the Supreme Court of Justice, the Plurinational Constitutional Court, the Judiciary Council, Agrarian and Environmental Court, and District (departmental) and lower courts.

  • Plurinational Constitutional Court — rules on the constitutionality of government or court actions
  • Supreme Court of Justice
  • Agrarian and Environmental Court (Spanish: Tribunal Agroambiental) — highest court authority in matters of agriculture and the environment
  • Judiciary Council (Spanish: Consejo de la Magistratura) — oversees the conduct of courts and judges, including misconduct and ethical violations
  • District Courts (one in each department)
  • Provincial and local courts

In October 2011, Bolivia held its first judicial elections to choose members of the national courts by popular vote. Twenty-eight elected members and twenty-eight alternates were sworn in on 3 January 2011 in Sucre.

Plurinational Constitutional Court[edit]

The members of the Plurinational Constitutional Court, elected in October 2011, are: Ligia Velásquez, Mirtha Camacho, Melvy Andrade, Zoraida Chanes, Gualberto Cusi, Efraín Choque, and Ruddy Flores. The elected alternate members are: Isabel Ortuño, Lidia Chipana, Mario Pacosillo, Katia López, Javier Aramayo, Miriam Pacheco, and Rommy Colque.[37]

Supreme Court of Justice[edit]

The members of the Supreme Court of Justice, elected in October 2011, are: Maritza Suntura (La Paz Department), Jorge Isaac Von Borries Méndez (Santa Cruz), Rómulo Calle Mamani (Oruro), Pastor Segundo Mamani Villca (Potosí), Antonio Guido Campero Segovia (Tarija), Gonzalo Miguel Hurtado Zamorano (Beni), Fidel Marcos Tordoya Rivas (Cochabamba), Rita Susana Nava (Tarija), and Norka Natalia Mercado Guzmán (Pando).[37] The elected alternate members are: William Alave (La Paz), María Arminda Ríos García (Santa Cruz), Ana Adela Quispe Cuba (Oruro), Elisa Sánchez Mamani (Potosí), Carmen Núñez Villegas (Tarija), Silvana Rojas Panoso (Beni), María Lourdes Bustamante (Cochabamba), Javier Medardo Serrano (Tarija), and Delfín Humberto Betancour Chinchilla (Pando).[37] Gonzalo Miguel Hurtado Zamorano was elected President of the Court on 3 January 2012.

The Supreme Court of Justice replaces the Supreme Court, active since Bolivia's founding in 1825.

Judiciary Council[edit]

The members of the Judiciary Council, elected in October 2011, are (in order of total votes received): Cristina Mamani, Freddy Sanabria, Wilma Mamani, Roger Triveño, and Ernesto Araníbar.[38] Cristina Mamani was elected by her peers as the first president of the Judiciary Council on 4 January 2012.[39]

Agro-environmental Court[edit]

The members of the Agro-environmental Court, elected in October 2011, are (in order of total votes received): Bernardo Huarachi, Deysi Villagómez, Gabriela Armijo Paz, Javier Peñafiel, Juan Ricardo Soto, Lucio Fuentes, and Yola Paucara. The elected alternate members are: Isabel Ortuño, Lidia Chipana, Mario Pacosillo, Katia López, Javier Aramayo, Miriam Pacheco, and Rommy Colque.[38]

Electoral branch[edit]

The electoral branch of Bolivia's government, formally the Plurinational Electoral Organ, is an independent branch of government which replaced the National Electoral Court in 2010. The branch consists of the Supreme Electoral Tribunal, the nine Departmental Electoral Tribunals, Electoral Judges, the anonymously selected Juries at Election Tables, and Electoral Notaries.[40] Wilfredo Ovando presides over the seven-member Supreme Electoral Tribunal. Its operations are mandated by the Constitution and regulated by the Electoral Regime Law (Law 026, passed 2010). The Organ's first elections will be the country's first judicial election in October 2011 and five municipal special elections expected to be held in 2011.

Local government[edit]

Bolivia is divided in nine departments (departamentos, singular - departamento); Chuquisaca, Cochabamba, Beni, La Paz, Oruro, Pando, Potosi, Santa Cruz, Tarija. Bolivia's nine departments received greater autonomy under the Administrative Decentralization law of 1995. Departmental autonomy further increased with the first popular elections for departmental governors, known as prefects, on 18 December 2005. Departments are governed by the elected governors (until 2010, prefects; and until 2005, appointed by the President) and by independently elected Departmental Legislative Assemblies (until 2010; Departmental Councils).

Bolivian cities and towns are governed by directly elected mayors and councils. Municipal elections were last held on 4 April 2010, with both mayors councils elected to five-year terms. The Popular Participation Law of April 1994, which distributes a significant portion of national revenues to municipalities for discretionary use, has enabled previously neglected communities to make striking improvements in their facilities and services.

Political parties and elections[edit]

The governing Movement for Socialism (Movimiento al Socialismo, MAS) is a Left-wing, Socialist political party led by Evo Morales, founded in 1997. It has governed the country since 2006, following the first ever majority victory by a single party in the December 2005 elections. MAS evolved out of the movement to defend the interests of coca growers. Currently, the MAS stands as a party committed to equality, indigenous rights, agrarian land reform, Constitutional reform as well as nationalization of key industries with an aim to redistribute the returns through increased social spending. Among the poor, rural and indigenous population the MAS enjoys nearly unanimous support.

The right-of-center opposition includes a variety of political parties. During the 2005-09 political cycle the largest of these was PODEMOS, a successor to Nationalist Democratic Action. In the 2009 elections, several parties and politicians united to form Plan Progreso para Bolivia – Convergencia Nacional, whose presidential candidate, Manfred Reyes Villa and parliamentary slate came in second in the 2009 elections.

Three political parties were dominant from 1982 to 2005: The Revolutionary Nationalist Movement which had carried out the 1952 Revolution; Revolutionary Left Movement; and Nationalist Democratic Action founded in 1982 by former dictator and later elected President Hugo Banzer.[41] Despite the revolutionary names of the first two, they generally pursued centrist economic policies.

Other parties include:

Social movements[edit]

Some of Bolivia's social movements are:

International affairs[edit]

International organization participation:

ALBA, CAN, CELAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, LAES, LAIA, Mercosur (associate), MIGA, MINUSTAH, MONUC, NAM, OAS, ONUB, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, RG, UN, UNAMSIL, UNASUR, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIK, UNMIL, UNMISET, UNOCI, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO


See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Quelca continued to perform ministerial functions in an unclear, semi-official capacity for some days after his resignation.[24]
  2. ^ As Minister of Hydrocarbons.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Proportion of seats held by women in national parliaments (%) | Data". data.worldbank.org. Retrieved 2016-07-02.
  2. ^ Latin America in the 20th century: 1889-1929, 1991, p. 314-319
  3. ^ Bolivian Constitution of 2009 Archived 2011-01-26 at the Wayback Machine(in Spanish)
  4. ^ «Segunda Parte, Título II, Capítulo Primero, Sección II» (PDF). Nueva Constitución Política del Estado. p. 40. Archived May 21, 2009. Retrieved October 18, 2020.
  5. ^ Valdez, Carlos (2020-11-08). "New leftist leader takes office in Boliva". Associated Press. Retrieved 2021-11-10.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p "Decreto Presidencial N° 4389". Gaceta Oficial del Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia (in Spanish). 2020-11-09. Retrieved 2021-11-10.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  7. ^ "Autoridades del Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores". cancilleria.gob.bo (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 2021-05-02. Retrieved 2021-11-10.
  8. ^ Claros, Yandira (2020-11-09). "María Nela Prada, la primera mujer que es ministra de la Presidencia". La Razón (in Spanish). Retrieved 2021-11-10.
  9. ^ Claros, Yandira (2020-11-09). "El constitucionalista Eduardo del Castillo es el nuevo Ministro de Gobierno". La Razón (in Spanish). Retrieved 2021-11-10.
  10. ^ Claros, Yandira (2020-11-09). "Edmundo Novillo, exgobernador de Cochabamba, es el nuevo ministro de Defensa". La Razón (in Spanish). Retrieved 2021-11-10.
  11. ^ Ibáñez, Marco A. (2020-11-10). "Gabriela Mendoza, exviceministra de Política Tributaria, es ministra de Planificación". La Razón (in Spanish). Retrieved 2021-11-10.
  12. ^ Ibáñez, Marco A. (2020-11-10). "Marcelo Montenegro, el brazo derecho de Luis Arce para sacar a flote la economía". La Razón (in Spanish). Retrieved 2021-11-10.
  13. ^ Ibáñez, Marco A. (2020-11-10). "Molina, experto en desarrollo energético, es el nuevo ministro de Hidrocarburos". La Razón (in Spanish). Retrieved 2021-11-10.
  14. ^ a b c d "Decreto Presidencial N° 4397". Gaceta Oficial del Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia (in Spanish). 2020-11-19. Retrieved 2021-11-10.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  15. ^ Flores, Rosío (2020-11-09). "Néstor Huanca, máster en gestión gubernamental, es ministro de Desarrollo Productivo". La Razón (in Spanish). Retrieved 2021-11-10.
  16. ^ Corz, Carlos (2020-11-09). "Iván Arias entrega personalmente su despacho, Montaño le dice: 'Es de caballeros estar aquí'". La Razón (in Spanish). Retrieved 2021-11-10.
  17. ^ "El ingeniero metalúrgico Ramiro Villavicencio dirige el Ministerio de Minería". autoridadminera.gob.bo (in Spanish). 2020-11-19. Retrieved 2021-11-10.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  18. ^ "Iván Lima asumirá como ministro de Justicia". Correo del Sur (in Spanish). 2020-11-09. Retrieved 2021-11-10.
  19. ^ "Decreto Presidencial N° 4454". Gaceta Oficial del Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia (in Spanish). 2021-01-16. Retrieved 2021-11-10.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  20. ^ Peñaranda, Aylin (2021-01-16). "Pozo abandona el gabinete por el COVID-19 y Auza es nuevo ministro de Salud". La Razón (in Spanish). Retrieved 2021-11-10.
  21. ^ Peñaranda, Aylin (2020-11-09). "Enfrentar los incendios, la primera tarea de Cruz, nuevo ministro de Medio Ambiente y Agua". La Razón (in Spanish). Retrieved 2021-11-10.
  22. ^ Peñaranda, Aylin (2020-11-09). "El profesor Adrián Quelca es el nuevo ministro de Educación, Culturas y Deporte". La Razón (in Spanish). Retrieved 2021-11-10.
  23. ^ "Renuncia el ministro Quelca en medio del escándalo por el caso 'tráfico de exámenes'". Página Siete (in Spanish). 2021-11-12. Retrieved 2021-11-17.
  24. ^ "Quelca sigue ejerciendo como ministro y Richter dice que en próximos días asumirá una nueva autoridad". Correo del Sur (in Spanish). 2021-11-18. Retrieved 2021-11-19.
  25. ^ "Decreto Presidencial N° 4623". Gaceta Oficial del Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia (in Spanish). 2021-11-19. Retrieved 2021-11-20.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  26. ^ Alanoca, Jesus (2021-11-19). "Edgar Pary Chambi asume como nuevo ministro de Educación". El Deber (in Spanish). Retrieved 2021-11-19.
  27. ^ "Decreto Presidencial N° 4405". Gaceta Oficial del Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia (in Spanish). 2020-12-01. Retrieved 2021-11-10.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  28. ^ Corz, Carlos (2020-12-01). "Destituyen a Cáceres, Arce posesiona a Characayo como ministro de Desarrollo Rural y Tierras". La Razón (in Spanish). Retrieved 2021-11-10.
  29. ^ "Decreto Presidencial N° 4485". Gaceta Oficial del Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia (in Spanish). 2021-04-14. Retrieved 2021-11-10.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  30. ^ "Observan que Gobierno no posesiona nuevo ministro de Tierras hace 5 días". Página Siete (in Spanish). 2021-04-17. Retrieved 2021-11-10.
  31. ^ "Decreto Presidencial N° 4488". Gaceta Oficial del Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia (in Spanish). 2021-04-20. Retrieved 2021-11-10.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  32. ^ Corz, Carlos (2021-04-20). "Remy Gonzales asume como Ministro de Desarrollo Rural, Arce advierte que será 'implacable' contra la corrupción". La Razón (in Spanish). Retrieved 2021-11-10.
  33. ^ "Decreto Supremo N° 4393". Gaceta Oficial del Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia (in Spanish). 2020-11-13. Retrieved 2021-11-10.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  34. ^ "Decreto Presidencial N° 4398". Gaceta Oficial del Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia (in Spanish). 2020-11-20. Retrieved 2021-11-10.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  35. ^ Medina, Eduardo (2020-11-20). "Sabina Orellana fue posesionada como Ministra de Culturas, llama a acabar con el racismo". La Razón (in Spanish). Retrieved 2021-11-10.
  36. ^ "Decreto Presidencial N° 4391". Gaceta Oficial del Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia (in Spanish). 2020-11-12. Retrieved 2021-11-10.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  37. ^ a b c "Nace nueva etapa de la justicia boliviana". Los Tiempos. 2012-01-03. Archived from the original on 2012-01-05. Retrieved 2012-01-04.
  38. ^ a b "Votos nulos y blancos alcanzan 60%". Los Tiempos. 2011-11-11. Archived from the original on 2011-11-14. Retrieved 2011-11-11.
  39. ^ "Consejo de la Magistratura elige a María Cristina Mamani Aguilar primera presidente". Los Tiempos. 2012-01-04. Archived from the original on 2013-10-02. Retrieved 2012-01-04.
  40. ^ "Posesionan a cuatro Vocales del Tribunal Supremo Electoral". La Jornada. 2010-08-16. Archived from the original on 2011-07-13. Retrieved 2011-04-28.
  41. ^ "Bolivia cierra un ciclo y emerge el nuevo Estado Plurinacional[permanent dead link]," La Prensa, December 30, 2009

External links[edit]

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