Politics of Estonia
|This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Politics in Estonia takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic republic, whereby the Prime Minister of Estonia is the head of government, and of a multi-party system. Legislative power is vested in the Estonian parliament. Executive power is exercised by the government, which is led by the prime minister. The judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature. Estonia is a member of United Nations, the European Union, and NATO.
Political history of Estonia
The Estonian Declaration of Independence was issued in 1918. A parliamentary republic was formed by the Estonian Constituent Assembly and the first Constitution of Estonia was adopted on June 15, 1920. The parliament Riigikogu (State Assembly) elected a Riigivanem who acted both as Head of Government and Head of State. During the Era of Silence political parties were banned and the parliament was not in session between 1934 and 1938 as the country was ruled by decree by Konstantin Päts, who was elected as the first President of Estonia in 1938. In 1938 a new constitution was passed and Riigikogu was convened once again, this time bicamerally, consisting of Riigivolikogu (lower house) and Riiginõukogu (upper house), both meaning State Council in direct translation. In 1940 Estonia was occupied by the Soviet Union. A year later, the Soviet occupation was taken over by a Nazi German one. During the course of the two occupations legal institutions, elected according to the constitution approved by the people, were removed from power. In September 1944, after German forces left, legal power was briefly restored as Otto Tief formed a new government in accordance with the 1938 constitution. The Tief government, though, lasted for only 5 days, as Estonia was again occupied by the Soviet Union. In 1991 the Republic of Estonia was restored on the basis of continuity with the constitution prior to 1938, with the public approving a new constitution in 1992. Estonia declared independence in 1991 causing the transition from a state socialist economy to the capitalist market economy.
The contemporary Estonian government follows the principles of separation of powers and its people elect a 101-member Riigikogu every four years. Only Estonian citizens may participate in parliamentary elections. Estonia uses a voting system based on proportional representation. A party must exceed a national threshold of 5% of all votes to gain entry to the parliament. The Parliament elects a President, who can be in office for a five-year period for a maximum of two terms in succession. As a rule, the president asks the party leader who has collected the most votes to form the new government, who then must gain the approval of Riigikogu. The parliament also appoints the president of the Bank of Estonia, the Chief of the Headquarters of the Estonian Defense, the Comptroller General of Estonia, the Chancellor of Justice of Estonia and the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Estonia, all on the proposal of the President of Estonia.
|President||Kersti Kaljulaid||Independent||10 October 2016|
|Prime Minister||Jüri Ratas||Estonian Centre Party||23 November 2016|
Head of State
The President of Estonia is elected by Parliament (Riigikogu) for a five-year term; if they do not secure two-thirds of the votes after three rounds of balloting, then an electoral assembly (made up of Parliament plus members of local governments) elects the president, choosing between the two candidates with the largest percentage of votes.
The Prime Minister of Estonia (Estonian: Eesti Vabariigi Peaminister) is the head of government of the Republic of Estonia. The prime minister is chosen by the President and conferred by Parliament. This is usually the leader of the largest party or coalition in the Parliament. The activity of the government is directed by the Prime Minister. They do not head any specific ministry, but are, in accordance with the constitution, the supervisor of the work of the government. The Prime Minister’s significance and role in the government and his relations with other ministries often depend on the position of the party led by the prime minister in vis-à-vis the coalition partners, and on how much influence the prime minister possesses within their own party. If the prime minister has a strong position within their party, and the government is made up solely of representatives of that party, they can enjoy considerable authority. In all crucial national questions, however, the final word rests with Riigikogu as the legislative power.
Internet voting was first used in the 2005 local elections and it has since then been used in electing Riigikogu and the European Parliament as well.
Political parties and elections
In the years shortly following the restoration of independence, there were dozens of parties to represent a population of only 1.3 million; at present 6 main parties are in the parliament. The local authorities have developed in much the same direction. All permanent residents of voting age (18) may participate in local elections.
|Party||orientation (ideology)||Centre Party||Reform Party||Res Publica||Pro Patria Union||People's Union||Social Democratic Party||Coalition Party|
|Centre Party||centre ('social liberal')||*||2002–2003; 2005–2007||-||-||2005–2007||-||1995|
|Reform Party||centre-right (classical liberal)||2002–2003; 2005–2007||*||2003–2005||1992–95; 1999–2002; 2007–||2003–||1999–2002||1995–1997|
|Res Publica||centre-right (conservative)||-||2003–2005, 2007–||*||-||2003–2005||-||-|
|Pro Patria Union||centre-right (national conservative)||-||1992–1995, 1999–2002, 2007–||-||*||-||1992–1995, 1999–2002, 2007–2009||-|
|People's Union||centre-left (agrarian)||1995, 2005–2007||1995–1997, 2005–2007||-||-||*||-||1995–1999|
|Social Democratic Party||centre-left ('social democratic')||-||1992–1994, 1999–2002, 2007–2009||-||1992–1994, 1999–2002, 2007–2009||-||*||-|
|Coalition Party||centre (centrist)||1995||1995–1997||-||-||1995–1999||-||*|
Estonian civil service is relatively young. Over 50% of civil servants aged under 40 and a third aged under 30. 42% of civil servants are male and 58% female. Around half of civil servants have a tertiary degree.
Estonia has a relatively low number of bureaucrats, 18,998 in the central government and 4500 in local governments. Central government institutions include: 11 Ministries (2,593 employees), 33 Administrative agencies, Boards and Inspectorates (14,790 employees), 6 Constitutional Institutions (805 employees), 15 County Governments (810 employees), and other institutions (National Archives, Prosecutor's Office etc.). There are 241 local government authorities employing about 4500 public servants.
Estonia numbers 15 main administrative subdivisions. Due to the geographical and demographic size of these subdivisions, they are to be considered counties rather than regions (Estonian: pl. maakonnad; sg. - maakond).
International organization membership
Estonia is member of the BIS, CBSS, CE, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EU, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO (correspondent), ITU, ITUC, NATO, OPCW, OSCE, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNTSO, UPU, WCO, WEU (associate partner), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
References and notes
- Holt-Jensen, Arild (2010). "Transition from state socialism to market economy: The case of Estonia". Norwegian Journal of Geography. 64 (3): 127–128. ISSN 0029-1951. doi:10.1080/00291951.2010.502441. Retrieved 2014-02-10.
- 1992–1994 its forerunner Liberal Democratic Party
- in 2006 merged with Pro Patria
- in 2006 merged with Res Publica
- from 1992 to 1999 Moderates (an election cartel), 1999 to 2004 People's Party Moderates
- Public Administration in Estonia
- Pettai, Vello and Marcus Kreuzer, "Party Politics in the Baltic States: Social Bases and Institutional Context," East European Politics and Societies, 13.1 (1999).